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THE 

MEDICAL    WORKS 


OF 


PATJLUS    iEGINETA, 

T  H  K    a  II  K  R  K     P  H  Y  S I  CI  A  N. 

TRANSLATED   INTO    ENGLISH: 

WITH 

A    COPIOUS   COMMENTARY, 

COXTAIKINC 

A  COMPRPMIENSIVE   VIRW  OF  THK  KNOWLKDGK   POSSKSSKI)  liV  THE 
CiREEKS     ROMANS,    AND    ARABIANS.    ()N    ALL    SUBJPXTS 
CONNECTED  WITH  MEDICINE  AND  SLRCJERV. 

VOL.    L 


By   FRANCIS    ADAMS,    Esq. 

SURGEON, 
AUTHOR  OF  <<nKKME8   PJIILOLOCrS,"  &<•. 


*'  Multum  egeruut  qui  ante  nos  fueniiit,  sed  nun  peregenint.     ^NUspicieiuU  tuiiieu 
sunt,  et  ritu  Deonim  oolendi." — Sknkca. 


LONDON: 

J.  WELSH ;  TREUTTEL,  WURTZ.  &  CO.  LONDON ; 

ADAM  &  CHARLES  BLACK,  EDLNTBURGH  ; 

HODGES  &  SMITH,  DUBLIN; 

AND  A.  BROWN  &  CO.  ABERDEEN. 


MDCCCXXXIV. 


ABERDKRN  : 

I'RIXTED  BY    G.   CORNWAIX, 

HERALD  OFFICF. 


INsrniBKD  TO 


JOHN  ABERCROMBIE,  Esq.  M.  D.  Edinburoh, 


ANU 


G.  J.  GUTHRIE,  Esq.  Surgeon,  London, 


IN   TESTIMONY   OF 


ESTEEM    FOR   THEIR    LITERARY   AND  PROFESSIONAL  CHARACTERS, 


AND  OF  GRATITUDE  FOR  THE  FRIENDLY  INTEREST 


WHICH    THEY   HAVE   TAKEN   IN   THE   PRESENT   PUBLICATION, 


BY  THEIR  OBLIGED  AND  FAITHFUL  SERVANT, 


THE  EDITOR. 


Ban<hoby-Terxam,  Nov.  12,  1833. 


THE    EDITOR'S   PREFACE. 


Notwithstanding  ihe  efforts  which  have  been  made  of  late  years  to  im« 
prove  the  Medical  Literature  of  this  country,  it  will  still  be  admitted,  I  am 
convinced,  that  there  is  not,  in  the  English  language,  any  work  which  con- 
tains a  full  and  accurate  account  of  the  Theoretical  and  Practical  knowledge 
possessed  by  the  Greeks,  Romans,  and  Arabians,  on  all  matters  connected 
with  Medicine  and  Surgery.  Nor,  as  far  as  I  can  learn,  is  the  case  much 
different  with  the  Continental  languages;  for,  altliough  the  German  and 
French  have  lately  acquired  several  Histories  of  Medicine  distinguished 
for  considerable  ability  and  research,  the  object  of  all  these  works  would 
appear  to  have  been  confined  to  a  general  exposition  of  the  leading  disco- 
veries and  revolutions  in  doctrine  which  marked  every  particular  age  or 
epoch  in  the  profession;  and  I  will  venture  to  atfirm  that  no  person  will  be 
able  to  acquire  from  a  perusal  of  them  any  thing  like  a  competent  acquaint- 
ance with  the  minute  detail  of  ancient  practice.  The  design  of  the  present 
publication  is  to  supply  this  deficiency,  by  giving  a  complete  Manual  of  the 
Surgery  and  Medicine  of  the  Ancients,  with  a  brief  but  comprehensive  out- 
line of  the  sciences  intimately  connected  with  them,  especially  Physiology, 
the  Materia  Medica,  and  Pharmacy.  At  first  it  was  my  intention  to  do  this 
in  the  form  of  an  original  work,  but,  being  perplexed  with  the  multiplicity  of 
matters  which  I  had  to  treat  of,  I  at  last  resolved  upon  taking  for  ray  text- 
book the  celebrated  Treatise  of  Paulus  JEciklta,  whereby  I  was  at  once 
supplied  with  a  convenient  arrangement  of  my  subject,  at  the  same  time  that 
I  enriched  our  Medical  Literature  with  the  translation  of  one  of  the  most 
valuable  relicts  of  ancient  science.  By  following  this  correct  and  faithful 
guide — ^by  supplying  his  omissions  and  enlarging  his  plan,  when  necessary — 


yi  THE    KDIT0R*8    PREFACE. 


and  by  adding,  in  all  cases,  the  improvements  of  several  subsequent  ages — I 
trust  that  I  have  been  able  to  present  the  reader  with  a  work  from  which  he 
may,  at  one  view,  become  familiar  with  the  prevailing  opinions  of  the  pro- 
fession upon  all  the  most  important  points  of  Medical  Practice  during  a 
period  of  more  than  fifteen  centuries.  Impressed  with  the  importance  of  the 
task  which  I  had  undertaken,  I  have  endeavoured  to  discharge  it  faithfully 
to  the  best  of  my  ability ;  and  have,  therefore,  overlooked  no  Treatise  con- 
nected in  anywise  with  the  Medical  Art  which  has  come  down  to  us  from 
antiquity,  and  have  further  availed  myself  freely  of  the  learned  labours  of  a 
number  of  modem  Commentators,  especially  on  the  department  of  the  Ma- 
teria Medica,  in  order  to  adapt  the  nomenclature  of  the  ancients  on  these 
subjects  to  the  present  state  of  Botany,  Chemistry,  and  Mineralogy. 

As  to  the  original  authors  from  whose  stores  I  have  drawn  so  freely,  un- 
less I  am  much  blinded  by  partiality  for  the  pursuits  in  which  I  have  been 
lately  engaged,  they  will  be  found,  upon  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  them, 
to  have  been  well  entitled  to  the  confidence  and  reputation  which  they  long 
enjoy«i],  and  to  which  it  is  my  wish  and  hope  that  the  present  publication 
should,  to  a  certain  degree,  restore  them.     It  appears  to  me  that,  at  certain 
periods  of  ancient  times,  the  standard  of  professional  excellence  was  such  as 
would  not  easily  be  attained  at  the  present  day  with  all  our  vaunted  im- 
provements iu  education ;  and  that  many  of  these  early  masters  of  our  Art 
were  distinguished  for  varied  stores  of  erudition,  an  ardent  love  of  truth,  and 
an  aptitude  to  detect  the  fallacies  of  error,  such  as  few  of  us  even  now  can 
lay  claim  to.   The  Father  of  Medicine  held  that,  to  become  an  eminent  phy. 
sician,  it  was  necessary  not  only  to  be  well  acquainted  with  the  structure  of 
the  human  frame,  but  also  to  be  skilled  in  Logic,  Astronomy,  and  other 
Sciences;  and  of  him  it  may  be  asserted,  that  he  sought  after  scientific  truth 
upon  the  strict  principles  of  the  Inductive  philosophy  more  than  two  thousand 
years  before  the  world  gave  Lord  Bacon  the  credit  of  introducing  this  me- 
thod  of  philosophizing.     His  devoted   admirer  and  follower,  Galen,  was 
evidently  the  very  beau  ideal  of  an  accomplished  physician — skilled  in  all 
the  sciences  of  the  day,  in  Logic,  Mathematics,  Rhetoric,  and  the  First  Phi- 
losophy;— to  all  these  ornamental  branches  of  knowledge  he  added  a  minute 


THB  bditoh's  prkpack.  ri\ 

acquaintaoce  with  Anatomy  and  Physiology;  a  practical  experience  with 
the  phenomena  of  diseases  as  diversified  by  climate,  situation,  and  the  Ta- 
ried  modes  of  life;  a  singular  perseverance  in  collecting  facts;  and  an  extra- 
ordinary ability  for  generalising  them.    The  cotemporaries  of  Celsus  declare 
of  him  that  he  was  not  only  well  acquainted  with  Medical  Literature  but 
also  minutely  skilled  in  every  elegant  and  useful  science  which  was  known 
and  cultivated  at  that  remarkable  period.    And  Rhases,  the  Arabian,  requires 
of  bim  who  aspires  to  eminence  in  the  Medical  profession,  that,  instead  of 
wasting  his  earlier  years  in  frequenting  musical  and  drinking  parties,  he 
should  have  spent  them  in  conning  over  the  valuable  records  of  ancient  wis- 
dom.   ^  But  the  Sciolist,"  says  he,  '*  who  gives  himself  out  for  a  proficient 
in  the  Art,  while  be  has  scarcely  even  a  smattering  of  learning,  will  never  be 
deserving  of  much  confidence,  nor  ever  attain  any  great  eminence  in  his 
profession.    For  it  can  never  be  that  any  individual,  to  whatever  age  he  may 
reach,  should  be  able  to  comprehend  in  his  mind  a  subject  so  vast  and  dif- 
fuse, except  by  treading  upon  the  footsteps  of  the  ancients ;  since  the  boun- 
daries of  the  science  far  exceed  the  narrow  limits  of  the  life  of  man,  as  is  the 
case  with  most  of  the  liberal  arts  as  well  as  with  Medicine.    The  number  of 
authors  is  not  small  by  whose  labours   the  Art  has  attained  its  present 
growdi ;  and  yet  one  may  hope  to  master  the  monuments  of  their  industry 
within  the  space  of  a  few  years.     Let  us  suppose  that,  in  the  course  of  a 
thousand  years,  a  thousand  authors  had  made  improvements  in  the  profes- 
sion ;  and  then  a  person  who  has  diligently  studied  their  works  may  im- 
prove his  mind  as  much  in  knowledge  as  if  he  had  devoted  a  thousand  years 
to  the  study  of  Medicine.    But,  when  an  acquaintance  with  former  authors 
is  despised,  what  need  be  expected  from  the  efforts  of  a  single  person  ?   For, 
however  much  he  may  surpass  others  in  abilities,  how  is  it  to  be  supposed 
that  his  private  stock  of  knowledge  should  be  at  all  worthy  to  compare 
with  the  accumulated  treasures  of  antiquity  ?    In  a  word,  he  who  has  never 
turned  over  the  pages  of  the  ancient  physicians,  nor  has  formed  to  his  mind 
a  distinct  conception  of  the  nature  of  diseases  before  he  enters  the  chambers 
of  the  sick,  will  find  that,  from  ignorance  and  misapprehension,  he  will  con- 


viii  THE  editor's  prkfack. 

found  one  complaint  with  another,  for  this  obvious  reason,  tltat  he  has  come 
to  his  task  unprepared  and  uninstructed /' 

The  reader  will  not  fail  to  remark,  in  the  course  of  his  investigations,  that 
there  is  no  legitimate  mode  of  cultivating  Medical  Knowledge  which  was  not 
followed  by  some  one  or  other  of  the  three  great  Sects  into  which  the  profession 
was  divided  in  ancient  times.  The  Empirics  held  that  Observation,  Experi- 
ment, and  the  application  of  known  remedies  in  one  case  to  others  pre- 
sumed to  be  of  a  similar  nature,  constitute  the  whole  art  of  cultivating 
Medicine.  Though  their  views  were  narrow,  and  tljeir  information  scanty, 
when  compared  with  some  of  the  chiefs  of  the  other  sects  ;  and,  although  they 
rejected,  as  useless  and  unattainable,  all  knowledge  of  the  causes  and  recon- 
dite nature  of  diseases ;  it  is  undeniable  that,  besides  personal  experience 
they  freely  availed  themselves  of  historical  detail,  and  of  a  strict  analogy 
founded  upon  observatiort  and  the  resemblance  of  phenomena.  To  this 
class  we  may  refer  Scribonius  Largus,  Marcel lus,  Plinius  Valerianus, 
and  a  few  others,  frequently  quoted  by  us.  The  sect  called  the  Rational, 
Logical,  or  Dogmatical,  holding  that  there  is  a  certain  alliance  and  con- 
nexion among  all  the  useful  and  ornamental  arts^  maintained  that  it  is  the 
duty  of  the  physician  not  to  neglect  any  collateral  science  or  subject. 
They  therefore  inquired  sedulously  into  the  remote  and  proximate  causes  of 
diseases,  and  into  the  effects  of  Airs,  Waters,  Places,  Pursuits,  Food,  Diet,  and 
Seasons,  in  altering  the  state  of  the  human  body,  and  in  rendering  it  more  or 
less  susceptible  of  morbid  changes.  Looking  upon  general  rules  as  not 
being  of  universal  application,  they  held  that  the  treatment  ought  to  be  mo- 
dified according  to  the  many  incidental  circumstances  under  which  their  pa- 
tients  might  be  placed.  They  freely  and  fully  availed  themselves  of  whatever 
aid  they  could  derive  from  Experience,  Analogy,  and  Reasoning.  Hippo- 
crates, Galen,  Aetius,  Oribasius,  Paulus  iEgineta,  Aetuarius,  and  all  the 
Arabian  authorities,  may  be  looked  upon  as  belonging  to  this  sect.  The  Pneu- 
matic sect,  to  which  Aretseus  belonged,  was  nearly  allied  to  the  Dogmatic. 
The  sect  of  the  Methodists,  rejecting  altogether  the  consideration  of  remote 
causes,  which  they  held  to  be  of  Tio  importance  to  the  cure,  and  giving  them- 
selves up  lo  too  bold  a  classification  of  diseases,  according  to  certain  hy()o- 


THK  editor's  PRSFACK.  Ix 


thetical  states  of  the  body  in  which  they  were  supposed  to  originate, 
fettered  themselves  too  much  with  a  few  general  rules,  which  they  held  to  be  so 
universally  applicable,  that  they  would  scarcely  allow  of  their  being  modified 
by  incidental  cirrtumstances  in  any  possible  contingency.  Notwithstanding  this 
defect,  it  is  undeniable  that  their  speculations  as  to  the  nature  of  diseases  are 
generally  very  acute,  and  their  modes  of  treatment  frequently  very  rationaL 
Upon  the  whole,  the  general  outline  of  their  system  would  appear  to  have 
borne  a  striking  resemblance  to  that  of  the  sect  which  started  up  in  Edin- 
burgh about  forty  years  ago,  called  the  Brunonian,  from  the  name  of  its 
ingenious  but  fanciful  founder  Dr.  Brown.  The  only  perfect  model  of  ai»- 
cient  Methodism  that  has  come  down  to  us  is  Cslius  Aurelianus,  an  author 
so  truly  eminent  that  some  of  his  admirers  in  modern  times  have  not  scrupled 
to  maintain  that  his  works  are  even  better  worth  being  attentively  studied 
than  those  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen.  Moschion,  and  Theodore  Priscian 
otherwise  known  by  the  name  of  Octavius  Uoratianus,  likewise  belonged  to 
this  sect ;  Alexander  of  Tralles  also  had  a  considerable  leaning  to  its  princi- 
ples ;  and  some  would  even  refer  the  illustrious  Celsus  to  the  same  class ;  but 
this  author  would  seem  to  have  imbibed  the  genuine  spirit  of  Eclecticism, 
and,  like  his  distinguished  correspondent  Horace,  to  have  been 


ti 


Nollius  addictus  jurare  in  verba  magistri.*' 


Before  concluding  these  Prefatory  remarks,  it  will  be  naturally  expected 
that  I  should  say  something  of  the  author  whose  work  I  have  bestowed  so 
much  pains  in  translating  and  commenting  upon.  Here,  however,  I  must 
regret  that  the  information  which  I  have  to  supply  is  exceedingly  scanty  and 
unsatisfactory.  So  little  is  known  of  him  that  it  is  not  even  ascertained  in 
what  century  he  flourished.  Vossius  is  wholly  undecided;  Moreau  and  Le 
Clerc  place  him  in  the  fourth  century;  Vander  Linden  and  Conringius,  in 
the  fifUi ;  but  Freind,  Albertus  Fabricius,  Hutcheson,  Sprengel,  and  most  of 
the  late  writers  of  the  Ancient  History  of  Medicine,  bring  him  down  as  low  as 
the  seventh  century,  upon  the  authority  of  Abulfaragius  ;  an  author,  however, 
who,  on  many  occasions,  betrays  such  gross  ignorance  of  chronology  that  no 


X  THB    EDITORS    PRBFACK. 

reliance  ought  to  be  put  on  any  opinion  of  his  on  these  matters.  What  con- 
fidence does  a  writer  deserve  who  states,  for  example,  that  Andromachus, 
the  physician  who  added  the  flesh  of  vipers  to  tlie  celebrated  Electuary  of 
Mithridates,  lived  in  the  time  of  Alexander  the  Great ! — that  Dioscorides  of 
Ain  Zarba  flourished  in  the  reign  of  Ptolemy  Physcon,  namely,  about  120 
years  before  Christ,  whereas  it  can  scarcely  admit  of  a  doubt  that  the  cele- 
brated author  of  the  Greek  Materia  Medica  did  not  live  earlier  than  the  end 
of  the  first  century  of  the  Christian  jEral — and  that  Ruff'us  was  coteraporary 
with  Plato,  when  we  have  the  authority  of  Suidas  that  he  lived  in  the  reign 
of  Trajan  I  Dr.  Milward,  in  his  Epistle  to  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  endeavours  to 
settle  the  age  of  our  author  from  the  following  train  of  inferences : — In  the 
first  place,  then,  since  Paulus  quotes  Trallian,  and  Trallian,  Aetius,  it  is  quite 
certain  that  our  author  was  posterior  to  both  these  writers.  Now  the  age 
of  Aetius  may  be  made  out  from  the  following  circumstances: — Aetius 
mentions  St.  Cyril,  Archbishop  of  Alexandria,  whose  death  is  ascertained 
from  Ecclesiastical  History  to  have  happened  as  late  as  the  middle  of 
the  fifth  century.  Nay,  he  also  takes  notice  of  a  medicine  much  recom- 
mended by  Petrus  Archiater,  chief  physician  toTheodoric,  who  was  posterior 
to  St.  Cyril.  We  cannot  possibly  suppose  it  likely,  then,  that  Aetius  flourish- 
ed earlier  than  the  end  of  the  fifth  century.  But  what  brings  him  still  further 
down  is  the  circumstance  of  his  predecessor,  Trallian,  being  mentioned  by 
Agathias,  the  Historian,  about  the  year  565.  It  would  seem  almost  certain, 
therefore,  that  our  author  cannot  have  lived  at  an  earlier  period  than  the  end 
of  the  sixth  or  the  beginning  of  the  seventh  century. 

But,  whatever  may  have  been  the  period  at  which  he  lived,  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  he  attained  great  eminence  in  his  profession,  and  continued  to  be 
looked  up  to  as  one  of  the  highest  authorities  in  Medicine  and  Surgery  dur- 
ing a  long  succession  of  ages.  His  countryman  Nonnus,  although,  if  I  recol- 
lect right,  he  does  not  mention  him  by  name,  gives  a  brief  compendium  of  a 
considerable  portion  of  his  work ;  and  Psellus  does  the  same  in  Leonine 
yerses.  All  the  medical  authors,  in  a  word,  of  the  distinguished  Arabian 
period,  quote  his  opinions  in  almost  every  page  of  their  works,  and  never 
fail  to  recognise  him  as  one  of  the  most  trust-worthy  of  their  Grecian  masters. 


THB  editor's  prbfacb.  xi 

At  the  revival  of  Litei^ture  in  modern  times,  the  Latin  Translations  of  the 
Arabians  continued  for  a  time  to  be  the  ordinary  guides  to  practice ;  but 
when  the  superior  merit  of  their  Greek  originals  came  to  be  properly  appre- 
ciated, our  author  rose  again  into  high  consideration.  As  a  proof  of  this,  t 
may  mention  that  the  Surgery  of  Fabrice  d'Aquapendente  is  made  up  almost 
entirely  from  his  works.  Portal,  therefore,  had  no  good  occasion  for  repre- 
senting him  as  ''  one  of  those  unfortunate  writers  to  whom  posterity  had  not 
done  justice.*'  I  admit,  indeed,  that  for  some  time  past,  since  professional 
research  and  the  study  of  ancient  models  have  been  superseded  by  a  restless 
desire  of  novelty  in  Theory  and  in  Practice,  he  has  not  enjoyed  that  considera- 
tion to  which  he  is  justly  entitled ;  but,  in  this  respect,  he  has  only  shared 
the  fate  of  other  names,  equally  eminent  for  their  contributions  to  Medical 
Science,  who  have  now  been  suffered  to  fall  into  neglect. 

Of  the  Latin  Translations  of  his  works,  the  most  celebrated  is  that  of  Cor- 
narius,  published  by  Henry  Stephens  in  his  Medica  ArtU  Principts ;  but 
which,  af^er  a  careful  examination,  I  have  not  found  to  be  so  trust-worthy  as 
I  expected  to  find  it.  There  once  existed  an  Arabic  Edition  by  Honain,  a 
Syrian  Physician,  but  of  it  I  know  nothing.  The  only  part  which  has  been 
translated  into  any  modem  language  is  the  Sixth  Book,  a  French  Translation 
of  which  was  published  at  Lyons,  A.  D.  1539.  Of  the  Original  there  are 
two  Editions,  namely,  the  Aldine  of  1528  and  the  Basle  of  1538,  neither  of 
which  is  so  accurate  as  could  be  wished. 

To  many  individuals  and  literary  bodies  my  best  thanks  are  due,  for  the 
facilities  which  they  afforded  me  of  consulting  certain  scarce  books,  which 
otherwise  I  should  have  found  difficulty  in  procuring  access  to.  I  feel  par- 
ticularly indebted  to  ^.  H.  Barker,  Esq.  of  Thetford,  not  only  for  assistance 
rendered  to  me  in  this  way,  but  al&o  for  much  important  advice  on  many 
points  connected  with  classical  literature. 

Banchory-Tehkak, 

November  12,  1833. 


PAULUS     iEGINETA. 


THE  AUTHOR'S  PREFACE. 


It  is  not  because  the  more  ancient  Writers  hail  omitted  any  tiling  leialive  to 
the  Art  that  I  have  composed  this  Work,  but  for  the  purpose  of  giving  a 
compendious  course  of  instruction.  For,  on  the  contrary,  every  thing  is 
handled  by  them  in  a  proper  manner,  and  without  any  omissions,  whereas  the 
modems  have  not  oAly  in  tiie  first  place  neglected  the  study  of  them,  but 
have  also  blamed  them  for  prolixity.  VVherefore,  I  have  undertaken  the  fol- 
lowing Treatise,  which,  as  is  like,  will  serve  as  a  Commentary  to  those  who 
may  choose  to  consult  it,  whilst  it  will  prov«  an  exercise  to  me.  For  it  appears 
wonderful  that  Lawyers  should  be  possessed  of  compendious,  and,  as  they 
call  them,  popular  legal  Synopses,  in  which  are  contained  the  heads  of  all 
the  Laws,  to  serve  for  immediate  use,  whilst  we  neglect  these  things,  although 
they  have  it  generally  in  their  power  to  put  off  the  investigation  of  any  point 
for  a  considerable  time,  whereas  we  can  seldom  or  rarely  do  so ;  for  in  many 
cases'necessity  requires  that  we  act  promptly,  and  hence  Hippocrates  has 
proi>erly  said,  "The  season  is  brief."  For  their  business  is  generally  con- 
ducted in  the  midst  of  cities,  where  there  is  an  abundant  supply  of  books, 
whereas  physicians  have  to  act  not  only  in  cities,  in  the  fields,  and  in  desert 
places,  but  also  at  sea  onboard  of  ships,  where  such  diseases  sometimes  sud- 
denly break  out  as,  in  the  event  of  procrastination,  would  occasion  death,  or  at 
least  incur  the  most  imminent  danger.  But  to  remember  all  the  rules  of  the 
healing  art,  and  all  the  particular  substances  connected  with  it,  is  exceedingly 
difficult,  if  not  altogether  impossible.  On  this  account,  1  have  collected  this 
Epitome  from  the  works  of  the  ancients,  and  have  set  down  little  of  my  own, 
except  a  few  things  which  I  have  seen  and  tried  in  the  practice  of  the  art.  For 
being  conversant  with  the  most  distinguished  writers  in  the  profession,  and 


2 

in  particular  with  Oribasius,  who,  in  one  work,  gave  a  select  view  of  every 
thing  relating  to  health,  (he  being  posterior  to  Galen,  and  one  of  the  more 
modem  authors,)  I  have  collected  what  was  best  in  them,  and  have  endea- 
voured, if  possible,  not  to  pass  by  any  one  distemper.  For  the  work  of 
Oribasius,  comprehending  70  books,  contains  indeed  an  exposition  of  the 
whole  art,  but  it  is  not  easily  to  be  procured  on  account  of  its  bulk,  whilst 
the  epitome  of  it,  addressed  to  his  son,  Eustathius,  is  deficient  in  some  dis- 
eases altogether,  and  gives  but  an  imperfect  description  of  others,  sometimes 
the  causes  and  diagnosis  being  omitted,  and  sometimes  the  proper  plan  of 
treatment  being  forgotten,  as  well  as  other  things  which  have  occurred  to  my 
recollection.  Wherefore,  the  present  work  will  contain  the  Description, 
Causes,  and  Cure  of  all  diseases,  whether  situated  in  parts  of  uniform  tex- 
ture, in  particular  organs,  or  consisting  of  solutions  of  continuity,  and  that 
not  merely  in  a  summary  way,  but  at  as  great  length  as  possible.  But  in 
the  first  place,  we  will  give  an  exposition  of  every  thing  that  relates  to  Health 
and  Regimen.  The  last  book  contains  an  account  of  simple  and  compound 
Medicine?. 


CONTENTS 


or  THK 


WHOLE  SEVEN  BOOKS  OF  THIS  WORK. 


In  the  First  Book,  you  will  find  every  thing  that  relates  to  Hygiene,  and  to 
the  preservation  from,  and  correction  of,  distempers  peculiar  to  the  various 
ages,  seasons,  temperaments,  and  so  forth.  Also,  the  powers  and  uses  of  the 
different  articles  of  food,  as  we  have  explained  in  a  summary  manner. 

In  the  Second  is  explained  the  whole  doctrine  of  Fevers,  an  account  of 
certain  matters  relating  to  them  being  premised,  such  as  excrementitious 
discharges,  critical  days,  and  other  appearances,  and  concluding  with  certain 
symptoms  which  are  sometimes  the  consequences  of  fever. 

The  Third  Book  relates  to  Topical  affections,  beginning  from  the  crown  of 
the  head  and  descending  down  to  the  nails  of  the  feet 

The  Fourth  Book  treats  of  those  complaints  which  are  external  and  ex- 
posed to  view,  and  are  not  limited  to  one  part  of  the  body.  Also,  of  Intes- 
tinal Worms  and  Dracunculi. 

The  Fifth  treats  of  the  Wounds  and  Bites  of  venemous  Animals ;  also  of 
the  distemper  called  Hydrophobia,  and  of  persons  bitten  by  dogs  which  are 
mad,  and  by  those  which  are  not  mad ;  and  also  of  persons  bitten  by  men. 
Among  other  things,  it  treats  of  deleterious  substances,  and  the  preservatives 
from  them. 

In  the  Sixth  is  contained  every  thing  relating  to  Surgery,  both  what  re- 
lates to  the  fleshy  parts,  such  as  the  extraction  of  weapons ;  and  to  the  bones, 
which  comprehends  fractures  and  dislocations. 

In  the  Seventh  is  contained  a  description  of  the  Properties  of  all  Medi- 
cines, first  of  the  simple,  then  of  the  compound ;  particularly  of  those  which 
I  had  mentioned  in  the  preceding  six  bo<^s,  and  more  especially  the  greater 
and,  as  it  were,  celebrated  preparations.  For  I  did  not  think  it  proper  to 
treat  of  all  these  articles  promiscuously,  lest  it  should  occasion  confusion, 
but  so  that  any  person  looking  for  one  or  more  of  the  distinguished  prepara* 
tions  might  easily  find  it.  Towards  the  end  are  certain  things  connected  with 
the  composition  of  medicines,  and  of  those  articles  which  may  be  substituted 

B  2 


for  one  another,  the  whole  concluding  with  an  account  of  weights  and  mea- 
sures.   We  proceed  to  the  First  Book. 

In  this  the  First  Book,  as  we  stated  in  the  Preface,  and  as  will  be  described 
afterwards  more  particularly,  is  contained  an  account  of  every  thing  relating 
to  the  preservation  of  Health.  We  shall  only  premise,  that  in  the  1st  and  2d 
Books  almost  every  thing  is  taken  from  Oribasius.  For  I  mean  not  to  seek 
after  fame  for  myself,  but  to  collect  what  is  useful  from  all  quarters.  In  the 
remaining  five  Books,  little  or  nothing  is  borrowed  from  him. 


HEADS  OF  THE  FIRCT  BOOK. 


1.  On  the  Complaints  of  Pregnant  Women,  and  their  Regimen. 

2.  On  the  Nurse. 

3.  On  the  Milk  of  the  Nurse. 

4.  How  to  correct  bad  Milk. 

5.  On  the  Nurture  of  the  Infant. 

6.  On  the  Eruptions  which  happen  to  Infants. 

7.  On  the  Cough  and  Defluxion  of  Infants. 

8.  On  Pruritus  of  the  Skin. 

9.  On  Dentition.. 

10.  On  Aphtha,  orThrush. 

11.  On  Excoriation  of  the  Thighs. 

12.  On  Watery  Ears. 

13.  On  Siriasis. 

14.  The  Diet  of  Infants,  and  of  the  succeeding  ages,  until  manhood. 

15.  On  the  Preparatory  Friction. 

16.  On  Exercise. 

17.  On  the  kinds  of  Exercise. 

18.  On  the  kinds  of  Friction. 

1 9.  On  Vociferation. 

20.  On  Lassitude  from  Exercise. 

21.  On  Constriction  of  the  Skin.  . 

22.  On  Spontaneous  Lassitude. 

23.  The  Diet  of  old  Men. 

24.  For  Rugosity  of  the  Body. 

25.  To  make  the  Perspiration  fragrant. 


6 

26.  To  Warm  the  Habit. 

27.  For  Paleness. 

28.  On  Lividity. 

29.  Preservatives  of  the  Teeth. 

30.  To  prevent  Dullness  of  Hearing. 

31.  On  Dimness  of  Sight. 

32.  On  Repletion. 

33.  On  Intoxication. 

34.  On  Corruption  of  the  Food,  or  Dyspepsia. 

35.  On  Venery. 
3(5.  On  Impotence. 

37.  On  Inordinate  Venery. 

38.  On  Redundance  of  Semen. 

39.  On  Congelation. 

40.  On  Sun- burning. 

41.  On  collections  of  Phlegm  in  the  Stomach. 

42.  How  to  produce  easy  Vomiting. 

43.  On  Laxatives  and  Diuretics  to  those  who  are  in  Health. 

44.  On  Clysters. 

45.  On  Suppositories. 

46.  On  Medicines  which  evacuate  the  Head — on  Masticatories,  Errhines, 

and  Liniments  to  the  Nose. 

47.  On  Emmenagogues. 

48.  On  Sudorifics. 

49.  On  Airs. 

50.  On  Waters. 

51.  On  Baths. 

52.  On  the  natural  Baths. 

53.  On  the  Regimen  fitting  to  the  different  Seasons. 

54.  On  the  Regimen  of  Persons  in  Business.  'm 

55.  On  the  Regimen  of  Travellers. 

56.  On  the  Regimen  of  Persons  at  Sea. 

57.  On  diminishing  Obesity. 

58.  How  to  recruit  those  who  are  Emaciated. 

59.  How  to  recruit  parts  which  are  Emaciated. 

60.  How  to  know  the  best  Temperament. 

61.  How  to  know  the  Intemperaments  of  the  Body. 

62.  On  the  Form  of  the  Head. 

63.  How  to  know  the  Temperaments  of  the  Brain. 

64.  How  to  know  the  Temperaments  of  the  Stomach. 

65.  On  the  Temperaments  of  the  Lungs. 

66.  On  the  Temperaments  of  the  Heart. 

67.  On  the  Temperaments  of  the  Liver. 

68.  On  the  Temperaments  of  the  Testicles. 

69.  On  the  parts  that  are  omitted. 


TO.  On  tlie  Cure  of  (he  Hot  IiileLuperameiLls  <rf  ibe  Body. 

71.  On  the  Cure  of  die  Cold  [iitemper:im;nts  of  ihe  Body. 

73.  On  tlie  Cure  of  ihe  Dry  Tutenipcramenls,  as  of  the  Stomach,  for  < 
xmple.    Then  of  ihe  other  In  temperaments. 

73.  On  the  Powers  of  the  Articles  of  Food. 

74.  On  Pot.Herbs. 

75.  On  Asparagi,  or  Young  Slioots. 

76.  On  Escotent  Roots. 

77.  On  Tiuffles  and  Moshrooms 

78.  On  different  kinds  of  Com, 

79.  On  Pulae. 

80.  On  the  Fugacious  or  Summer  Fruits. 
ei.  On  the  Fruit  of  Trees. 

82.  On  Animals;  and, Srst, of  Fowls. 

B3.  On  Eggs. 

84.  On  Beasts. 

85.  On  the  parts  of  Animals. 

86.  On  the  Milk  and  filood  of  Beasts. 

87.  On  the  Dnnking  of  Milk. 

88.  On  Milk  that  has  been  separated  into  part^i. 
8Ih  On  Cheese. 

■    90.  On  Fish. 

91.  On  the  Crjstacea. 

OS.  On  theMollusca. 

03.  On  (he  Cartilaginous  Fishes. 

04.  On  tbe  Cetaceous  Fishes. 

95.  On  the  Properties  of  Wine. 

96.  On  Honey,  and  honied  Water  or  Mead. 

97.  On  Sleep. 

98.  On  Watcbfulnefs. 

99.  On  Somnolency. 

100.  Diocles'  Epistle  on  the  Preservation  of  Health. 


PAULUS     iEGINETA. 


BOOK    FIRST. 


I. — On  the  Complaints  of  Pregnant  TVomen  and  their  Diet. 

Of  the  complaints  which  hefal  women  in  a  pregnant  state,  since 
the  most  trouhlesome  are  a  redandance  of  crudities,  continued  vo- 
miting, salivation,  pain  at  the  cordiac  orifice  of  the  stomach,  and 
loathing  of  food ;  it  will  not  be  improper  to  give  directions  regard- 
ing them.  The  most  suitable  remedies  are,  exercise  on  foot,  food  not 
too  sweet,  wines  which  are  yellow,  fragrant,  and  about  five  years  old, 
and  moderate  drink.  All  these  things  are  proper  for  the  cure  of  cru- 
dities and  vomiting.  For  medicines,  you  may  give  the  bloodwort, 
boiled  in  water,  for  drink ;  and  likewise  dill,  and  the  Pontic-root, 
called  Rha,  in  the  dialect  of  that  country.  These  things  may  be 
taken  at  the  time  of  eating,  or  before  it.  Externally,  the  flowers  of  the 
wild  vine,  those  of  the  wild  or  domestic  pomeg^nate,  the  leaves  of 
the  alsanders  (smymium),  and  the  seed  of  the  fennel,  may  be  mixed 
together  along  with  dates  and  old  wine,  and  applied  to  the  prsecor- 
dium  in  the  form  of  a  cataplasm.  Pains  at  the  orifice  of  the  stomach, 
may  be  alleviated  by  drinking  warm  water,  by  gentle  exercise  on 
foot,  and  by  covering  the  hypochondrium  with  soft  wool.  To  those 
who  have  an  aversion  to  food,  you  should  recommend  a  variety  of 
articles  of  a  savoury  nature,  and  also  dry  starch.  This  last  is  par- 
ticularly applicable  to  those  who  long  to  eat  earth,  as  is  the  case  in 
the  complaint  called  pica,  which  occurs  most  frequently  about  the 
third  month  after  conception  ;  because  the  foetus  being  then  weak, 
cannot  consume  all  the  aliment  which  is  brought  to  the  uterus,  and 
hence  the  superfluities  are  collected  in  the  stomach.  Wherefore,  they 
have  a  desire  for  complicated  and  improper  articles,  such  as  burnt  coals, 
Ciraolian  earth,  and  various  such  things.  On  that  account,  the  af- 
fection has  got  its  appellation,  either  from  the  variety  of  colours 
which  the  bird  pica  possesses,  or  from  its  being  subject  to  this  com- 


8  •  PAULUS  yliGINETA. 

plaint.  Labour  and  long  journeys  will  also  contribute  to  restore  a 
desire  for  wholesome  food.  But  she  who  has  accustomed  herself  to 
live  in  an  indolent  manner,  will  not  be  able,  when  she  proves  with 
child,  to  bear  exercise  all  at  once.  To  those  who  loathe  food,  it 
may  be  of  service  to  take  acrid  substances,  and  particularly  mustard. 
For  swellings  of  the  feet,  it  may  be  proper  to  bind  over  them  the 
herb  anthyllis,  soaked  in  vinegar ;  or  to  lay  the  leaves  of  a  cabbage 
over  them,  and  to  anoint  them  with  Cimolian  earth  mixed  with  vine- 
gar, or  with  alum  and  vinegar.  It  is  likewise  of  use  to  wash  the 
feet  with  a  decoction  of  the  Median  apples,  called  citrons. 


II. — On  the  Nurse, 

A  NURSE  is  to  be  chosen  who  is  free  from  every  complaint,  and  is 
neither  very  old  nor  very  young.  She  ought  not  to  be  less  than 
than  twenty-five,  nor  more  than  thirty-five.  Her  chest  should  be 
large,  as  also  her  breasts,  and  her  nipples  neither  too  prominent  nor 
too  much  retracted.  Her  body  should  be  neither  very  fat  nor  very 
spare.  It  is  of  great  consequence  to  the  child  that  his  nurse  should 
have  brought  forth  not  long  before,  and  that  her  child  had  been  a 
male.  She  ought  to  avoid  every  thing  of  a  very  desiccative  nature, 
and  likewise  such  as  are  saltish,  acrid,  sour,  acid,  bitter,  very  heat- 
ing or  of  an  offensive  smell ;  also,  such  as  are  strongly  fragrant, 
cx)udiments,  and  such  like  acrid  substances.  Let  the  nurse  also  ab- 
stain from  venery.  Let  her  work  with  her  hands  and  shoulders, 
let  her  labour  at  the  mill  and  the  loom,  and  carry  about  the  child 
in  her  arms.  This  may  be  done  even  when  it  is  three  or  four  months 
old. 


III. — On  the  Milk  of  the  Nurse. 

The  best  milk  is  that  which  is  moderate  in  thickness,  quantity, 
colour,  smell,  and  taste.  It  is  a  proper  way  to  try  the  quality  of  the 
milk,  by  pouring  a  little  of  it  upon  the  nail  of  the  thumb  and  ob- 
serving it  in  the  sun ;  for,  when  upon  turning  the  nail,  it  neither 
runs  off  too  slowly  nor  too  quickly,  it  is  good  milk.  You  may  also 
try  it  thus,  by  pouring  some  milk  into  a  glass  vessel,  and  putting 
some  runnet  into  it,  then  stirring  it  about  with  your  fingers,  allow 
it  to  coagulate,  and  observe  whether  the  cheesy  part  be  less  than 
the  serous :  for  such  milk  is  not  good,  and  also  the  opposite 
kind  is  of  difficult  digestion.  The  best  kind  is  that  which  has  a 
moderate  proportion  of  each. 


IV. — How  to  correct  the  bad  qualities  of  Milk, 

Thb  bad  qualities  of  milk  may  be  thus  corrected.     If  it  be  too 
thick,  the  phlegm  ought  to  be  evacuated  by  vomits,  the  most  pro- 


BOOK  FIRST.  9 

per  of  which,  are  those  of  vinegar  and  honey.  It  is  also  proper  to 
extenuate  by  labour  before  eating.  Also,  the  following  substances 
may  be  given : — namely,  wild  marjoram,  hyssop,  savoury,  shep- 
herd's needle,  thyme,  a  little  radish,  and  old  pickle  with  vinegar 
and  honey.  But  if  it  be  more  acrid  and  thinner  than  natural,  the 
nurse  ought  to  be  relieved  from  labour,  to  be  fed  upon  strong  soups, 
and  the  flesh  of  swine,  and  drink  sodden  must  and  sweet  wine.  If 
it  be  in  too  small  quantity,  she  ought  to  get  soups  and  a  generous 
diet,  with  sweet  wine  for  drink.  And  let  her  breasts  and  nipples 
be  rubbed.  The  cupping- instrument,  if  applied,  will  also  be  of  ser- 
vice. That  medicines  for  the  formation  of  milk,  are  possessed  of 
some  efficacy.  I  am  well  aware,  and  yet  I  do  not  recommend  them 
in  all  cases,  for  they  speedily  waste  the  body.  They  are  the  root 
and  fruit  of  the  fennel  boiled  in  ptisan,  the  leaves  of  the  citisus  in 
dark-coloured  wine  or  ptisan,  the  sweet  gith  (melanthium) ,  dill, 
the  root  and  fruit  of  the  carrot.  They  are  to  be  first  soaked  with 
warm  water,  and  then  given.  But  when  the  milk  is  bad,  whether  it 
be  thick,  acrid,  or  of  a  strong  smell,  it  is  first  to  be  sucked  out,  and 
then  the  child  is  to  be  applied.  Por  that  which  is  acrid,  ought  on  no 
account  to  be  given  to  the  infant  when  hungry  ;  but  that  which  has  an 
ofiensive  smell,  may  be  corrected  by  fragrant  wine  and  sweet  food. 
Of  coagulated  milk  in  the  breasts,  we  will  treat  in  the  Third  Book. 


V. — On  the  Nurture  of  the  Infant. 

The  first  food  given  to  a  new-born  child  should  be  honey,  and  after- 
wards milk,  twice,  or  at  most,  three  times  a-day.  When  it  appears 
disposed  for  it,  and  seems  able  to  digest  it,  it  may  get  some  food,  care 
being  taken  not  to  stuff  it.  If  this  should  happen  to  be  the  case,  it 
will  become  more  sleepy  and  inactive,  there  will  be  swelling  of  the 
belly  and  flatulence,  and  its  urine  will  be  more  watery  than  natural. 
When  this  is  observed,  it  ought  to  get  no  more  food  until  what  it  has 
got  be  consumed.  The  child  may  be  brought  up  upon  milk  until  it 
be  two  years  old,  after  which,  its  diet  may  be  changed  to  food  from 
grain. 


VI. — On  the  Eruptions  which  happen  to  Children. 

Whatever  eruptions  appear  upon  the  skin  of  a  child,  are  to  be 
considered,  in  the  first  place,  as  a  good  indication  ;  but  when  the 
eruption  is  properly  come  out,  it  may  be  cured,  by  putting  the  child 
into  baths  of  myrtle,  or  lentisk,  or  roses,  and  then  anointing  with  the 
oil  of  roses  or  lentisk,  or  with  a  cerate  containing  ceruse.  And  its 
body  may  be  gently  rubbed  with  nitre,  but  it  will  not  bear  hard 
friction.  But  the  best  plan  of  cure,  is  for  the  nurse  to  live  upon 
f-weetish  things.  And  the  child's  diet  ought  to  be  attended  to,  so 
that  it  be  neither  too  full  nor  too  spare.  If  the  child's  belly  be  consti- 
pated, a  little  honey  may  be  put  into  its  food  ;  and  if  even  then  it  do  not 


10  PAUL.US  JiGlNETA. 

obevi  turpentine,  to  the  size  of  a  chick-pea  may  be  added.     When 
the  belly  is  loose,  millet  in  particular  ought  to  be  ?idministered. 


VII. — On  the  Cough  and  Defltixion  of  Infants. 

Whbn  the  child  is  seized  with  cough  or  defluxion,  recourse  is 
to  be  had  to  a  Linctus  of  honey.  Its  head  is  first  to  be  bathed  with 
warm  water,  and  plenty  of  honey  given ;  then  press  its  tongue 
gently  with  your  finger,  and  it  will  vomit  up  much  phlegm. 


VIII. — On  Pruritus  of  the  Skin, 

If  the  child  be  seized  with  pruritus,  use  fomentations,  and  anoint 
him  with  plenty  of  boiled  oil,  in  which  a  little  wax  has  been  melted. 


IX. — On  Dentition. 

The  teeth  begin  to  g^ow  about  the  seventh  month.  At  that 
time  inflammations  of  the  gums,  cheeks,  and  tendons  are  apt  to 
occur  ;  and  sometimes  convulsions.  The  child  must  then  get  no- 
thing which  requires  mastication;  and  you  should  rub  his  gums 
frequently  when  in  the  bath  with  your  finger,  or  soften  them  with 
the  fat  of  fowls  or  the  brain  of  a  hare.  When  the  teeth  are  just 
coming  through,  you  may  wrap  the  neck,  jaws,  and  head  in  soft 
wool,  or  they  may  be  anointed  with  warm  sweet  oil,  some  of  which 
ought  to  be  poured  into  the  pores  of  the  ears.  The  child  ought  then 
to  have  a  more  generous  quality  of  food,  and  be  bathed  in  warm  water. 
If  he  have  diarrhoea,  you  must  try  to  bind  his  belly  by  epithemes, 
or  external  applications  of  an  astringent  nature,  such  as  cumin,  dill, 
or  parsley,  sprinkled  upon  wool.  It  is  proper  to  mix  the  seeds  of 
roses,  and,  in  short,  to  use  all  d^siccants.  If  the  bowels  are  consti- 
pated, they  may  be  gently  roused  to  action  by  means  of  a  suppository 
of  honey,  or  the  belly  may  be  rubbed  with  mint  mixed  up  with  honey. 
But  the  best  remedy  for  the  convulsions  of  children,  is  to  bathe 
them  in  water  wherein  tumsol  (heliotropium)  has  been  infused.  It 
will  be  of  consequence  also  to  use  the  oil  of  privet,  of  the  iris,  and 
the  Secyonian  oil ;  and,  in  short,  every  thing  which  is  of  a  calefa- 
cient  nature.  But  when  the  teeth  have  come  through  so  as  to  bite 
the  fingers,  it  may  be  proper  that  he  keep  in  his  mouth  the  root  of 
the  iris,  shaven  down  and  not  quite  dried.  This  also  is  of  use  to 
ulcers.  Butter  likewise  rubbed  in  with  honey  will  be  of  service. 
The  flesh  of  an  old  pickle  will  relieve  pruritus  of  the  gums. 


X. — On  Aphtha. 

Infants  are  liable  to  an  ulcer  of  the  mouth  called  aphtha.     It  is 
either  whitish,  reddish,  or  black,  like  an  eschar.     That  which  is 


BOOK  FIRST.  II 

black  is  of  the  worst  kind  and  threatens  death.  The  iris  mixed 
with  honey  is  of  use,  or  you  may  blow  in  the  dry  powder  if  you 
please  :  also,  the  pounded  leaves  of  roses*  or  the  flowers  of  roses, 
and  crocus — ^a  smtdl  quantity  of  myrrh,  g^s,  frankincense,  or  the 
bark  of  the  frankincense  tree,  all  these  together,  or  separately,  may 
be  mixed  with  honey;  and,  in  addition  to  these,  may  be  joined 
honied  water,  and  the  juice  of  the  sweet  pomegranate. 


XI. — On  Esccortations  of  the  Thighs, 

Excoriations  of  the  thighs  may  be  sprinkled  with  dried  myrtle, 
cyperus,  and  roses. 


XII. — On  Watery  Dischargee  from  the  Ears. 

Watbrt  discharges  frcHn  the  ears  may  be  dried  up  by  applying 
to  them  wool  with  alum,  or  with  wine  and  honey,  or  by  an  injection 
of  old  wine  either  alone  or  mixed  with  saflron. 


XIII. — On  Siriasis, 

SiRiAsis  is  an  inflammation  oi  the  parts  about  the  brain  and  its 
membranes.  A  hollowness  of  the  open  of  the  head  and  eyes  attend 
it,  with  paleness  and  dryness  of  the  body.  It  is  relieved  by  an 
application  of  the  red  of  an  egg  with  oil  of  roaes  to  the  open  of  the 
head  in  the  form  of  a  compress,  and  frequently  changed. 
.  Another  appHaUion  for  Siriasis. — Place  upon  the  open  of  the 
head,  the  leaves  of  that  species  of  heliotropium  called  scorpiums, 
the  parings  of  a  gourd,  the  memlnrane  which  envelopes  the  fleshy 
part  of  a  pompicm,  the  juice  of  the  garden  night-shade,  with  oil  of 
roses. 


XIV. — 7%c  Regimen  of  Infancy^  and  the  succeeding  ages 

until  manhood. 

Infants  and  children  when  weaned  from  milk,  are  to  be  allowed 
to  live  marily  and  without  restraint ;  their  food  ought  to  be  light, 
aad  their  exercise  gentle.  After  six  or  seven  years  of  age,  both 
boys  and  girls  are  to  be  consigned  over  to  writing-masters  of  a 
mild  and  benevolent  disposition ;  as  such  persons  will  impart  in- 
struction to  them  in  a  cheerful  manner,  and  without  constraint ;  for, 
relaxation  of  the  mind  contributes  much  to  the  growth  of  the  body. 
Boys  of  ten  years  of  age  must  go  to  teachers  of  grammar  and  geo- 
metry, and  harden  their  bodies  by  gymnastic  exercises.  From 
fourteen  to  twenty- one,  their  proper  employment  will  be  the  study 
of  mathematics  and  instruction  in  philosophy.     At  the  same  time. 


12  TAULUS  ^GINETA. 

however,  it  will  be  proper  to  use  more  exercise  for  strengthening  the 
body,  so  that  being  accustomed  to  labour,  both  with  mind  and  body, 
they  may  be  prevented  from  indulging  their  carnal  desires.  They 
ought  likewise  to  be  restricted  as  to  wine.  To  those  who  are  in  man- 
hood's prime,  the  fullest  supply  of  nurture,  both  to  body  and  mind, 
ought  to  be  allowed ;  wherefore,  they  should  use  all  kinds  of  gym- 
nastic exercises,  particularly  such  as  each  has  been  accustomed  to, 
and  food  which  is  fitting  and  nutritious.  In  the  decline  of  life,  both 
the  bodily  and  mental  supply  ought  to  be  abridged ;  and  the  gym- 
nastic exercises  diminished  in  proportion.  The  food  also  is  to  be 
gradually  lessened  as  the  habit  begins  to  contract  the  frigidity  of 
age. 

XV. — On  the  Preparatory  Friction. 

Before  gymnastic  exercises,  the  body  ought  to  be  rubbed  mo- 
derately first  with  towels,  and  then  with  oil  in  the  hollows  of  the 
naked  hands,  tmtil  the  body  be  properly  warmed  and  softened.  Its 
surface  ought  to  have  contracted  a  florid  blush,  and  its  vessels  to 
be  distended. 

XVI. — On  Exercises. 

Exercise  is  a  violent  motion.  The  limit  to  its  violence  should 
be  a  hurried  respiration.  Ehcercise  renders  the  organs  of  the  body 
less  liable  to  sustain  injury,  and  fitter  for  their  functional  actions. 
It  makes  the  absorption  of  food  stronger,  and  expedites  its  assimi- 
lation ;  for  it  improves  nutrition  by  increasing  heat.  It  also  clears 
the  pores  of  the  skin,  and  evacuates  superfluities  by  the  increased 
motion  of  the  lungs.  Since,  therefore,  it  contributes  to  distribu- 
tion, care  ought  to  be  taken,  that  neither  the  stomach  nor  bowels 
be  loaded  with  crude  and  indigestible  food  or  liquids ;  for  there  is 
a  danger  lest  they  should  be  carried  to  all  parts  of  the  body  before 
they  are  properly  digested.  It  is  clear  then  that  exercise  ought  to 
be  taken  before  eating.  The  colour  of  the  urine  will  point  out  the 
proper  time  for  exercise.  When  it  is  watery,  it  indicates  that  the 
chyme  absorbed  from  the  stomach  is  still  undigested.  When  it  is 
of  a  dark  yellow  colour,  and  bilious,  it  shows  that  digestion  had 
been  long  ago  accomplished.  When  it  is  moderately  pale,  it  indi- 
cates that  digestion  has  just  taken  place,  and  this  is  the  proper  time 
for  exercise,  after  having  evacuated  whatever  excrementitious  mat- 
ters are  collected  in  the  bladder  and  bowels. 


XVII. — On  the  kinds  of  Ea^ercise. 

This  is  the  common  effect  of  all  kinds  of  exercise,  that  they  increase 
the  natural  heat  of  animals ;  but  each  species  has  something  peculiar 
to  it.  Strong,  that  is  to  say,  violent  exercise  rouses  the  tone  of  the 
muscles  and  nerves.     Such  are  digging,  and  lifting  a  heavy  bur- 


BOOK   FIRST.  13        ^ 

• 

den,  while  one  remains  in  the  same  spot,  or  moves  a  little ;  or  lift- 
ing small  weights  and  walking  ahout  as  much  as  one  can.  Of  this 
kind,  is  the  exercise  of  scaling  a  rope,  and  many  such.  The  swift 
kinds  of  exercise  are  such  as  do  not  require  strength  and  violence, 
namely — running,  fighting  with  one's  shadow,  wrestling  with  the 
extremities  of  the  hands,  the  exercise  with  a  leather-hag,  and  that 
with  the  small  hall.  This  last  is  compounded  of  strength  and  ve- 
locity ;  and  such  exercises  as  are  strong,  may  become  intense  by  add- 
ing velocity  to  them.  Besides,  some  kinds  of  exercise  bring  the 
loins  into  action,  and  some  the  hands  or  legs ;  others  the  spine  or 
the  chest  alone,  or  the  lungs.  And  exercise  ought  to  be  carried  on 
until  the  vessels  become  distended,  and  the  skin  of  a  fiorid  hue  ;  and, 
until  then,  the  motions  ought  to  be  strong,  equable,  and  unremit- 
ting. Upon  this  you  may  see  warm  sweat,  mixed  with  vapour, 
break  out.  It  will  then  be  time  for  you  to  stop,  when  any  of  the  symp- 
toms which  I  have  mentioned  have  undergone  a  change,  namely, 
when  the  bulk  of  the  body  becomes  contracted,  or  when  the  florid 
colour  of  the  skin  declines.  And,  should  any  of  the  motions  remit, 
it  will  then  be  time  to  stop  ;  or,  if  there  should  be  any  change  in 
the  quantity  or  quality  of  the  perspiration  ;  for,  if  it  should  become 
smaller  in  quantity,  or  colder,  we  must  desist,  and  besmearing  the 
body  with  oil,  endeavour  to  restore  it.  It  will  then  be  proper  to 
use  the  Restorative  friction  as  the  masters  of  gymnastics  practise. 


XVIII. — On  the  kinds  of  Friction. 

Hard  friction  contracts,  and  soft  relaxes  ;  so  that  those  parts  of 
the  body  which  are  relaxed  should  be  rubbed  hard,  and  those  which 
are  contracted  softly.  When  the  body  is  neither  in  the  one  state 
nor  the  other,  it  is  clear  that  neither  the  one  mode  of  friction  nor 
the  other  should  be  had  recourse  to,  but  as  much  as  possible  either 
extreme  ought  to  be  avoided.  Much  and  hard  friction  diminishes 
the  bulk  of  the  body,  whilst,  on  the  other  hand,  little  and  soft  distends 
it.  If  the  three  different  kinds  of  frictions  as  to  quantity  be  joined 
to  the  same  number  as  to  quality,  they  will  produce  nine  combina- 
tions, as  is  stated  below.  For  one  of  the  kinds,  as  to  quantity,  for 
example,  much,  being  complicated  with  the  three  differences  as  to 
quality,  I  mean  the  hard,  the  soft  and  the  moderate  as  to  hardness, 
will  produce  three  combinations ;  and,  again,  the  little  being  joined 
to  the  other  three,  will  produce  three  more ;  and  the  moderate  as  to 
quality  being  complicated  with  the  same  three,  will  produce  more, 
as  is  shown  below : — 


QUANTITY.  QUALITY. 

llittie^^^.^^-.^^^^-^^^w f  "I    >^^ r- ^HOrd. 

Little,«s^s«««,«s^s.rs^^^>,..s,<  and  >,«s...>«vr<«vrwrv^,^><^^>^Soft. 

Moderate -^^^v^^r^-r.-.  r  "I  -rv^s^^^^^-v^v^^^N^Hard. 

Moderate  .^^^^.*s^s^<  and  \.r.r.^.r.^  ^..^^Soft. 

Moderate  ^^v^,^-rwr^  L  J  ^^^^^.^.r^^^ -^Moderate. 


14  PAULUS  iEGINETA. 


XIX. — On  Vociferation,  or  the  Exercise  of  the  Voice, 

I^  the  exercise  of  the  voice,  regular  and  gentle  modulation  con- 
tributes  nothing  to  health,  but  the  utterance  of  louder  tones  is  be- 
neficial, and  is  therefore  to  be  practised.  For  much  air  being 
inhaled  by  respiration  expands  the  chest  and  stomach,  and  dilates 
and  extends  all  the  pores  of  the  body.  Wherefore,  even  in  reading, 
it  promotes  the  excretion  of  redundiant  humours,  to  those  who  read 
in  a  high  tone,  by  inducing  sweats ;  while  in  those  who  read  with 
a  moderate  tone  it  promotes  the  insensible  perspiration  over  the  whole 
frame.  It  also  promotes  health  by  attenuating  the  excrementitious 
matters  which  are  hawked  up  ;  the  saliva,  mucus,  and  phlegm  being 
discharged  and  consumed  in  this  way.  And  to  those  who  stand  in 
need  of  warming,  owing  to  frigidity,  what  mode  of  relief  can  be  more 
proper  than  the  action  of  respiration  }  Such  persons  ought  therefore 
to  read  frequently,  and  relaxing  the  whole  body,  so  as  to  distend  the 
wind-pipe,  and  all  the  other  passages  of  air,  endeavour  to  utter  the 
loudest  soimds.  And  yet  we  must  not  have  recourse  to  the  exercise 
of  the  voice  rashly,  and  without  consideration,  nor  when  the  system 
is  filled  with  depraved  humours,  or  the  stomach  loaded  with  crudi- 
ties, lest  noxious  vapours  be  thereby  distributed  over  the  whole  body. 


XX. — On  Lassitude  from  Exercises, 

That  species  of  lassitude  called  the  Ulcerose  is  occasioned  by  a 
collection  of  thin  and  pungent  superfiuities  in  the  body.  In  the  Ten- 
sive there  is  scarcely  any  superfluity  in  the  system,  but  the  state  of 
the  muscles  and  nerves  is  such  that  they  appear  to  be  stretched.  The 
Inflammative,  in  which  we  feel  as  if  the  parts  of  the  body  were 
bruised  or  inflamed,  happens  when,  being  heated,  the  muscles  at- 
tract the  surrounding  superfluities.  There  is  a  fourth  species  oc- 
casioned by  an  unnatural  dryness  of  the  muscles,  in  which  the  body 
when  naked  appears  squalid  and  constricted,  and  is  averse  to  motion. 
The  cure  of  the  ulcerose  species  consists  in  dispelling  the  superfluities 
by  much  and  soft  friction  with  plenty  of  oil  that  contains  no  astringen- 
cy.  The  indication  of  cure  in  the  second  or  Tensive  species  is  relaxa« 
tion,  which  may  be  accomplished  by  means  of  little  and  soft  friction 
with  oil  heated  in  the  sun ;  by  quietude  and  rest,  by  tepid  baths,  and 
remaining  for  c(  considerable  time  in  the  warm  water ;  for,  if  you 
repeat  the  bath  two  or  three  times  in  succession,  you  will  confer  so 
much  the  greater  benefit.  In  the  third  species,  or  the  Inflammative, 
there  are  three  indications  of  cure,  the  discharge  of  the  superfluity, 
the  relaxation  of  the  constricted  parts,  and  the  cooling  of  the  inflam- 
matory state.  Plenty  of  tepid  oil,  the  softest  friction,  and  remain- 
ing long  in  a  bath  of  a  moderate  temperature,  remove  lassitudes  of 
this  description.  Long  continued  quietude  is  also  proper,  and  re- 
peated inunction.  The  treatment  of  the  fourth  diflfersin  no  respect, 
for  the  first  day,  from  that  of  the  third,  except  that  the  water  ought 


BOOK   FIRST.  13 

to  be  hotter,  so  as  to  contract  gently.  On  the  second,  the  Restora- 
tive kind  of  exercise  must  be  had  recourse  to;  and  when  in  the  bath, 
let  the  person  straightway  leap  into  the  cisterns  of  cold  water.  All 
those  affected  with  lassitude  stand  in  need  of  wholesome  food. 


XXI. — On  Constriction  of  the  Skin. 

Constriction  is  occasioned  either  by  obstruction  or  contraction 
of  the  pores.  Obstruction  is  produced  either  by  the  quantity  or 
thickness  of  crude  and  indigested  humours,  and  contraction  either  by 
cold,  astringent,  or  desiccative  substances.  Upon  stripping  the  body 
the  affection  is  at  once  recognized,  by  the  paleness,  hardness,  and 
contraction  of  the  skin,  and  by  the  body's  being  heated  with  diffi- 
culty during  exercise.  Cale£Eu;ient  remedies  are  the  proper  cure  for 
this  state  of  body,  and  therefore  we  must  have  recourse  to  the 
strongest  exercise  and  the  hottest  baths,  and  the  time  of  remaining 
in  the  cold  bath  must  not  be  long,  nor  must  the  water  be  very  cold. 
And  when  about  to  put  on  their  clothes,  let  their  bodies  be  anointed 
with  a  sweet  and  thin  oil,  of  a  moderately  heating  quality.  Ob- 
structions of  the  skin  are  also  properly  cured  by  the  oil  of  dill, 
(more  particularly  if  the  dill  had  been  green,)  and  by  the  oil  of  black 
poplars. 


XXII. — On  SponianeotAS  Lassitude. 

SiNCB  the  ulcerose  lassitude  is  occasioned  by  the  ill  digestion  of 
acrid  superfluities,  if  the  cacochymy  be  small,  the  restorative  exer- 
cise will  be  sufficient ;  but  if  it  be  greater  and  deeper-seated,  we 
must  not  permit  such  a  one  either  to  exercise  or  to  take  any  motion 
whatever,  but  he  must  for  one  day  remain  without  food,  in  a  state 
of  quietude  and  sleep ;  and  then  in  the  evening,  when  he  has  been 
rubbed  with  emollient  unguents,  and  bathed  in  tepid  water,  we  must 
give  him  wholesome  food  and  some  soup.  And  we  must  also  not 
restrict  him  from  wine;  for  nothing  contributes  so  much  to  the  di- 
gestion of  half-digested  humours  as  wine.  Should  the  symptoms 
be  removed  by  means  of  the  aforesaid  treatment,  we  may  allow  the 
man  to  return  to  his  usual  employments ;  but  if  on  the  following 
day  they  should  still  remain,  we  must  bethinjc  ourselves  of  a  more 
potent  remedy.  If  his  strength  be  good,  we  must  have  recourse 
either  to  phlebotomy  or  purging,  having  first  determined  which  of 
these  remedies  we  shall  try.  If  he  be  weak,  we  must  not  bleed, 
but  may  purge  him  moderately.  If  there  be  many  crude  humours 
in  the  system,  we  must  neither  bleed,  nor  purge,  nor  exercise,  nor 
move  at  all,  nor  tiy  the  bath,  but  we  must  keep  him  in  a  state  of  per- 
fect quietude,  and  give  him  food,  drink,  and  medicines  of  attenuating 
and  incisive  qualities,  without  being  of  a  manifestly  heating  nature. 
We  may  give  him  vinegar  and  honey,  and  occasionally  some  ptisan 
or  honied  water.     And  since,  in  such  persons,  the  hypochondrium  is 


16  PAULUS  ^GIXETA. 

apt  to  become  swelled  and  distended  with  wind,  and  whatever  food 
is  taken  to  be  converted  into  flatulence,  it  will  be  better  to  give 
some  pepper  along  with  the  food.  It  will  be  better  too  to  use  the 
composition  called  Diospoliticus,  and  that  Simple  Medicine  which 
consists  of  three  kinds  of  peppers.  Oxymel  is  also  most  pro- 
per. We  may  likewise  use  a  drink  made  from  honey,  particu- 
larly when  it  begins  to  become  acid ;  and  such  wines  as  are  gently 
acid,  and  such  articles  of  food  as  are  attenuant  without  being  heat- 
ing, as  capers,  if  taken  with  vinegar  and  honey,  or  vinegar  and  oil. 
When  the  tensive  species  of  lassitude  takes  place  without  exercise, 
it  indicates  that  a  plethora  distends  the  solid  parts  of  the  body. 
If  the  fulness  be  occasioned  by  blood,  it  will  be  best  to  open  a  vein, 
or  scarify  the  ancles.  If  the  inflammative  lassitude  be  spontaneous, 
it  will  not  endure  a  delay  of  a  few  hours,  much  less  of  two  or  three 
days,  for  it  straightway  induces  a  strong  fever,  unless  one  anticipate 
by  letting  blood.  It  will  be  best,  if  possible,  to  abstract  blood 
twice  in  one  day ;  for  if  care  be  taken  that  the  first  bleeding  do 
not  occasion  swooning,  it  will  be  of  less  consequence  whether  or  not 
it  occur  after  the  next.  Those  who  are  not  bled  will  be  fortunate 
indeed  if  they  escape  with  the  life. 


XXIII. — On  the  Regimen  of  Old  Persons, 

Old  age  is  dry  and  cold  ;  and  its  correctives  are  calefacients  and 
diluents  compounded  with  them.  Friction  is  to  be  applied  to  the  aged, 
but  so  as  not  to  occasion  lassitude.  To  such  as  are  weak,  some  such 
course  of  diet  as  the  following  is  to  be  prescribed : — About  the  third 
hour,  a  small  bit  of  bread  with  Attic  honey;  and  afterwards,  about  the 
seventh  hour,  after  having  undergone  friction,  and  taken  exercise  and 
baths  suitable  to  old  men,  they  must  first  get  such  things  as  are  of  a 
laxative  nature,  and  afterwardsfish  or  fowls;  and  then  for  supper,  such 
things  as  are  wholesome,  and  not  apt  to  spoil  in  the  stomach.  I  also 
do  not  forbid  them  to  use  wines  prepared  with  honey,  particularly  such 
persons  as  are  suspected  of  being  threatened  with  the  stone  or  gout, 
and  in  that  case,  a  little  parsley  may  be  added.  If  phlegm  be  gen- 
dered in  the  stomach,  we  must  of  necessity  apply  such  remedies  as 
will  remove  it,  and  return  immediately  to  a  diluent  diet :  We  must 
give  them  ripe  figs  in  preference  to  every  other  kind  of  food,  and  if 
during  the  winter,  dried  figs,  unless  they  complain  of  unpleasant 
sjonptoms  in  the  right  hypochondrium.  When  serous  and  pituitous 
recrements  collect  in  the  bodies  of  old  men,  we  must  promote  the 
discharge  of  urine  every  day,  and  soften  the  belly,  principally  by  giv- 
ing oil  before  a  diet.  It  is  obvious,  that  all  pot  herbs  ought  to  be 
eaten  before  all  other  food,  with  oil,  pickles,  or  olives  and  dama- 
scenes seasoned  with  salt.  When  the  belly  is  bound,  the  herb 
mercury,  and  the  bastard  saflPron,  will  relieve  it.  Turpentine  also  is 
proper  in  such  cases.  It  may  be  given  sometimes  to  the  bulk  of  a 
Pontic  walnut,  and  sometimes  of  two  or  three.  Oil  also  in  a  clyster 
is  most  useful  to  those  who  are  constipated. 


BOOK    FIRST.  17 


XXIV.— For  Rugosity  of  the  Body. 

RaaosiTT  of  the  body  may  be  removed,  by  the  farina  of  bitter 
tares,  mixed  with  white  vine. 

Another  abstergent  composition  (smegma),  to  be  constantly  rab- 
bed  upon  the  skin : — ^Fat  figs  braised  with  bryony,  and  the  burned 
powder  of  tares,  the  shells  of  the  cuttle-fish  (sepia),  mixed  with  a 
small  quantity  of  honey. 


XXV. — To  make  the  Perspiration  fragrant^ 

Thb  perspiration  may  be  rendered  fragrant,  by  mixing  the  leaves 
of  the  cypress,  pounded  dry,  and  the  bu-k  of  the  pine  in  the  same 
ointment.  One  ought  also  to  remember  in  the  morning,  immedi- 
ately after  being  db-essed,  to  taste  a  small  quantity  of  cassia  or 
savin. 

XXVI.— Tb  warm  the  Haint. 

SiNCB  even  the  habit  must  be  warmed,  it  will  be  proper  to  use  a 
preparation  of  a  heating  nature  when  in  the  bath.  Let  it  contain 
calamint,  maijoram  (sampsuchum),  hyssop,  bay  berries,  rosemary, 
the  stone  p3rrites,  salts,  the  burnt  lees  of  wine,  nitre,  pumice  stone, 
each  in  proper  proportion ;  also,  a  smaU  quantity  of  mustard,  staves- 
acre,  and  the  seeds  of  the  thymekea  (granum  cnidium).  After  the 
bath,  use  a  warm  restorative  (Acopmn),  and  drink  a  yellow  old  wine, 
having  previously  taken  a  draught  ftom  wine  and  honey,  pepper, 
me,  and  the  like. 

XXVIL— For  Paleness. 

Palbnbss  of  the  body  is  diminished  by  a  merry  course  of  life, 
and  grateftd  food,  by  mixing  together  radishes,  leeks,  and  the  green 
chick-pea.  Taking  the  juice  of  the  sweet  pomegranate  restores 
the  complexion.  (Ml,  in  which  the  root  of  the  white  vine  (bryonia), 
has  been  long  boiled,  is  likewise  proper.  This  gives  tone  to  the 
body.  For  detergent  applications,  mix  some  agghitinants  with 
detergents,  as  farina,  the  bulb  of  the  narcissus,  and  the  root  of  the 
bryony.  The  root  also  of  the  bitter  almond,  if  taken  in  abundance 
wUl  improve  the  colour,  and  likewise  the  fruit  boiled  in  water 
Qsod  for  a  bath. 


XXVIIL— 0»  Uvidity. 

Livid  spots  are  prevented  from  forming  on  old  men,  by  render- 
ing, their  skin  thick  and  hardy,  and  by  warming  the  habit.     In 

0 


18  PAULUS  ^QINETA. 

order  to  dispel  them,  the  black  places  should  be  rubbed  in  the  bath 
with  salts,  and  fomented  with  sponges  steeped  in  a  decoction  of  rad- 
ish or  wormwood. 


XXlX.-^Preservatives  of  the  Teeth. 

Thb  teeth  will  not  decay  if  the  following  things  be  attended  to : 
In  the  first  place,  to  avoid  indigestion,  and  frequent  repetitions  of 
emetics.  Guard  against  such  food  as  is  hurtful  to  the  teeth,  as 
dried  figs,  honey  boiled,  so  as  to  become  very  hard,  dates  which 
are  difficult  to  rub  down,  and  all  glutinous  substances ;  likewise 
such  things  as  are  difficult  to  break,  and  may  thereby  loosen  the 
teeth ;  in  like  manner  also,  such  substances  as  set  the  teeth  on  edge, 
and  every  thing  ^which  is  cold  and  putrid.  The  teeth  also  ought  to 
be  cleaned  after  supper. 


XXX. — For  dulness  of  Hearing. 

DuLNESS  of  hearing  may  be  prevented  by  clearing  away  the  sordes 
from  the  meatus,  and  by  occasionally  introducing  into  the  ear 
a  piece  of  linen  dipped  in  a  calefacient  ointment  (dropax),  pressing 
it  down,  and  then  drawing  it  out ;  for  this  completely  clears  the 
opening,  and,  at  the  same  time,  stimulates  the  sense  of  hearing. 
Afterwards,  the  meatus  is  to  be  plugged  up  with  a  piece  of  wool  of 
the  size  of  a  tare  for  a  day ;  and,  when  it  is  taken  out,  the  meatus 
is  to  be  anointed  with  the  oil  of  almonds,  of  spikenard,  or  of  chamo- 
mile, with  the  fat  of  geese,  or  a  small  quantity  of  ox  gall.  Again, 
after  a  time,  rubbing  mustard  and  figs  together,  introduce  this  col- 
lyrium  for  two  hours ;  and,  when  it  is  taken  out,  pour  in  oil  heated 
in  the  hollow  of  the  root  of  the  asphodel. 


XXXI. — On  dimness  of  Sight. 

In  order  to  avoid  dimness  of  sight,  when  they  plunge  into  cold 
water  people  ought  to  open  their  eyes  wide,  for  thereby  the  strength 
of  their  eyes  will  be  much  improved.  They  ought  also  tp  be  care- 
ful not  to  hurt  them  by  reading.  Let  them  also  avoid  wine  that  is 
thick  and  sweet,  such  articles  of  food  as  ascend  upwards,  whatever 
is  of  difficult  digestion,  and  engenders  stagnant  and  thick  humours, 
the  herb  rocket,  leeks,  and  every  thing  whose  pungency  ascends  to 
the  head.  Let  them  also  avoid  reclining  long  in  a  supine  position, 
cold,  winds  blowing  direct  in  the  face,  smoke,  and  dust ;  and  pour 
daily  into  the  eyes  an  infusion  prepared  thus  :  For  a  month  and  a 
day,  put  green  fennels  into  an  earthen  vessel  smeared  with  pitch  on 
the  outside,  and  pour  in  rain  water,  and  then  taking  out  the  fen- 
nels, keep  the  water  laid  up  for  use. 


BOOK  FIRST.  19 


XXXII. — On  Repkiian. 

£xcx88  in  diet  is  a  very  great  error ;  for,  even  if  the  stomach 
^uld  digest  it  properly,  ^e  veins,  being  too  much  filled,  labour, 
are  distended,  burst,  become  obstructed,  or  are  swelled  up  with 
vapours,  and  become  much  oppressed.  In  diseases,  nothing  is 
worse  than  plethora  of  the  veins ;  for,  in  plethora  of  the  stomach, 
the  offisnding  matters  may  be  evacuated  either  upwards  or  down- 
wards, so  that  it  is  less  pernicious  than  the  other,  and  yet  it  is  by 
no  means  desirable ;  but,  if  there  be  too  much  food  in  the  stomach, 
it  must  be  immediately  evacuated  by  vomiting,  for  there  is  a  danger 
lest  being  digested  it  fill  up  the  veins,  more  particularly  if  the  per- 
son who  is  g^ty  of  the  excess  be  not  attentive  to  the  necessary  eva- 
caations.  Let  him  vomit,  then,  before  the  food  become  corrupted ; 
or,  if  there  be  any  objection  to  vomiting,  it  will  be  of  great  conse- 
quence to  bring  about  frequent  discharges  ftrom  the  belly ;  or  other- 
wise, he  should  indulge  much  in  sleep,  and  drink  often  of  tepid 
water.  When  he  has  digested  properly,  and  more  especially  if  he 
has  had  evacuations  by  ti^e  bowels,  let  him  have  baths  and  fomen- 
tations, and  let  him  drink  moderately  of  watery  draughts,  and  eat 
Bome  pickle.  But  should  )ie  neither  have  alvine  evacuations,  nor 
digest  readily,  and  if  his  whole  body  be  heavy,  averse  to  motion, 
and  sleepy,  and  if  his  mind  be  oppressed  with  unusual  sluggishness, 
these  sjrmptoms  indicate  plethora  of  the  veins ;  and,  when  lassitude 
snp^venes  to  these,  it  will  be  proper  to  enjoin  quietude  until  diges- 
tion in  the  stomach  be  accomplished,  and  then  evacuate  by  labour. 

XXXIII. — On  Initmcatwn. 

To  those  who  are  intoxicated,  vomiting  is  an  immediate  relief. 
It  will  be  proper  that  they  drink  freely  of  water  and  honied  water, 
so  that  they  may  vomit  freely,  and  remove  the  uneasy  feelings. 
After  vomiting,  let  them  use  the  bath,  along  with  plenteous  unc- 
tion, and  afterwards  rest  for  some  time,  well  covered  up,  until  they 
have  slept  off  their  debauch. 

XXXIV — On  wronff  digestion  of  the  Food. 

It  contributes  much  to  the  health  of  those  whose  food  spoils  in 
tlieir  stomachs,  that  the  ofiending  matters  be  discharged  down- 
wards ;  and  when  they  are  not  so  discharged  naturally,  this  opera- 
tion ought  to  be  promoted  by  gentle  laxatives.  Such  persons  be- 
fore a  meal  may,  with  advantage,  take  an  emetic  of  wine,  or 
must.  They  ought  also  to  be  counseUed  not  to  take  food  of  a 
itrong  or  offensive  smell,  nor  such  as  easily  becomes  spoiled ;  but,  on 
tiie  contrary,  such  as  is  wholesome.  To  such  persons,  evacuations  of 
tile  bowels  at  proper  intervals,  by  means  of  gentle  laxatives,  are 
lagkly  expedient. 

c2 


20  PAULUS    iEGINETA. 


XXXV.— O/i  Venery. 

From  sexual  enjoyments,  the  following  advantages  may  be  de- 
rived :  they  relieve  plethora,  render  the  body  lighter,  promote  its 
growth,  and  make  it  more  masculine ;  they  free  the  mind  from  the 
cares  which  beset  it,  and  dispel  ungovernable  anger.  Wherefore, 
the  best  possible  remedy  for  melancholy  is  coition.  Those  also  who 
are  otherwise  affected  with  mania  it  will  restore  to  reason.  It  is  also 
a  powerful  remedy  for  phlegmatic  disorders,  will  restore  the  appe- 
tite to  those  who  want  it,  and  dispel  continued  libidinous  dreams. 
The  habits  which  are  most  adapted  for  venery  are  the  hot  and  hu- 
mid, and  these  bear  it  best.  A  dry  and  cooling  diet,  old  age,  and 
the  season  of  autumn  unfit  for  it.  The  diet,  therefore,  ought  to  be 
humid  and  heating ;  and  moderation  as  to  labour  and  food  ought  to 
be  observed.  And  as  other  kinds  of  labour  are  of  use,  so  also  are  the 
venereal,  when  taken  in  moderation ;  for  they  incite  to  the  act,  and  by 
habit,  induce  facility  of  performing  it.  But  nothing  is  so  much  required 
as  abundance  of  food,  which  also  ought  to  be  of  a  nutritious  nature. 
Of  fishes,  the  best  are  polypi,  (which  are  otherwise  supposed  to  in* 
cite,)  and  all  the  class  called  mollusca ;  of  pot-herbs,  the  all-good 
(horminum),  hedge-mustard  (erysiraumX,  rocket  (irio),  and  turnip. 
And  the  following  are  similar  medicines : — of  pulse,  beans,  chick- 
peas, tares,  gallic  beans  and  pease,  which  fill  the  body  with  vapours 
and  abundance  of  food.  Rue,  as  it  concocts  and  dispels  flatulence^ 
blunts  the  venereal  appetite.  *  But  I  greatly  approve  of  grapes, 
which  supply  the  body  with  moisture,  and  fill  the  blood  with  flatus, 
which  rouses  to  venery.  He  who  is  about  to  proceed  to  the  act 
ought  to  avoid  repletion,  indigestion,  lassitude,  precursory. vomits 
and  purges,  and,  in  like  manner,  a  sudden  diarrhoea ;  for  a  chronic 
one  is  sometimes  cured  by  venery.  And  strong  desires  I  do  not  ap- 
prove of,  but  think  that  they  ought  to  be  contended  against>  especi- 
ally by  those  who  have  any  distemper.  The  most  proper  season  for 
enjoyment  is  after  gymnastic  exercises,  baths,  and  a  moderate  re- 
past ;  for  food  contributes  to  the  strength,  and  diminishes  the  chills 
which  succeed  it.  The  most  proper  time,  as  I  said  before,  is  after 
eating,  and  before  sleep,  for  the  lassitude  is  relieved  by  sleep.  This 
too  is  the  fittest  time  for  procreation  on  many  accounts,  and  because 
that  the  woman  falling  asleep  is  the  more  likely  to  retain  the  semen. 


XXXVI. — On  Impotence. 

In  cases  of  impotence,  it  may  be  proper  to  rub  the  parts  frequently 
with  an  ointment  containing  a  small  part  of  the  root  of  the  narcis- 
sus, or  the  seed  of  the  thymelaea,  or  pellitory,  or  stavesacre,  or  the 
seed  of  the  nettle,  or  of  anise.  Let  him  also  beforehand  take  a  drink 
with  pepper,  or  satyrium,  or  rocket,  or  bastard  saflron,  or  all  together. 
Before  food,  let  him  also  eat  the  small  red  bulbi  roasted,  with  salt 
and  oil,  or  a  little  of  the  squill  dried  in  the  sun.     He  may  also  use 


BOOK    F1A8T«  21. 

the  compound  preparations  elsewhere  described,  and  often  indulge 
in  obscene  reading. 

XXXVII. — On  inordinate  Venery, 

Since  by  too  much  indulgence  the  body  becomes  flabby,  cold, 
dried,  and  weak,  it  must  be  supplied  with  such  things  as  will 
brace,  warm,  humectate,  and  strengthen  it.  To  those  who  in- 
dulge themselves  immoderately,  warm  clothing  is  suitable,  also  rest 
and  sufficient  sleep  until  the  body  remits  from  its  contraction,  and 
they  recover  from  their  atony. 

XXXVIII. — On  redundance  of  Semen. 

SoMB  persons  collect  much  semen  of  a  warm  nature,  and  then 
proceeding  to  coition  and  discharging  it,  render  the  body  weak, 
occasion  resolution  of  the  stomach,  and  so  become  emaciated  and 
dry :  or»  if  they  abstain  from  venery,  they  are  seized  with  heaviness 
of  the  head  and  anxiety ;  after  which,  they  have  libidinous  dreams, 
and  the  same  thing  tsikes  place.  They  must  therefore  avoid  those 
things  which  engender  semen,  and  take  such  kinds  of  food  and 
medicines  as  consume  it.  After  the  bath,  they  ought  to  have  their 
loins  rubbed  with  the  oil  of  roses,  or  that  of  apples,  or  of  unripe 
dives ;  and  it  is  better  to  make  them  thick  by  mixing  a  little  wax 
with  them,  and  the  juice  of  some  cooling  herb,  such  as  the  house- 
leek,  solaniim,  the  umbilicus  veneris,  or  flea-wort.  In  summer, 
these  may  be  used,  but  at  other  seasons,  salt,  and  the  juice  of  the  let- 
tuce and  linseed  boiled  in  water,  for  it  also  furnishes  a  cooling  chyme. 
And  a  plate  of  lead  applied  to  the  loins  will  prevent  libidinous 
dreams^  and  herbs  of  a  cooling  nature,  as  rue  and  the  tender 
tops  of  the  chaste-tree,  if  strewed  under  one  in  bed,  will  have  the 
tome  effect.  For  this  purpose,  also,  the  seed  of  the  chaste-tree  and 
of  rue  may  be  eaten*  Care,  however,  must  be  taken  that  the  loins 
be  not  too  mudi  cooled,  lest  the  kidneys  be  hurt. 


XXXrX. — On  concealed  Persons. 

Those  who  are  much  congealed  ought  to  be  laid  in  a  warm  place, 
and  rubbed  with  the  oil  of  privet  or  of  the  iris.  Afterwards, 
when  moderately  heated,  they  should  get  pepper,  or  myrrh,  with 
sweet  fragrant  old  wine,  or  cyrenaic  juice  in  wine  or  vinegar,  or 
pelhtory  or  castor  with  vinegar,  and  take  food  of  a  warming  nature. 


XL.^—For  Pe7*sons  scorched  by  the  Sun, 

A  PBRSON  who  has  been  scorched  by  the  sun  should  be  laid  in  an 
airy  place,  and  have  his  face,  hands,  and  legs  bathed  with  cold  wa- 


22  PAULUS  ifiGINETA. 

ter.  If  thirsty,  he  may  drink  cold  water,  if  in  the  practice  so  to  do ; 
this,  however,  oaght  to  he  done  considerately,  and  not  much  at  a 
time.  Let  him  also  take  some  food  of  easy  distribution,  rather  of  a 
humid  than  of  a  solid  nature. 


XLI. — On  Collections  of  Phlegm  in  the  Stomach. 

If  you  should  meet  with  a  person  who  loaths  any  wholesome 
food  which  is  offered  him,  who  abstains  from  food,  or,  if  compelled 
to  take  it,  becomes  sick,  who  longs  after  only  such  things  as  are 
acrid,  and  has  no  pleasure  even  in  them,  but  has  his  belly  swelled 
up  with  flatulence  in  consequence,  is  seized  with  nausea,  and  enjoys 
only  a  short  respite  by  eructations,  and  on  whose  stomach  every  thing 
spoils  and  becomes  acid, — ^know  for  certain  that  the  remedies  which 
will  afford  him  relief  are  such  as  will  clear  the  stomach  of  phlegm. 
I  have  known  one  of  those  so  affected,  after  taking  an  emetic,  con- 
sisting of  radishes  out  of  ox3rmel,  bring  up  an  incr^ble  quantity  of 
very  thick  phlegm,  by  which  he  has  been  straightway  restored  to 
heaJth. 


XLII. — How  to  produce  easy  Vomiting. 

SiNCB  to  those  who  vomit  with  difficulty  many  disagreeable  con- 
sequences are  apt  to  happen,  it  will  be  proper  to  explain  by  what 
methods  one  may  be  made  to  vomit  roidily.  For  this  operation 
evacuates  phlegm  and  lightens  the  head,  and  prevents  one  from 
being  injured,  although  one  had  taken  immoderately  of  indigestible 
food  and  wine.  Let  the  substances  which  are  taken  be  neither  sour 
nor  dry,  but  part  of  a  sweetish  and  liquid  nature,  and  part  acrid. 
Among  these  the  radish  is  deserving  of  praise,  and  also  the  rocket, 
and  old  pickle,  green  marjoram,  and  a  small  quantity  of  onion  and 
leek.  Vomiting  is  likewise  promoted  by  ptisans  of  poise,  containing 
some  honey ;  by  porridge  of  bruised  beans,  and  the  lat  of  flesh ;  but 
one  must  not  only  take  the  juice,  but  swallow  whole  lumps  of  it. 
And  one  must  not  spend  much  time  upon  mastication;  but  they  ought 
to  be  soft  from  boiling.  It  is  clear,  also,  that  it  is  the  sweetish 
kinds  of  wine  which  ought  to  be  preferred,  for  such  are  aptest  to 
swim  upon  the  stomach ;  and  tepid  drink  ought  to  be  used.  It  is 
necessary  also  to  eat  almonds  dipped  in  honey,  also  sweet  cakes, 
and  the  moistened  seed  of  the  pompion  and  cucumber  pounded  with 
honey.  The  root  likewise  of  the  cucumber  rubbed  with  honey  has 
some  effect.  Those  who  wish  to  use  more  powerful  medicines,  mix 
some  wine  with  a  decoction  of  the  bulb  of  the  narcissus.  Vomiting 
is  also  produced  by  the  ointment  of  iris,  if  one  will  smear  one's 
fingers  in  it  and  tickle  one's  throat.  It  is  also  to  be  attended  to  in 
vomiting  not  to  intermit  after  vomiting  is  once  begun,  and  to  bathe 
the  face,  and  wash  the  mouth  with  sour  wine  or  water,  for  this  is 
beneficial  to  the  teeth,  and  relieves  the  head. 


BOOK  riasT. 


XLIII. — On  Laxaikfei  and  Diuretics  to  those  in  Health. 

SoMB  of  the  ancients  thought  it  sufficient  for  health  that  the 
bowels  and  urine  should  be  evacuated  once  a-day  freely  and  fully, 
according  to  the  quantity  of  food  and  drink  which  had  been  taken ; 
and,  -when  the  eracuations  were  agreeable  to  this  rule,  they  were 
satisfied,  or,  if  otherwise,  they  endeavoured  to  correct  them  by 
taking,  in  order  to  increase  the  urinary  discharge,  shepherd's  needle, 
parsley,  asparagus,  Macedonian  parsley,  anise,  calamint,  marjoram, 
wormwood,  the  roots  of  grass  and  of  golden  thistle,  tree-medic, 
maiden-hair ;  all  these  being  boiled  in  water,  so  that  the  decoction 
might  be  drunk  with  wine.  For  these  things  purify  the  blood  by  the 
mine,  and  are  of  no  small  consequence.  Alvine  discharges  they  pro- 
moted by  giving  turpentine  to  the  quantity  of  an  olive,  when  going  to 
rest,  or,  when  they  wished  to  purge  more  effectually,  by  adding  a  lit- 
tie  rhubarb.  Soft  eggs,  of  pot-herbs  the  beet  and  mallows,  and  the 
wrap  of  shell-fish,  are  also  laxative,  and  these  probably  will  be  suf- 
ficient-; but,  if  more  powerful  remedies  be  required,  the  herb  mer- 
cury boiled  in  water  with  salt  may  be  eaten,  or  the  decoction  drunk ; 
and,  in  like  manner,  the  leaves  of  the  elder  tree  (sambuchus),  or 
the  root  of  the  oak-fern  (polypodium),  to  the  amount  of  two  drams, 
may  be  sprinkled  upon  pickle,  or  swallowed  in  a  ptisan ;  or  milk- 
whey,  with  salt ;  or  honey,  to  the  amount  of  three  or  four  hsemi* 
nte ;  or  the  btoth  ol  an  old  cock,  by  itself  or  with  two  drams  of 
bastard  saffiK>B,  or  aloes,  to  the  amount  of  about  three  chick- 
peas, may  be  tkktn  att  supper-time.  But  the  best  remedy  is  dod- 
def  of  thyme,-  taken  in  wine  after  a  moderate  supper;  but  he 
that  wislM  to  puTj^  more  strongly  must  take,  in  the  morning,  a 
dram  of  this  me^Mne  infused  in  vinegar  and  honey,  in  the  spring 
season. 

XLIV.— On  Clysters. 

In  constipation  of  the  bowels,  when  the  stomach  is  so  weak  as  not 
to  bear  purgatives,  we  must  have  recourse  to  clysters.  When  phlegm 
is  contained  in  the  intestines,  the  clyster  may  be  composed  of  the 
decoctions  of  dried  figs,  and  of  beet,  nitre,  the  root  of  the  wild 
cucumber,  honey,  and  the  oil  of  chamomile  or  dill.  But  when  the 
complaint  proceeds  from  dryness,  they  may  be  composed  of  those  of 
marsh-mallows,  fenugreek,  chamomile,  oil,  and  a  small  quantity  of 
honey.  And  sometimes  oil  alone,  injected  to  the  amount  of  half  a 
hsemina,  will  produce  the  desired  effect ;  but  even  this  must  not  be 
repeated  constantly,  lest  nature,  by  becoming  accustomed  to  these 
things,  should  forget  to  perform  the  evacuation  spontaneously. 

XLV. — On  Suppositories. 

Wb  often  use  suppositories  for  the  discharge  of  scybalse,  or  when 
injections  are  not  properly  evacuated.     Suppositories  are  formed  of 


24  PAULU8   iEGXNETA. 

roasted  salt,  honey,  and  nitre ;  or  thyme  may  be  mixed  with  boiled 
honey.  They  are  also  formed  of  turpentine  rosin,  and  nitre,  and 
sometimes  with  a  moderate  quantity  of  the  seeds  of  the  thymelsea 
(granum  cnidium).  But  it  irritates  the  parts,  which,  therefore, 
ought  to  be  rubbed  with  oil.  Pellitory  and  pepper  are  also  added, 
and  are  particularly  fitted  for  paralytics,  and  for  the  relief  of  flatu- 
lence from  cold.  Centaury  also  is  mixed  with  pitch  and  cerate, 
and  is  very  applicable  for  paralysis  of  the  genital  organs*  For  in- 
fants, a  bit  of  thick  salt  is  applied.  Figs  also  are  mixed  up  with 
nitre. 

XLVI. — On  Medicines  which  evacuate  Phlegm  from  the  Heady 
Maaticatories,  Errhines  and  lAniments  to  the  Nose. 

Wb  evacuate  humows  in  the  head  with  the  saliva,  by  mixing  a  lit- 
tle pepper  with  mastich,  if  a  small  discharge  only  be  required ;  or,  if  a 
greater  evacuation  be  wanted,  by  directing  to  chew  pellitory  or  staves- 
fskre.  The  root  of  every  species  of  anemone,  when  chewed,  also  excites 
the  secretion  of  saliva,  and  the  bark  of  the  root  of  cappers.  Serous 
superfluities  may  be  thus  evacuated ;  but,  for  thicker  phlegm,  we 
must  gargle  with  mustard  in  vinegar  and  honey,  or  with  sodden 
wine,  having  maijoram  and  hyssop  boiled  in  it.  I  also  mix  this 
with  the  gargle  formed  of  mustard  in  vinegar  and  honey.  When 
we  want  to  clear  the  brain  of  mucus,  we  must  stimulate  it  by  means 
of  acrid  substances,  of  which  kind  some  are  sternutatories,  llie  juice 
of  either  pimpernel,  of  the  anemones,  and  of  beet,  purge  by  the  nose. 
The  juice  also  of  the  leaves  of  the  wild  cucumber  may  be  applied  to  the 
nostrils,  either  alone  or  with  the  decoction  or  juice  of  the  beet.  But 
sneezing  is  not  at  all  applicable  for  crude  humours  contained  in  the 
chest,  lungs,  and  head.  The  following  ointment  may  be  rubbed 
into  the  mouth  :  Anoint  the  roof  of  the  mouth  and  uvula  with  a 
soap  containing  the  juice  of  the  beet.  The  same  application  may 
be  used  as  an  errhine.  I  have  also  often  used  the  following  com- 
position, which  is  easily  prepared  :  Macerate  gith  in  strong  vinegar 
for  a  day,  then  next  day  rub  it  with  the  vinegar,  and  pour  it  into 
the  nose.  Sometimes  the  gith  may  be  rubbed  with  old  oil ;  and  I 
apply  it  in  this  manner.  Archigenes  used  it  in  the  same  manner 
for  obstruction  of  tiie  nostrils.  Crito  used  the  former  cure,  along 
with  vinegar,  for  jaundice. 


XLVII. — On  Emmenagogu^s. 

All  diuretics  promote  also  the  flow  of  the  menses,  such  as  the 
decoction  of  the  root  of  the  cabbage,  the  root  of  the  peach,  rue, 
marygold,  dittany,  and  the  seed  of  rocket.  The  same  effect  may  be 
produced  by  certain  substances  when  applied  to  the  mouth  of  the 
womb,  such  as  rue  rubbed  with  honey,  or  the  juice  of  leeks,  or 
finely-powdered  germander  (trisago),  or  myrrh,  pounded  in  wine, 
or  the  rennet  of  a  hare. 


BOOK    FIB8T.  25 


XLVIII.— On  Sudorijics. 

The  following  medicines  are  sudorifics:  The  dried  powder  of 
chamomile,  mixed  with  oil  and  rubbed  upon  the  skin,  seseli,  pel- 
litory,  the  seed  of  the  rosemary ;  anise,  idso,  when  sprinkled  upon 
oil ;  nitre  toasted,  and  not  very  fine,  with  oil ;  the  flower  of  salt 
mixed  with  oil ;  cyrenaic  juice  dilated  with  water,  which  may  be 
nibbed  into  the  body,  and  taken  in  a  draught,  to  the  amount  of  a 
chick-pea.  Calamint,  in  like  manner,  may  be  drank  with  honied 
water,  and  rubbed  externally  with  oil. 


XLIX.— On  Airs. 

Thb  best  kind  of  air  is  that  which  is  perfectly  pure,  such  as  that 
which  is  not  defiled  with  the  exhalation  from  lakes  or  marshes,  nor 
from  any  pit  which  emits  pestilential  vapours.  That  also  which  is 
impregiuited  with  the  exhalations  from  a  canal  conveying  the  impa- 
rities of  a  city  is  deleterious,  and  indeed  every  kind  whidi  is  loaded 
with  vapours  is  not  good ;  as  also  that  which  is  contained  within 
any  hollow  place  shut  up  on  all  sides  by  high  mountains,  and  not 
admitting  of  ventilation.  Those,  therefore,  which  are  thus  deleteri- 
ous, prove  hurtful  to  all  ages  and  temperaments,  whereas  the  best 
kinds  agree  with  all ;  but  their  difierences  as  to  quality,  I  mean  heat, 
cold,  dryness,  and  moisture,  have  not  the  same  cdSect  upon  all. 
Those  of  a  proper  temperament  are  benefited  by  temperate  air, 
whereas  those  lid>ouring  under  an  intemperament  derive  benefit  from 
the  opposite  one. 


L. — On  Waters. 

It  is  necessary  also  to  be  skilled  in  the  good  and  bad  proper- 
ties of  waters,  for  of  all  things  water  is  of  most  use  in  every 
mode  of  regimen.  It  is  necessary  to  know  that  the  best  water 
is  devoid  of  quality  as  regards  taste  and  smell,  is  most  pleasant  to 
drink,  and  pure  to  the  sight ;  and  when  it  passes  through  the  prse- 
cordia  quickly,  one  cannot  find  a  better  drink.  But  such  as  remains 
long  there,  and  proves  pungent  to  the  stomach,  which  it  swells  up 
with  wind,  and  oppresses,  is  to  be  reckoned  pernicious.  Such  wa- 
ters are  neither  soon  heated  nor  cooled,  and  tiiose  things  which  are 
boiled  in  them  are  slowly  and  improperly  boiled.  It  is  better  there- 
fore to  prove  such  water  by  trial,  which  he  who  wishes  may  do  by 
attending  to  the  following  characters : — ^Those  which  run  to  thp 
north  and  from  the  sun  pass  slowly  through  the  stomach,  and  are 
indigestible  ;  they  are  slowly  heated  and  cooled.  Those  which  arc 
strained  through  any  passage  or  soil  to  the  east  are  soon  cooled 
and  soon  heated,  and  are  to  be  supposed  to  be  very  good.  Those 
also  are  good  which  are  colder  in  summer  and  warmer  in  winter. 


26  PAULUS   ifiOINSTA. 

Some  judge  of  waters  by  weight,  counting  that  the  best  which 
is  lightest.  This,  if  joined  to  the  circumstances  already  mention- 
ed, may  be  deserving  of  consideration,  but  is  not  of  itself  a  suffi- 
cient criterion  of  goodness.  Rain  water,  as  Hippocrates  remarks, 
is  the  lightest,  the  sweetest,  the  most  limpid,  and  the  thin- 
nest, because  that  which  is  lightest  and  thinnest  is  attracted  by  the 
snn,  who  draws  snch  particles  to  him,  not  only  from  all  other  wa- 
ters, but  also  from  the  sea,  and  from  bodies.  Hence  also  it  is  the 
most  prone  to  putrefaction,  as  being  composed  of  many  different 
qualities.  Let  no  one  suppose  that  the  water  which  is  most  prone 
to  putrefaction  is  the  worst,  for  susceptibility  of  change  is  rather  a 
good  than  a  bad  property ;  so  that  if  it  has  the  other  characteristics 
of  good  water,  and  is  prone  to  putrefaction,  it  is  to  be  reckoned  the 
best  possible.  When  beginning  to  turn  it  proves  the  cause  of 
hoarseness,  coughs,  and  difficulty  of  speech,  to  those  who  drink  it. 
Of  rain  waters,  that  which  falls  in  summer,  and  during  thunder,  is 
preferable  to  that  which  fedls  in  stormy  weather.  That  from  ice  and 
snow  is  the  worst,  for  during  coagulation  the  finest  particles  of  the 
water  are  squeezed  out.  But  waters  which  contain  impurities,  have 
a  fetid  smell,  or  any  bad  quality,  may  be  so  improved  by  boiling  as 
to  be  fit  to  be  drunk ;  or,  by  mixing  them  with  wine,  adding  the 
astringent  to  that  which  is  sweeter,  and  the  other  to  the  astringent. 
Some  kinds  of  water  it  may  be  expedient  to  strain,  such  as  the 
marshy,  saltish,  and  bituminous.  Those  which  are  very  cold  are  to 
be  drunk  after  food,  and  not  in  great  quantity.  Some  also  have 
discovered  certain  articles  of  food  and  drink  for  correcting  the  bad 
properties  of  waters.  Hius,  some  beforehand  drink  of  the  decoction 
of  chick-peas,  or  eat  them ;  others,  wild  carrots  boiled  with  some 
small  fish,  and  fennel  in  like  manner ;  whilst  others  again  eat  beet 
and  gourds  beforehand  with  salt  and  diluted  wine. 


LI.— On  Baths. 

s 

I  THINK  well  of  the  cold  bath,  and  yet  I  do  not  say  that  it  is 
proper  for  those  who  use  no  restriction  as  to  diet,  but  only  to  those 
who  live  correctly,  and  take  the  necessary  exercise  and  food.  It 
tnay  answer  with  most  people  very  well,  when  they  want  to  get 
much  cooled,  to  swim  in  water  during  the  season  of  summer, 
provided  they  are  young  and  brawny,  and  have  been  previously 
heated  by  friction.  They  ought  to  attend,  however,  that  they  be 
not  in  a  state  of  lassitude  from  venery  or  any  other  cause,  nor  suf- 
fering from  indigestion,  nor  after  vomiting,  nor  after  evacuation  of 
the  bowels,  nor  when  in  want  of  sleep.  It  may  be  attended  with 
danger,  if  used  at  random.  But  the  warm  bath  is  the  safest  and 
best,  relieving  lassitude,  dispelling  plethora,  warming,  soothing, 
softening,  removing  flatulence  wherever  it  fixes,  producing  sleep, 
and  inducing  fulness  of  the  body.  It  is  expedient  for  all,  man  and 
woman,  young  and  old,  rich  and  poor. 


BOOK    PIB8T.  27 


LIL— On  the  Natural  Baths. 

Of  natural  baths,  some  are  nitrous,  some  saline,  some  alaminoos, 
some  sulphureous,  some  bituminous,  some  copperish,  some  chaly- 
beate, and  some  compounded  of  these.  Of  natural  waters  in  gene- 
ral, the  power  is,  upon  the  whole,  desiccant  and  calefacient ;  and 
they  are  peculiarly  fitted  for  those  of  a  humid  and  cold  habit.  The 
nitrous  and  saltish  are  beneficial  to  the  head,  to  defluxions  of  the 
chest,  to  a  watery  stomach,  to  dropsies,  to  swelling  after  diseases^ 
and  to  collections  of  phlegm.  The  aluminous  are  fitted  for  spitting 
of  blood,  vomiting  from  the  stomach,  immoderate  menstrual  dis- 
charges of  women,  and  repeated  miscarriages.  The  sulphureous  are 
sootMng  and  warming  to  the  nenres,  and  relieve  lassitude,  but  weaken 
and  upset  the  stomach.  The  bituminous  occasion  fulness  of  the 
head,  and  hurt  the  senses^  bat  occasion  a  steady  degree  of  heat  and 
soothe  when  persevered  in«  The  oopperish  ai«  peculiarly  adapted 
for  the  mouth,  tonsils,  uvula,  and  eyes.  The  chalybeate  are  useful 
to  the  stomach  and  spleen.  The  deeeent  into  the  watar  ought  to  be 
without  precipitation,  in  order  that  its  impression  may  sink  deep 
into  the  body  when  relaxed. 


lAlI.'-^On  the  regimen  fitting  to  the  di^ereni  Seaeone. 

It  will  be  proper  to  regulate  the  diet  with  a  view  to  the  season. 
In  winter,  take  more  fatigue,  and  eat  more  than  usual,  if  the  state 
of  the  weather  be  northerly ;  but  if  it  be  southerly,  take  the  same 
fatigue,  but  use  less  food  sjui  drink.  In  fine,  make  the  body  dry  in 
the  wet  season,  and  warm  in  the  cold.  Eat  also  warm  fleshes  and 
acrid  pot-herbs,  and  drink  more  wine  than  usual.  In  the  beginning 
of  spring,  either  evacuate  by  emetics,  or  by  laxatives,  or  get  a  vein 
opened,  according  as  habit  or  inclination  directs'.  Rest  is  suitable 
to  the  season  of  summer,  and  also  a  diminution  of  labour  and  food ; 
the  food  also  ought  to  be  more  cooling,  and  the  drink  abundant  \ 
and,  in  short,  every  thing  ought  to  be  done  which  can  contribute  to 
cooling  and  dilution.  In  autumn,  as  it  is  a  changeable,  unsettled, 
and  unhealthy  season,  the  diet  ought  to  be  particiidarly  attended  to, 
that  it  be  not  too  refrigerant ;  moderation  as  to  venery  and  cdid 
drink  ought  to  be  observed ;  and  the  cold  breezes  of  morning,  and 
the  heat  of  noon  attentively  guarded  against.  Too  much  fruit  ought 
likewise  not  to  be  taken,  being  hurtful  not  only  by  the  quantity,  but 
also  by  the  quality  of  the  chyle  which  it  supplies,  and  by  engen- 
dering flatulence.  Nay,  even  tibe  best  kinds  of  fruit,  figs  and  grapes, 
occasion  wind,  unless  taken  before  any  other  food,  iot  otherwise 
they  spoil  the  other  food ;  but  if  taken  then,  they  neither  occasioii 
wind,  nor  spoil  the  other  articles  of  food.  When  the  air  is  cold, 
the  body  must  be  warmed  accordingly,  and  every  thing  done  as  in 
the  commencement  of  winter.  It  may  also  be  expedient,  after  the 
autumnal  solstice,  to  have  recourse  to  one  of  the  afore- mentioned 


28  PAULUS    iEGINETA. 

evacuations,  lest  any  excrement! tious  particles  being  shut  up  in  the 
system,  should  prove  hurtful  during  the  winter. 

LIV. — Of  the  regimen  of  Persons  in  Business. 

Hb  who  spends  his  time  in  business  ought  to  consider,  whether, 
in  tiie  former  period  of  life,  he  had  been  in  the  habit  of  taking  exercise, 
or  whether,  while  yet  taking  exercise,  he  bears  that  habit  well,  and 
escapes  from  diseases  by  having  free  perspiration.  Such  a  state  of 
body  is  not  to  be  suddenly  changed  to  another  habit,  neither  the 
mode  of  those  who  have  long  been  in  ill  health.  But  if  his  com- 
plaints be  protracted,  and  proceed  from  plethora,  the  indication  of  cure 
ought  to  be  by  a  healthful  regimen,  to  supply  moderate  nourish- 
ment ;  or,  if  cacochymy  was  the  cause,  the  indication  will  be  to  sup- 
ply proper  juices.  Those  who  suffer  from  fulness  are  to  be  directed 
when  they  go  into  the  bath  to  use  friction,  and  to  take  some  exer- 
dse,  or,  if  accustomed  to  do  so,  to  increase  it  a  little,  but  to  detract 
from  their  food,  and  use  less  nutritious  kinds  than  formerly ;  but  if 
from  collections  of  bad  humours,  one  indication  of  cure  is  not  suf- 
ficient, because  there  is  more  than  one  kind  of  bad  humours ;  for, 
some  have  a  collection  of  cold  and  pituitous,  some  of  hot  and  bilious, 
and  others  of  the  melancholic.  Every  one,  therefore,  ought  to 
avoid  those  articles  of  food  and  drink  which  are  apt  to  engender 
that  sort  of  humour  which  is  collected.  And  in  all  these  cases  the 
common  remedy  is  purging  of  the  belly. 


LV. — On  the  regimen  of  Travellers. 

In  performing  a  journey,  one  will  bear  the  fatigue  best  if  anointed 
with  oil,  and  by  not  making  too  great  stretches,  and  having  the  body, 
about  the  loins  and  to  the  hollow  of  the  ribs,  bound  round,  in  sum« 
mer,  with  a  swath  of  a  soft  consistence,  six  or  seven  fingers  broad, 
and  in  length  not  less  than  five  cubits.  A  staff  also  will  be  useful 
for  the  journey ;  for  in  going  down  a  declivity,  by  putting  it  before 
\X  will  support  the  body  l&e  a  pole,  and  by  leaning  upon  it  in 
fUBcending  it  will  assist  in  raising  the  body.  When  a  traveller 
stops,  he  should  get  his  body  anointed,  take  some  food  adapted  for 
the  summer,  and  a  moderate  quantity  of  drink.  After  dinner,  he 
ought  to  rest  a  while  before  proceeding.  But  if  compelled  to  go 
on,  and  oppressed  with  thirst,  he  may  drink  water  having  some 
polenta  sprinkled  upon  it,  with  a  moderate  quantity  of  salt.  He 
should  be  careful  of  heat  and  of  the  sun,  and  have  his  body  covered, 
80  as  not  to  be  exposed  to  the  sui^  lest  during  the  journey  his  limbs 
become  dry  and  stiff.  With  these  precautions,  he  will  be  less  liable 
to  lassitude  and  its  accompanying  evils.  In  winter,  as  it  is  cold,  be- 
fore setting  out  he  ought  to  evacuate,  get  his  body  rubbed  with  oil, 
take  plenty  of  the  winter  articles  of  food,  and  a  little  drink.  He 
should  also  get  not  only  his  loins,  but  likewise  his  spine  and  cUest 


BOOK    FIRST.  29 

properly  bound  round  with  a  broader  swath.  When  he  re^ts,  if  th6 
cold  be  great,  it  will  be  better  that  he  neither  anoint,  nor  take  food 
or  drink,  nor  any  other  refreshment,  if  he  means  to  remain  there. 
But  after  long  journeys,  or  excessive  fatigue  of  any  kind,  even 
if  a  person  do  not  complain  of  lassitude,  it  will  be  proper  to  treat 
him  like  those  who  do,  for  thereby  there  will  be  less  danger  of  any 
bad  consequences. 


LVI. — Of  the  regimen  of  Persons  at  Sea. 

With  regard  to  the  vomitings  which  occur  to  people  at  sea,  it  is 
neither  easy  nor  expedient  to  contend  with  those  which  happen  first ; 
for,  upon  the  whole,  they  are  generally  beneficial.  After  vomiting, 
one  ought  not  to  use  much,  nor  ordinary  food,  but  either  lentils,  dried 
and  boiled  with  a  small  quantity  of  penny-royal,  or  bread  pounded  in 
a  weak  and  fragrant  wine.  One  ought  also  to  use  but  little  drinkt 
and  that  containing  a  weak  watery  wine,  or  vinegar  with  honey. 
The  lentils  ought  to  be  first  boiled,  and  then  when  they  become  soft, 
to  be  triturated,  and  afterwards  dried  and  put  into  an  earthen  vessel. 
When  severe  vomiting  lasts  for  a  long  time,  one  should  resolutely 
abstain  from  all  kinds  of  food,  and  take  only  a  little  drink,  which 
ought  to  be  vinegar  and  honey  with  water,  containing  thyme  in- 
fused in  it,  or  penny-royal  water  with  some  fine  polenta,  or  some 
fragrant  weak  wine  with  fine  polenta  also.  In  order  to  overcome 
the  disagreeable  stench  on  board  ships,  one  may  smell  to  quinces» 
thyme,  or  penny-royal.  One  ought  also  to  look  as  seldom  as  pos- 
sible upon  the  sea,  until  one  has  been  accustomed  lo  live  in  a  ship. 
One  must  likewise  attend,  that  the  water  which  is  drunk  be  not 
muddy,  ill-smelled,  or  saltish. 


ItVII. — For  dimifdshinff  Obesity. 

When  the  body  gets  to  an  immoderate  degree  of  obesity,  it  will 
be  necessary  to  melt  it  down  and  reduce  it.  It  was  mentioned 
formerly,  that  the  warm  temperament  renders  the  body  lean,  and 
therefore  it  ought  to  be  superinduced,  if  possible,  upon  that  of  fat 
people,  in  order  to  reduce  them  to  the  proper  state.  You  have 
also  learned  that  active  exercise,  an  attenuant  regimen,  medicines  of 
the  same  class,  and  mental  anxiety,  bring  on  the  dry  tempera- 
ment, and  thereby  render  the  body  lean.  What  an  attenuant  diet 
consists  of  is  perfectly  obvious ;  but  the  more  powerful  medicines, 
such  as  the  seed  of  rue,  particularly  the  wild,  with  its  tops,  the 
round  birth  wort  (aristolochia  rotunda),  the  small  centaury,  gentian, 
poley,  and  the  stronger  diuretic  medicines,  as  Macedonian  parsley ; 
all  such  medicines,  either  alone,  or  together,  evacuate  the  humours, 
and  reduce  the  body.  The  salts  also  from  burned  vipers  and  the 
theriac  attenuate  the  body.  The  body  may  also  be  reduced  and 
attenuated,  by  having  an  oil  rubbed  into  it,  containing  the  root  of 


30  PAULUS   ^OINETA. 

the  wild  cucttmber,  marshmallowB,  gentian,  and  the  root  of  the  all- 
heal and  birthwort,  or  the  poley  and  centaury.  One  ought  not  to  take 
food  immediately  after  the  bath,  but  should  first  sleep  for  a  little 
time.  And  it  ¥dll  be  of  consequence,  if  the  water  of  the  bath  pos- 
sess diaphoretic  properties,  and»  more  particularly,  if  we  can  have 
recourse  to  a  natural  one,  such  as  that  in  Mitylene.  If  it  cannot 
be  procured,  the  flower  of  salt  may  be  mixed  with  sea- water.  Thin 
white  wines  ought  to  be  used.  Dry  rubbing  with  thick  towels  is 
calculated  to  reduce  the  iiit.  A  small  quantity  of  food  ought  to  be 
given  in  proportion  to  the  exercise  taken.  Insolation  also  is  of  use 
for  obesity.  Fat  persons  ought  not  to  take  a  fragrant  draught  before 
a  meal ;  and  it  will  be  best  if  they  eat  only  once  in  the  day.  The  body 
ought  to  be  rubbed  with  nitre  (soda),  and  the  rougher  salts.  A  large 
quantity  of  nitre  in  the  bath  is  attenuant,  but  a  small  quantity  only 
atimulates  to  nourishment.  The  following  mixture  is  attenuant : — 
Of  pepper  and  Macedonian  parsley,  two  parts,  of  asarabacca  and 
anise,  one-half.    This  acts  well,  both  as  a  diuretic  and  a  cathartic. 

LVIII. — How  to  recruit  those  who  are  Emaciated. 

Whbn  we  wish  to  recruit  those  who  are  reduced  in  flesh,  we 
must  give  them  thick  wine  and  food  containing  thick  juices,  and 
prescribe  slow  exercise  and  moderate  friction, — in  a  word,  every 
thing  contrary  to  the  method  we  have  been  just  describing.  It 
may  also  be  of  use  to  be  pitched  for  three  or  four  days.  If  one 
go  into  the  bath  with  an  empty  stomach,  he  ought  beforehand  to 
get  his  body  rubbed  with  linen  cloths  until  it  become  ruddy,  and 
afterwards,  by  hard  but  not  frequent  friction,  the  skin  may  be  ren^ 
dered  thick  and  hard.  Those  who  are  pale,  and  not  properly  nourish- 
ed»  ought  to  be  roused  to  anger  and  mental  emotions. 

LIX. — How  to  remedy  emaciated  parts  of  the  Body. 

Whbn  emaciation  takes  place  in  any  part  of  the  body,  it  is  com- 
monly occasioned  by  long-protracted  rest,  or  by  bandaging  for 
fractures.  We  must,  therefore,  stimulate  their  vital  powers,  and 
attract  the  blood  to  them,  by  using  moderate  friction,  suitable  exer- 
cise»  and  pouring  warm  water  upon  them  in  moderate  quantity. 
This  must  be  done  until  the  part  becomes  red  and  swells,  and  we 
must  desist  before  it  subside.  We  must  also  use  pitching,  as  for- 
merly described.  When  there  is  a  sense  of  cold  in  the  part,  it  ought 
to  be  rubbed  with  linen  cloths,  or  some  calefacient  medicine.  For 
this  purpose,  I  have  sometimes  used  the  thapsia,  rubbing  it  in  either 
with  honey  or  cerate. 

I4X. — Description  of  the  best  Temperament. 

That  man  is  in  the  best  temperament  of  body  when  it  is  in  a 
medium  between  all  extremes,  of  leanness  and  obesity,  of  softness 


BOOK    FIRST.  31 

and  hardness,  of  heat  and  cold,  of  'moisture  and  dryness ;  and,  in  a 
word,  who  has  all  the  natural  and  vital  energies  in  a  faultless  state. 
His  hair,  also,  should  be  neither  thick  nor  thin,  neither  black  nor 
white.  When  a  boy,  his  lodiis  should  be  rather  tawny  than  b1ack» 
but,  when  an  adult,  the  contrarywise. 


LXI. — Description  of  the  Intemperaments. 

Thosb  bodies  which  are  of  a  hotter  temperament  than  the  moder- 
ate ¥nll  have  their  teeth  earlier  than  usual,  and  will  grow  in  like 
manner.  They  feel  warmer  to  the  touch,  and  have  less  fat ;  they 
are  of  a  ruddy  colour,  have  their  hair  black  and  moderately  thick, 
and  their  vems  are  large.  But  if  such  a  one  be  also  fat  and 
brawny,  and  have  large  veins,  he  is  fat  from  habit  and  not  from 
nature.  The  following  are  the  symptoms  of  a  cold  temperament : 
Such  bodies  appear  cold  to  the  touch,  are  without  hair,  and  are  fat ; 
their  complexion,  like  their  hair,  being  tawny.  But  when  the  coldness 
is  great,  they  are  pale,  leaden-coloured,  and  have  small  veins ;  and 
if  lean,  this  does  not  proceed  from  nature,  but  habit.  The  dry  is 
harder  and  more  slender  than  the  temperate — the  hardness,  indeed, 
being  inseparable  from  the  dry  temperament ;  but  leanness  not  only 
follows  the  connate  temperaments,  but  also  those  which  are  ac- 
quired by  long  habit.  It  is  a  symptom  of  hardness  when  the  body 
is  rendered  unapt  for  motion,  dry  and  parched,  by  drpng  applica- 
tions. The  humid,  in  all  other  respects,  is  like  the  temperate, 
but  is  softer  and  fatter,  and  the  softness  is  inseparable  from  it; 
but  the  grossness  not  only  follows  the  connate  temperament,  but 
also  that  acquired  by  long  habit.  It  is  peculiar  to  the  humid  tem- 
perament that  the  body  is  oppressed  by  things  of  a  moist  nature. 
The  warm  and  dry  temperament  is  extremely  shaggy,  having  the 
hair  of  the  head  in  early  age  of  rapid  growth,  black,  and  thick ;  but, 
in  after-life,  baldness  follows.  The  veins  are  large,  as  are  likewise 
the  arteries,  which  beat  strongly.  The  whole  body  is  firm,  well  ar- 
ticulated, muscular,  and  without  obesity ;  and  the  skin  is  hard  and 
dark.  When  the  temperament  is  cold  and  humid,  the  chest  is  nar- 
row, and  like  the  rest  of  the  body  without  hairs ;  the  skin  is  soft 
and  white,  and  its  hairs  somewhat  tawny,  especially  in  youth ;  and 
such  persons  do  not  get  bald  when  they  grow  old ;  they  are  timid, 
spiritless,  and  inactive ;  their  veins  are  invisible ;  they  are  gross  and 
fat ;  their  muscles  and  legs  are  feeble,  and  their  joints  ill-formed ; 
and  they  are  bandy-legged.  But  should  the  humidity  and  cold- 
ness increase,  the  colour  of  their  skin  and  hair  becomes  tawny, 
or,  if  tiiey  increase  still  more,  pale.  The  hot  and  humid  tempera- 
ment is  softer  and  more  fleshy  than  the  proper,  and,  when  it  in- 
creases much,  is  subject  to  putrid  disorders;  but,  if  it  be  only  a  little 
more  humid  and  much  hotter  than  the  moderate,  the  bodies  of 
such  persons  are  only  a  little  more  soft  and  fleshy  than  the  mode- 
nite,  but  they  are  much  more  hairy  and  hotter  to  the  touch.  But 
if  the  cold  and  the  dry  grow  equally  together,  such  persons  have 


32  PAULUS    iEGINETA. 

naturally  their  bodies  hard,  slender,  and  white,  with  fine  mnscles, 
small  joints,  and  little  hair ;  and  they  are  cold  to  the  touch.  Al- 
though slender,  fat  is  mixed  with  their  flesh.  The  colour  of  their 
hair  is  correspondent  to  the  degree  of  constitutional  coldness.  As 
to  disposition  of  mind,  they  are  spiritless,  timid,  and  desponding. 
To  say  all  in  a  word,  with  regard  to  the  compound  temperaments, 
they  are  always  to  be  distinguished  by  the  marks  of  the  prevailing 
quality. 


LXII. — On  the  Form  of  the  Head. 

A  SMALL  head  indicates  a  faulty  configuration  of  the  brain,  bat 
a  large  is  not  necessarily  a  good  one ;  for  if  occasioned  by  the 
strength  of  the  vital  powers  of  the  part  fabricating  an  abundant  and 
proper  matter,  it  is  a  good  sign ;  but  if  occasioned  by  the  quan- 
tity of  matter  alone,  it  is  not  good.  We  must  judge  of  heads  then 
from  their  shape,  and  from  the  processes  which  arise  from  them — 
from  their  shape,  if  well  formed,  for  that  is  always  a  good  sign — 
and  from  the  processes  of  the  brain,  if  they  be  in  their  proper  state, 
and  if  the  tendinous  parts  be  all  properly  nourished,  have  their  suita- 
ble tonefand  if  the  sight  be  acute.  Sharp  heads  are  defective  in  the 
protuberance  of  the  front  or  hind-head,  or  else  it  is  unnaturally  in* 
creased.  Now,  in  most  cases  we  shall  find  that  these  last,  like  the 
large,  are  faulty,  and  yet  some  of  them,  though  rarely,  are  good, 
being  occasioned  by  the  strength  of  the  formative  principle. 


LXIII. — How  to  know  ike  Temperament  of  the  Brain. 

A  BRAIN  of  the  proper  temperament  has  its  vital  energies  and  ex- 
cretions moderate,  and  is  not  liable  to  be  affected  by  any  externals. 
Such  persons,  when  infants,  have  the  hair  of  their  head  somewhat 
tawny — when  boys,  yellowish — and  when  adults,  a  bright  yellow ; 
being  also  intermediate  between  the  curly  and  the  straight,  and 
they  do  not  readily  fall  out.  When  the  temperament  is  hotter 
than  moderate,  all  the  parts  about  the  head  are  hotter  and  redder, 
the  veins  in  their  eyes  are  distinguishable,  their  hair  is  grown  at 
birth ;  and  if  much  hotter,  it  is  black,  strong,  and  curly ;  but  if 
not  much,  it  is  yellowish  at  first,  and  then  grows  black,  and  in 
more  advanced  life  such  persons  become  bald ;  their  excretions  are 
small  when  they  enjoy  good  health ;  their  head  becomes  filled  and 
oppressed  by  heating  food,  drink,  and  odours,  or  by  any  external 
applications  of  the  same  nature.  Sach  temperaments  are  satisfied 
with  little  sleep,  and  even  that  is  generally  not  profound.  The  fol- 
lowing are  the  marks  of  a  brain  which  is  colder  than  proper  : — ^The 
excretions  are  in  large  quantity;  the  hairs  are  straight,  yellow, 
and  durable ;  and  it  is  hurt  readily  by  cold  things.  Such  persons 
are  constantly  seized  with  catarrhs  and  defluxions,  the  veins  of  their 
eyes  are  not  visible,  and  they  are  given  to  drowsiness.    The  follow- 


BOOK  FIRST.  33 

iDg  are  the  marks  of  a  brain  which  is  drier  than  natural : — The  ex- 
cretions small,  and  the  senses  acute,  not  given  to  drowsiness,  the  hair 
strong  and  soon  formed,  rather  curly,  and  soon  falling  out.  In  the 
more  humid  temperament,  the  hairs  are  straight,  do  not  readily  fall 
out ;  the  senses  are  blunt,  and  the  excretions  redundant,  sleep  long 
and  profound.  In  the  compound  of  the  hot  and  dry,  the  excretions 
of  the  head  are  small,  the  senses  acute,  there  is  a  disposition  to 
watchfulness,  and  baldness.  Their  hair  at  first  is  formed  quickly 
and  abundantly,  is  of  a  black  colour,  hot  to  the  touch,  and  red  until 
manhood.  But  if  moisture  be  joined  to  )^eat,  and  they  are  not  im- 
moderate, the  colour  and  heat  are  good,  and  the  veins  of  the  eyes 
large.  The  excretions  are  plenteous  and  well  concocted.  The  hair 
is  straight  and  yellowish,  and  does  not  readily  fall  out.  The  head 
is  easily  filled  and  oppressed  by  hot  and  humid  things.  But  should 
an  increase  of  humidity  and  heat  take  place,  the  head  becomes  dis- 
eased, and  easily  affected  by  heating  and  diluent  things.  Such  per- 
sons cannot  endure  long  watchfulness,  but  their  sleep  is  disturbed 
by  phantastical  dreams,  their  sight  is  dim,  and  their  senses  not  dis- 
tinct. The  cold  and  dry  temperaments  of  the  brain  conjoined  to- 
gether render  the  head  cold  and  pale,  the  veins  of  their  eyes  do  not 
appear,  and  they  are  readily  hurt  by  cold  things.  Wherefore,  their 
health  is  precarious.  Their  senses  in  youth  are  distinct  and  fault- 
less, but  as  they  advance  in  life  soon  decay.  In  a  word,  as  far  as  re- 
gards the  head«  they  experience  a  premature  old  age;  their  hair  after 
birth  is  of  slow  growth,  dry  and  tawny.  The  humid  and  cold  tempera- 
ments of  the  brain  render  those  affected  with  them  prone  to  lethargy 
and  drowsiness ;  their  senses  are  bad ;  they  abound  with  recremen- 
titious  humours;  are  easily  affected  with  cold  and  fulness  of  the  head; 
and  are  liable  to  catarrhs  and  defiuxions ;  but  do  not  readily  become 
bald. 


LXIV. — Description  of  the  Temperaments  of  the  Stomach. 

Thb  symptoms  of  an  unusual  dryness  of  the  stomach  are,  that 
those  affected  with  it  are  liable  to  thirst,  but  little  satisfies  them ; 
and  they  are  oppressed  with  much  drink,  as  the  superfluity  occasions 
gurgling  in,  or  floats  upon,  the  stomach ;  of  those  of  a  more  humid, 
that  they  are  not  addicted  to  thirst,  and  bear  readily  much  liquids, 
and  rejoice  in  humid  food.  A  stomach  unusually  hot  has  a  better 
digest ipn  than  appetite,  particularly  with  regard  to  those  things 
which  are  hard  and  difi&cult  to  change ;  it  delights  in  much  food 
and  drink ;  neither  is  it  hurt  by  the  moderate  use  of  cold  things. 
An  unusually  cold  stomach  has  a  good  appetite,  but  not  a  good 
digestion,  in  particular  with  regard  to  such  things  as  are  difficult 
to  change,  and  are  of  a  cold  nature,  which  therefore  are  apt  to  turn 
acid  in  it.  And  it  delights  indeed  in  cold  things,  but  is  readily 
hart  by  the  immoderate  use  of  them.  The  bad  temperaments  pro- 
ceeding from  disease  differ  from  the  cengenital  in  this,  that  they 
long  for  opposite  things,  and  not  always  alike.     If  the  stomach 


34  PAULUg  iEGINETA. 

then  digests  properly,  it  is  of  a  moderate  temperament ;  tnd  if  it 
does  not,  it  is  of  a  bad  ;  but  if  its  eructations  are  fetid ,  its  heat  is 
inordinate  and  inflammatory ;  but  if  acid,  the  contrary.  And  in 
those  who  digest  properly  things  of  difficult  digestion,  the  heat  of 
the  stomach  is  inordinate,  and  weak  in  those  who  cannot  digest 
them,  but  digest  fishes.  It  must  also  be  observed,  whether  or  not 
the  symptom  is  occasioned  by  any  humour  flowing  from  another 
part ;  for  in  pituitous  constitutions  acid  eructations  are  apt  to  occur ; 
but  in  the  bilious,  fetid  airs  and  other  disagreeable  qualities  are  apt 
to  prevail.  The  common,  sjrmptom  of  them  all  is  nausea.  If  the 
depraved  humours  are  lodged  within  the  cavity  of  the  stomach,  they 
float  on  the  surface,  and  are  discharged  by  vomiting ;  but  if  they 
are  contained  in  the  substance  of  it  within  its  coats,  they  annoy  it 
with  vain  attempts  to  vomit. 


LXV. — On  the  Temperaments  of  the  Lungs. 

Not  only  does  the  stomach  render  us  thirsty  and  otherwise,  and 
excite  a  desire  of  warm  and  cold  drink,  but  also  the  thoracic  vis- 
cera, namely,  the  heart  and  lungs,  and  likewise  the  liver.  And  " 
drinking  does  not  straightway  allay  the  desire,  but  a  small  quantity 
of  cold  drink  will  rather  allay  the  thirst  than  a  great  quantity  of 
warm.  Persons  so  aflected  are  cooled  by  inhaling  cold  air,  which 
has  no  eflect  in  alleviating  the  thirst  of  the  stomach.  Thus,  also, 
those  who  are  contrariwise  affected  suffer  sensibly  from  breathing 
cold  air.  This  is  the  best  indication  of  coldness  of  the  lujigs,  but 
they  hawk  up  phlegm,  and  expectorate  it  by  coughmg.  Dryness  of 
the  lungs  is  marked  by  freedom  from  excrementitious  discharges  and 
from  phlegm ;  and  humidity,  by  being  excrementitious,  and  render- 
ing the  voice  dull  and  hoarse ;  and  the  recrementitious  discharge  is 
also  very  great  when  theyattempt  to  speak  in  a  louder  or  sharper  tone. 


LXVI. — On  the  Ten^eramenta  of  the  Heart. 

Thesb  are  the  symptoms  of  an  unusually  warm  heart ;  large- 
ness of  respiration,  frequency  and  density  of  pulse,  boldness  and 
maniacal  ferocity ,  the  chest  is  covered  with  hair,  particularly  the 
breast,  and  usually,  the  parts  of  the  hypochondriac  regions  adjoining 
to  it ;  and  the  whole  body  is  hot,  unless  the  liver  powerfully  anta- 
gonise. And  capacity  of  chest  is  also  an  indication  of  heat,  unless 
the  brain  in  that  case  antagonise.  But  an  unusually  cold  heart 
has  the  pulse  smaller  than  moderate,  and  such  persons  are  timid 
and  spiritless,  more  especially  if  there  be  no  hairs  on  the  breast. 
Ihyness  of  the  heart  renders  the  pulse  hard,  and  the  disposition  not 
prone  to  anger,  but  fierce  and  difficult  to  quell ;  and,  for  the  most 
part,  the  whole  body  is  drier  than  usual,  imless  the  liver  antago- 
nise. These  are  the  marks  of  a  more  humid  temperament ;  a  soft 
pulse,  a  disposition  easily  roused  to  anger,  and  easily  pacified,  and 


BOOK  FIRST.  35 

the  ¥%ole  body  more  humid  than  common,  unless  antagonised  by  the 
liver.  When  the  temperament  is  both  hotter  and  drier,  the  pulse 
is  large  and  hard,  quick  and  dense ;  and  the  respirations  large, 
quick,  and  dense.  Such  persons  have  much  hair  upon  the  breast 
and  hypochondrium ;  they  are  prone  to  action,  given  to  anger,  fierce 
and  tyrannical  in  their  dispositions,  for  they  are  both  passionate 
and  implacable.  But,  if  humidity  prevails  with  heat,  such  persons 
are  less  covered  with  hair  than  the  afore-mentioned  ;  they  are  prompt 
to  action,  their  disposition  is  not  fierce,  but  only  prone  to  anger ; 
their  pulse  is  large,  soft,  quick,  and  dense.  But  when  the  tem- 
perament is  more  humid  and  cold  than  common,  the  pulse  is  soft, 
the  disposition  spiritless,  timid  and  sluggish ;  they  have  no  hair  on 
the  breast,  and  neither  indulge  in  lasting  resentment,  nor  are  prone 
to  anger.  A  cold  and  dry  heart  renders  the  pulse  harder  and  small. 
Of  all  others,  such  persons  are  least  given  to  anger,  but  when  pro- 
vided they  retain  their  resentment.  They  are  also  particularly  dis- 
tinguished by  having  no  hair  on  the  breast. 


LXVII* — On  the  Temperaments  qf  the  Liver, 

Thx  83n3iptom8  of  a  hot  liver  are  largeness  of  the  veins,  redun- 
dance of  yellow  bile,  and,  in  manhood,  of  black ;  the  blood  hotter 
than  natiural,  and  by  means  of  it  the  whole  body,  unless  the  heart 
antagonise ;  and  thick  hairs  upon  the  hjrpochondriac  regions,  and 
over  the  stomach.  Those  of  a  cold,  are  smallness  of  the  veins, 
much  phlegm,  cold  blood ;  the  whole  habit  of  the  body  colder  than 
common,  imless  warmed  by  the  heart ;  no  hair  on  the  hypochondriac 
regions,  nor  over  the  stomach.  Those  of  a  dry  are,  thick  and 
scanty  blood,  and  the  veins  and  the  habit  of  the  whole  body  drier. 
Those  of  a  humid  are,  the  blood  abundant  and  liquid,  the  veins 
softer,  as  also  the  whole  body,  unless  the  heart  antagonise.  The 
symptoms  of  a  temperament  at  once  hot  and  dry  are,  the  hairs  very 
thick  on  the  hypochondrium,  the  blood  at  the  same  time  thicker  and 
more  scanty,  a  redundance  of  bitter  bile,  and,  in  manhood,  of  blacky 
largeness  and  hardness  of  the  veins,  and  the  whole  body  hot  and 
dry*  The  heat  proceeding  from  the  heart  may  indeed  overcome  the 
coldness  proceeding  from  the  liver,  in  like  manner  as  the  coldness 
may  the  heat ;  but  it  is  not  possible  for  the  dr3mess  to  be  changed 
to  the  contrary  state  by  the  humidity  of  the  heart.  It  is  obvious 
that*  when  the  temperaments  of  those  two  prime  organs  combine  to- 
gether, the  whole  body  is  affected  accordingly.  But  the  humid 
and  hot  liver,  less  than  the  hot  and  dry,  renders  the  hypochondrium 
shaggy ;  but  the  blood  is  abundant,  the  veins  large,  and  the  whole 
habit  humid  and  hot,  unless  the  heart  antagonise.  But,  should 
both  these  qualities  be  pretematurally  increased,  persons  so  affected 
will  be  readily  seized  with  putrid  diseases  and  disorders  from  bad 
bunours  ;  and  more  particularly  if  the  humidity  be  much  increased, 
and  the  heat  but  little,  they  will  be  liable  to  cacochymies.  In  the 
hwnid  and  cold,  the  hypochondrium  is  free  from  hairs,  but  the  blood 

D  2 


36  PAULUS  iEGINETA. 

is  pituitous,  the  veins  contracted,  and  the  whole  body  in  like^an- 
iier,  unless  changed  by  the  heart  to  the  opposite  state.  The  cold 
and  dry  renders  the  blood  scanty,  the  veins  of  the  body  contracted, 
and  the  body  colder ;  and  the  hypochondrium  is  without  hair,  un- 
less the  heart  overcome  this  state. 


LXVIII. — On  the  Temperaments  of  the  Testicles. 

Of  the  temperaments  of  the  testicles,  the  hot  is  lustful,  apt  to 
generate,  particularly  males,  and  has  the  genital  parts  covered  with 
thick  hairs,  which  extend  to  the  surrounding  part.  The  cold  is 
the  reverse.  In  the  humid,  the  semen  is  copious  and  watery.  In 
the  dry,  it  is  scanty  and  thick.  A  temperament  which  is  mode- 
rately hot  and  dry  has  very  thick  semen,  is  most  prolific,  and 
rouses  the  person  to  early  indulgence.  Such  persons  have,  at  a  very 
early  period,  thick  hstirs  on  their  genital  organs,  and  on  the  sur- 
rounding parts,  as  high  up  as  the  navel,  and  as  low  down  as  the  mid- 
dle of  the  thighs.  Such  a  temperament  is  prone  to  venery,  but  is  soon 
satiated,  and  readily  hurt  if  compelled.  When  humidity  combines 
with  heat,  such  persons  have  thick  hair,  and  much  semen  ;  yet  they 
have  not  greater  desires  than  others,  but  they  can  bear  much  ve- 
nery without  injury  :  and,  if  both  the  moist  and  the  hot  combine 
properly  together,  they  cannot  safely  abstain  from  venery.  Those 
whose  testicles  are  of  the  humid  and  cold  temperament  have  no 
hair  on  the  neighbouring  parts ;  they  are  slow  in  beginning  to  co- 
pulate, and  not  much  prone  to  the  exertion.  Their  semen  is  wa- 
tery, thin,  without  strength,  and  fit  only  for  begetting  females. 
The  dry  and  the  cold  temperament  together  resembles  the  former 
in  every  other  respect,  except  that  the  semen  is  thicker,  and  alto- 
gether scanty. 


LXIX. — On  the  Parts  that  are  omitted. 

Each  of  our  members  has  its  own  proper  temperament  and  fa- 
culty ;  but  it  is  not  necessary  for  us  to  describe  the  characters  of 
all,  since  they  are  unlimited,  and  we  propose  to  give  only  a  brief 
system  of  instruction.  Having  treated  of  those  which  principally 
affect  the  whole  bbdy;  of  the  others,  we  shall  merely  direct  to 
judge  in  the  same  way,  forming  an  opinion  of  the  temperaments 
from  their  excretions,  their  other  energies  and  symptoms.  It  is 
now  time  to  treat  of  the  cure  of  the  intemperaments  of  the  whole 
body. 


LXX. — On  the  Cure  of  Hot  Intemperaments  of  the  Body, 

Since,  when  hot  intemperaments  prevail,  the  bile  exceeds  in 
quantity,  if  it  pass  downward,  little,  it  is  obvious,  need  be  done ;  but. 


BOOK    FIRST.  3/ 

if  carried  upwards  to  the  stomach,  it  ought  to  be  evacuated  by  vomit- 
ing, by  taking  tepid  water  after  exercise  and  before  food.  It  will  be 
better  that  the  exercise,  be  not  swift  nor  hard ;  but»  on  the  con* 
trary,  rather  slow  and  gentle.  Some  of  those  who  are  very  hot  do 
not  at  all  require  gymnastic  exercises,  but  walking  and  the  bath  are 
sufficient  for  them.  These  delight  also  in  baths  after  a  meal.  But 
those  who  have  heat  combined  with  dryness  require  a  diluent  regi* 
men  by  means  of  succulent  food,  baths,  and  abstinence  from  much 
and  hard  exercise ;  so  that  in  the  season  of  summer  they  ought  to 
bathe  early,  and  after  a  meal  a  second  time.  Cold  drink  is  of  ser- 
vice to  them.  Venery  is  most  inimical  to  dry  temperaments.  Such 
ought  also  to  abstain  from  exertions  producing,  lassitude,  exposure 
to  the  sun,  and  to  avoid  cares  and  watchfulness.  Those  who  are 
naturally  humid  are  apt  in  infancy  to  be  seized  with  rheumatic  and 
plethoric  complaints,  and  also  with  putrid.  They  stand  in  need  of 
more  exercise,  of  a  proper  digestion,  in  the  stomach,  and  of  secre* 
tions  by  urine.  Wherefore  such  persons  are  much  benefited  by  tak* 
ing  before  diet  the  bath  two  or  three  times,  particularly  the  natural 
hot  ones.  They  ought  also  to  promote  the  secretions  by  means  of 
exercises,  and  the  bath,  and  by  procuring  the  alvine  and  urinary 
discharges  before  taking  food.  And  nothing  hinders  them  to  use 
masticatories  and  cathartics,  as  also  a  whole&ome  diet,  and  wine  of 
a  diuretic  quality. 


LXXI. — On  tfie  Cure  of  the  Cold  hihmperaments  of  the  Body, 

Of  cold  intemperaments,  there  are  three  varieties,  of  which  the 
worst  is  the  dry :  for  such  persons  are  from  the  first  in  that  state 
which  time  brings  upon  old  men.  They  ought,  therefore,  to  use 
whatever  is  diluting  and  warming,  such  as  moderate  exercise,  hu- 
mid  and  warm  food,  the  heating  wines,  and  much  sleep.  Care 
should  be  taken,  that  all  the  excrementitious  matters  collected  in 
the  body  be  evacuated  every  day.  Venery  hurts  all  those  who  are 
affected  with  dryness,  and  more  especially  if  joined  to  coldness,  and 
is  innocuous  to  the  hot  and  humid  alone.  The  cold  and  humid 
temperaments  are  bad,  and  are  very  subject  to  rheumatic  afiections. 
They  are  relieved  by  abstinence  from  the  bath,  by  frequent  and  light 
exercises,  and  the  use  of  moderately  warm  unguents.  Those  that 
are  naturally  colder,  but  are  well  regulated  as  to  dryness  and  humi- 
dity of  temperament,  ought  to  stimulate  and  increase  their  heat,  but 
to  choose  the  medium  between  a  humid  and  dry  diet. 


LXXII. — On  the  Cure  of  the  Dry  Intemperaments^  of  the 
Stomach  for  example  ;  then  of  the  other  Intemperaments, 

A  DRY  intemperament  may  either  be  occasioned  by  the  solid  parts* 
of  uniform  texture  being  drier  than  natural,  which  is  incurable  ;  or 
by  the  natural  moisture  from  which  these  parts  derive  their  nourish- 


38  PAULUS  JSGINETA. 

ment  being  lost.     It  is  contained  in  all  parts  of  an  animal,  being 
diffased  tbrough  them  in  the  form  of  dew,  and  can  only  be  supplied 
by  means  of  the  food.     The  former  variety  is  utterly  incurable ;  and 
even  the  latter  is  of  all  states  of  the  body  the  most  intractable. 
But  when  the  dr3nie8s  is  seated  in  the  small  veins  and  arteries,  the 
cure  may  be  attempted  by  filling  each  of  the  parts  of  uniform  tex- 
ture with  their  proper  juices  by  a  hnmid  diet.  A  tepid  bath  is  there- 
fore beneficial,  and  the  patient  ought  to  remain  long  in  it.    Immedi- 
ately after  the  bath,  let  him  take  the  milk  of  an  ass  newly  drawn, 
to  which  a  little  warm  honey  has  been  added     Afterwards  he  ought 
to  rest  until  he  take  a  second  bath.     He  ought  then  to  be  mode- 
rately rubbed  with  oil,  if  the  milk  appears  to  be  digested,  which 
may  be  judged  of  from  his  eructations  and  the  detension  of  his 
belly.     The  proper  interval  between  the  first  and  second  bath  may 
be  four  or  five  hours  at  the  equinox,  if  he  be  to  bathe  a  third  time, 
but,  if  not,  it  may  be  greater.     And  he  ought  to  be  rubbed  with  oil 
before  putting  on  his  clothes  after  every  bathing.     If^  therefore, 
the  milk  agreed  with  him,  we  may  give  it  to  him  after  the  second 
time,  or,  if  not,  we  may  give  instead  a  ptisan  properly  boiled,  or 
alica  made  into  a  ptisan.     He  is  then  to  rest  until  the  third  bath- 
ing, or,  otherwise  until  supper.     His  bread  ought  to  be  carefully 
prepared,  baked  in  an  oven,  and  of  a  fine  quality.     With  the  bread, 
he  may  cat  those  fishes  which  are  caught  among  rocks,  or  the  had- 
dock in  a  white  soup.     In  a  word,  his  food  ought  to  be  of  easy  di- 
gestion and  nutritious,  not  oily  and  excrementitious.     His  drink 
should  be  wine  that  is  weak,  white,  clear,  bearing  little  water,  and 
having  some  astringency.     Such  is  the  mode  of  cure  for  the  great- 
est degree  of  dryness,  but  the  moderate  does  not  require  the  same 
restriction  as  to  diet,  which  may  therefore  be  more  generous.     Let 
us  suppose  a  dryness  like  the  former,  but  mixed  with  a  moderate 
coldness.     In  this  case,  we  must  substitute  certain  calefacient  arti- 
cles ;    and,  with  regard  to  those  mentioned  above,   we  must  add 
more  honey  to  the  milk,  and  give  wine  that  is  not  so  watery.     We 
must  also  not  only  use  things  which  are  naturally  heating,  but  which 
are  so  from  their  acquired  qualities.     And  the  body  is  to  be  rubbed 
frequently  with  the  ointment  of  nard  and  mastich.    When  much 
coldness  is  joined  to  the  dryness,  know,  in  the  first  place,  that  the 
complaint  is  difiicult  and  intractable,  but  tise  the  san^  remedies,, 
and  also  by  itself  honey  that  has  been  boiled  and  scummed,  along 
with  very  old  wine.      The  best  possible  remedy  is  that  which  i» 
much   used  by  Pitchers ;  and  we  must  likewise  rub  the  belly  with 
it,  and  tear  it  away  while  it  is  yet  warm.     Such  persons  are  also 
relieved  by  having  a  child  of  a  full  habit  sleeping  with  them,  so 
as  to  touch  their  belly.     Let  us  next  suppose  that  a  moderate  heat 
is  joined  to  dryness.     In  this  case,  our  first  care  ought  to  be,  not  to 
taste  honey,  and  to  use  wine  which  is  not  aged,  food  which  is  tepid 
and  milky,  and  to  rub  the  belly  with  the  oil  of  unripe  olives,  or  with 
that  of  apples.     But  to  cool  such  persons  much  is  not  devoid  of 
danger,  as  the  state  is  feverish  when  the  heat  prevails.     Let  us  next 
suppose  that  a  hot  intemperament  prevails,^and  that  humidity  is  joined 


BOOK    FIRST.  39 

to  it.  Such  an  intemperament  is  to  be  cured  by  drinking  cold  water. 
The  use  of  astringent  food  is  also  proper ;  namely,  such  things  as 
are  austere,  without  being  heating.  But  when  the  humid  intempera- 
ment alone  prevails,  it  is  to  be  cured  by  such  articles  of  food  as  are 
desiccant,  without  heating  or  cooling  much,  and  also  by  abstinence 
from  the  common  drinks.  When  the  humid  intemperament  is  joined 
with  the  cold,  the  best  remedies  are  all  acrid  things,  and  they  ought 
to  be  mixed  with  such  things  as  are  astringent,  without  being  re- 
frigerant. The  drink  should  be  in  small  quantity,  and  consist  of 
some  of  the  strongly  heating  wines.  These  are  the  modes  of  cur- 
ing intemperaments  proceeding  from  qualities.  But  since  a  humour 
contained  within  the  cavity  of  the  stomach,  or  being  absorbed  with- 
in its  coats,  often  occasions  intemperaments,  it  will  be  proper  to  treat 
also  of  these  affections.  If  the  former  state  occur  at  once,  it  may  be 
easily  removed,  by  emetics ;  but  if  it  be  a  defluxion,  the  parts  it  comes 
from  will  require  very  attentive  consideration,  and  the  cure  will 
follow,  of  course ;  for  it  is  to  be  applied  entirely  to  the  affected 
part ;  and  of  the  other  parts,  we  need  only  take  care  that  they  be 
not  thereby  affected.  The  cure  is  to  be  performed  by  astringents, 
and  such  things  as  will  bring  the  body  to  its  proper  habit.  De- 
praved humours  in  the  coats  of  the  stomach,  are  to  be  evacuated  by 
moderately  cathartic  medicines,  such  as  aloes,  and  the  powder  pre- 
pared from  it,  called  picra.  When  a  viscid  phlegm  is  contained  in 
the  stomach,  such  persons  ought  to  take  those  things  which  will 
cut  it,  and  then  it  may  be  purged  off,  or  evacuated  by  vomiting 
with  radishes.  When  the  humour  is  neither  viscid  nor  thick,  a 
vomit  from  ptisan,  or  that  from  honied  water,  may  be  sufficient. 
The  juice  of  wormwood  with  honied  water  may  also  be  drunk.  In 
like  manner,  intemperaments  in  other  parts  maybe  cured,  by  finding 
out  the  evacuation  suited  to  the  humours ;  or,  if  the  part  has  no 
sensible  discharge,  the  prevailing  matter  and  humours  may  be 
evacuated  in  the  form  of  vapour ;  and  in  like  manner,  if  it  proceed 
from  flatulence. 


LXXIII. — On  the  Powers  of  the  Articles  of  Food. 

SiNCB  an  account  of  the  properties  of  food  is  a  part  of  the  doc- 
trine of  Hygiene,  we  shall  add  that  to  the  preceding,  having  premised 
only  a  few  remarks  before  delivering  the  particular  rules  on  this 
head ;  for  nothing  is  more  indispensably  necessary  than  to  be  well 
acquainted  with  the  properties  of  food.  Things  of  an  attenuating 
power  open  the  pores,  and  clear  away  the  viscid  humours  which  are 
impacted  in  them,  and  cut  and  attenuate  the  thick ;  but  when  per- 
severed in  as  articles  of  food,  they  beget  serous  and  bilious  super- 
fluities, or,  if  still  longer  continued,  they  render  the  blood  melan- 
cholic. One  ought  therefore  to  abstain  from  the  continued  use  of 
them,  and  in  particular  those  who  are  of  a  bilious  temperament ;  for 
they  only  suit  with  those  who  have  collections  of  phlegm,  and  of 
crude,  viscid,  and  thick  humours.   Those  of  incrassating  powers  are 


40  PAULUS    .EGINETA. 

sufficiently  nutritious,  and,  if  properly  digested  in  the  stomach  and 
liver,  they  form  good  blood,  but  occasion  obstructions  of  the  spleen 
and  liver.  Of  these  some  have  only  thick  juices,  as  the  dried  lentil, 
but  some  viscid,  as  the  mallows ;  and  in  some  they  are  both  thick 
and  viscid,  as  the  testaceous  fishes.  An  attenuating  diet  is  safer 
than  an  incrassating  for  the  preservation  of  health,  but  yet,  as  it 
supplies  little  nourishment,  it  does  not  impart  tone  or  strength  to 
the  body.  One  ought,  therefore,  to  take  some  moderately  nutri- 
tious diet,  when  experiencing  the  effects  of  a  deficient  diet.  They 
may  do  so  with  the  least  danger  who  are  given  to  exercises  and  can 
take  as  much  rest  as  they  please.  But  all  those  who  cannot  take 
exercise  before  food  ought  to  avoid  such  things  as  are  incrassating ; 
and  those  who  are  of  an  indolent  habit  ought  by  no  means  to  take 
such  food.  For  complete  inactivity  is  one  of  the  greatest  evils  for 
the  preservation  of  health,  whereas  moderate  exercise  is  particularly 
good.  Those  articles  of  food  which  are  intermediate  between  the 
incrassating  and  the  attenuating  are  the  best  of  all,  producing  blood 
of  a  proper  consistency.  Such  a  diet,  then,  agrees  with  our  bodies, 
but  that  which  produces  a  bad  chyme  ought  to  be  shunned.  It  is 
better  also  to  avoid  variety  of  food,  more  particularly  if  it  consist  of 
contrary  qualities;  for  such  things,  when  taken  together,  do  not 
digest  properly. 


LXXiy.— On  Pot'Herb». 

The  lettuce  is  manifestly  refrigerant  and  diluent ;  it  is  therefore 
soporific,  and,  compared  with  other  pot-herbs,  nutritious,  forming 
blood  of  a  very  good  quality.  The  endive  is  refrigerant  and  di- 
luent, but  less  so  than  the  lettuce.  The  mallows  cool  but  not  ob- 
viously, they  rather  moisten  and  thereby  loosen  the  belly ;  and  this 
they  do  by  means  of  the  viscid  juice  which  they  contain.  The  beet 
is  detergent,  and  thereby  softens  the  belly,  but  when  eaten  in  great 
quantity  it  occasions  pain  of  the  stomach  :  it  removes  obstructions 
of  the  liver  and  spleen.  The  cabbage,  when  twice  boiled  before  it 
is  eaten,  binds  the  belly,  but  when  only  once  boiled  for  a  short  time, 
it  rather  loosens,  if  eaten  with  oil,  sauce,  or  salts  ;  as  its  juice,  still 
more  than  the  dried  lentil,  is  of  a  purgative  quality;  and  in  particu- 
lar the  sea-cabbage  is  laxative  of  the  belly,  being  manifestly  saltish 
and  bitter.  The  sea- purslane-tree,  possessing  stronger  saline  qua- 
lities, loosens  the  belly,  and  agrees  better  with  the  stomach  than 
the  cabbage,  from  having  a  moderate  astringency;  it  is  also  fitted 
for  forming  milk  and  semen.  The  blite  and  orache  (atriplex  hortensisj 
are  succulent  and  laxative,  but  not  nutritious.  All  the  thorny  tribe, 
such  as  the  golden  thistle,  the  atractylis,  and  such  like  are  stomachic, 
except  the  artichoke  (cinara),  for,  being  hard,  it  forms  bad  chyme  ; 
and,  therefore,  it  is  best  to  take  it  boiled  with  oil,  fish-sauce,  and 
coriander.  The  -parsley,  the  horse-parsley  (Smyrnium  olusatrum)^ 
the  water  parsnip,  and  the  allsander,  are  diuretic ;  but  the  allsan  • 
der  is  aromatic,  and  more  acrid,  diuretic,  and  emmenagogue,  where- 


BOOK    FIRST.  41 

as  the  parsley  and  horse- parsley  are  sweeter,  and,  therefore,  agree 
better  with  the  stomach.  The  rocket  (braasica  eruca)  is  hot,  and 
forms  semen ;  and,  therefore,  rouses  to  venery  and  occasions  head- 
achs.  The  cress,  basil  {pcimum),  and  mustard,  are  hot  and  acrid, 
particularly  the  cress;  but  all  are  of  difficult  digestion,  injure  the 
stomach,  and  supply  unwholesome  juices.  But  the  nettle  is  of  subtil 
parts,  laxative,  and  of  little  nourishment.  The  tooth-pick-fennel 
is  like  the  shepherd's-needle,  possessing  astringent  and  bitter  quali- 
ties in  no  small  degree ;  it  is  beneficial  to  the  stomach,  so  that  those 
who  have  lost  their  appetite  may  eat  it  with  advantage  in  vinegar ; 
but  it  supplies  little  nourishment  to  the  body.  All  the  wild  pot- 
herbs, as  they  are  called,  contain  very  bad  juices.  Cappers,  how- 
ever, whets  the'  appetite,  removes  obstructions  of  the  liver  and 
spleen,  and  evacuates  phlegm.  It  is  to  be  used  with  vinegar  and 
honey,  or  with  vinegar  and  oil,  before  taking  any  other  food. 


LXXV. — On  Asparagi  or  Young  Shoots. 

Blitbs,  lettuces,  orachs,  mallows,  and  beets,  have  the  plant  juicy, 
but  the  shoot  dry.  The  turnip,  mustard,  radish,  cress,  pellitory, 
cabbage,  and  other  hot  things,  have  the  plant  of  a  dry,  but  the 
shoot  of  a  juicy  nature.  The  shoots  of  the  bushy  shrubs,  both  the 
marsh  and  garden,  and  that  of  the  bryony,  are  stomachic  and 
diuretic,  but  of  little  nourishment,  yet  when  digested  they  are  more 
nutritious  than  those  of  pot-herbs.  Such  also  are  the  shoots  of 
the  ground-bay. 


LXXVI. — On  Herbs  tvith  Esculent  Roots. 

Tub  bunias  or  turnip,  when  eaten  after  being  twice  boiled,  is  nu- 
tritious, no  less  so  than  other  herbs,  but  when  frequently  taken  it 
engenders  thick  juices.  The  bulbi  are  astringent  and  detergent, 
whet  the  appetite,  strengthen  the  stomach,  and  evacuate  the  viscid 
humours  contained  in  the  chest.  When  twice  boiled,  they  are 
more  nourishing,  but  less  expectorant,  having  lost  their  bitter  prin- 
ciple. They  increase  the  secretion  of  semen,  excite  to  venery  when 
liberally  used,  and  occasion  flatulence  and  griping.  When  eaten 
with  fish-sauce  and  oil,  they  are  very  sweet,  do  not  create  flatulence, 
are  nutritious  and  digestible.  The  garden  and  wild  carrot,  and 
the  caraway,  have  roots  which  are  less  nutritious  than  turnip,  but 
hut,  manitestly  aromatic,  and  diuretic.  But  when  used  too  freely, 
they  supply  bad  juices,  and  become  of  difficult  digestion  like  other 
roots.  Some  call  the  wild  carrot  daucus ;  it  is  evidently  more  diu- 
retic than  the  other.  The  radish  is  of  an  attenuant  and  heating 
nature  ;  but  may  be  eaten  before  other  food  along  with  vinegar  and 
fish-sauce,  to  loosen  the  belly,  but  by  no  means  after  a  meal.  The 
onion,  garlic,  leek,  and  dog-leek  (ampeloprason) ,he\ng  of  an  acrid  na- 
ture, warm  the  body,  attenuate  and  cut  the  thick  humours  contained  in 


42     V  PAULUS    .fiGINETA. 

it ;  when  twice  boiled,  they  give  little  nourishment,  but  when  un- 
boiled they  do  not  nourish  at  all.  The  garlic  is  more  deobstruent 
and  diaphoretic  than  the  others ;  and  the  dog-leek  being  wild,  is 
drier  than  the  common  leek.  Regarding  pot-herbs  in  general,  the 
raw,  when  eaten,  furnish  worse  juices  than  the  boiled,  as  they  have 
more  excrementitious  juice.  But  those  which  are  prepared  for  pickles 
with  brine  or  vinegar  and  salt  are  stomachic,  and  whet  the  appetite* 
and  discuss  crude  humours ;  but  are  of  difficult  digestion,  and  sup- 
ply bad  juices  when  too  freely  taken. 

LXXVIL — On  Truffles  and  Mushrooms. 

The  truffle  {tuber)  forms  chyme  devoid  of  qualities,  but  cold 
and  thick.  The  mushrooms  called  myceta  form  phlegm  and  bad 
chyme,  being  of  a  cold  nature.  Of  these,  the  holeti  are  devoid  of 
qualities,  and  are  safer  than  the  others  when  bSiled  properly.  The 
ammanita  are  of  the  second  order.  The  other  mushrooms  ought 
not  to  be  tasted,  for  many  of  them  are  mortal  poisons  ;  and  even 
the  boleti,  when  eaten  without  being  properly  boiled,  have  often  oc- 
casioned danger. 


LXXVIII.— 0»  the  Frumentaceous  Articles  of  Food. 

Of  the  frumentacea,  the  chondrus  is  nutricious,  and  forms  viscid 
chyme ;  but  a  watery  preparation  is  unwholesome,  because,  as  it 
thickens  quickly,  it  remains  raw  and  unconcocted ;  but  the  juice  of 
it  is  better  when  it  is  properly  boiled  whole  like  a  ptisan.  The 
alica  in  other  respects  resembles  the  chondrus,  only  that  it  binds 
the  belly  more.  Wheat,  when  boiled  and  eaten,  is  of  difficult  diges- 
tion and  flatulent ;  but  if  digested  it  proves  a  very  strong  food. 
When  made  into  bread,  its  indigestible  and  flatulent  properties  are 
removed  by  the  yeast  and  salt  which  are  added.  The  most  nutri* 
tious  of  all  the  kinds  of  bread  is  that  made  from  siligo  ;  next,  that 
from  the  similago ;  and,  third,  that  which  is  composed  of  all  to- 
gether, and  retaining  the  bran.  Coarse  bread  is  less  nutritious, 
but  more  laxative  than  the  other  kinds.  Starch  gives  little  nourish- 
ment like  washed  bread.  Barley  is  of  a  cold  nature  and  detergent. 
When  boiled  like  a  ptisan  it  humectates  ;  but  when  toasted,  as  in 
polenta,  it  dries.  Polenta  in  summer,  drunk  with  water  before  the 
bath,  quenches  thirst.  Barley-bread  is  dry  and  of  little  nourish- 
ment. The  pudding  (maza)  is  of  more  difficult  digestion,  and  more 
flatulent  than  barley-bread,  and  when  it  receives  a  little  honey  is 
laxative.  Oats  are  heating  and  of  little  nourishment.  Millet  and 
panic  are  cold  and  dry,  contain  little  nourishment,  and  bind  the 
belly.  But  the  millet  is  in  every  respect  superior  to  the  panic. 
Rice  is  of  difficult  digestion,  contains  little  nourishment,  and  binds 
the  belly.  A  ptisan  is  prepared,  by  adding  one  part  of  it  to  fifteen 
parts  of  water,  then  mixing  a  moderate  quantity  of  oil,  and  after  it 


BOOK    FIRST.  43 

swells  up,  some  vinegar.  When  properly  boiled,  a  small  quantity 
of  salt  is  to  be  thrown  in,  and  sometimes  leeks  or  dill  may  be  added. 
Oats  and  chondrus  may  be  prepared  similarly  to  this  ptisan. 

LXXIX.— 0»  Pube. 

Of  pulse,  the  lentil  forms  a  bad  chyme  and  melancholic  humours; 
but,  when  twice  boiled,  it  binds  the  beUy ;  yet,  its  decoction  when 
drunk  with  oil  and  sauce  is  rather  laxative.  But  savoury  or  pen- 
ujtojbI  ought  to  be  added  to  it  because  it  is  flatulent.  The  com- 
mon bean  is  light,  flatulent,  and  detergent;  but  the  Egyptian  bean 
is  much  more  succulent  and  excrementitious  than  ours.  The  pea  is 
spongy,  but  not  so  flatulent.  The  chick-peas  are  flatulent  and  de- 
tergent, promote  the  formation  of  semen,  are  aphrodisiacal,  and  H- 
thontriptic  ;  when  toasted,  they  part  with  their  flatulence,  but  are 
of  difficult  digestion.  Lupines  are  difficult  to  digest  and  evacuate, 
and  produce  a  bad  chyme.  The  fenugreek  warms  and  loosens  the 
beUy  when  taken  before  a  meal.  TatBS  and  fasels  having  been  pre- 
viously macerated  in  water  so  as  to  shoot  out  roots,  are  laxative  of 
the  belly  when  taken  before  a  meal  with  sauce ;  and  are  more  nu- 
tritious than  the  fenugreek.  But  the  fasels  callckl^ifo/tcAf,  when 
eaten  green  with  their  husks,  are  more  excretnentitious. 


LXXX. — On  the  8ummer  Fruits. 

Ths  gourd  is  of  a  cold  and  humid  nature,  loosens  the  belly,  and 
gives  little  nourishment.  The  pompion  is  altogether  a  fruit  of  bad 
juices,  cold,  humid  and  emetic ;  and,  when  not  properly  digested, 
it  occasions  cholera.  The  seed  of  it  is  diuretic,  breaks  down  stones 
in  the  kidneys,  and  is  altogether  very  detergent.  The  squash  has 
all  the  properties  of  the  pompion  in  an  inferior  degree.  The  cucum- 
ber is  of  a  less  cold  and  humid  nature  than  the  pompion,  but  is 
more  diuretic ;  it  is  difficult  to  digest,  and  its  chyme  is  bad  even  when 
digested.  Upon  the  whole,  all  this  class  of  fruits  are  of  a  cold  and 
homid  nature,  supply  little  nourishment,  and  that  of  a  bad  quality. 

LXXXI.— 0»  the  Fruit  of  Trees. 

Thb  fig  and  the  grape  hold  the  principal  place  in  this  class  of 
fruits ;  for  their  juices  are  of  a  less  bad  quality,  and  they  are  more 
mitritious  than  tiie  others. — ^Of  these,  the  figs  have  the  better  juices 
and  the  more  nutritious ;  they  are  laxative,  diuretic,  and  evacuate 
the  kidneys,  and  particularly  the  very  ripe.  In  like  manner  also  the 
dried ;  but  they  are  flatulent,  and  form  blood  which  is  not  good ; 
wherefore,  when  liberally  used,  they  engender  lice.  When  grapes 
are  not  evacuated,  neither  are  they  digested,  but  form  a  crude 
chyme;  but  if  evacuated  their  eflects  are  more  moderate.  Dried 
grapes  are  wanner  than  the  others,  more  stomachic,  and  more  nu- 


44  PAULUS    ili:GIN£TA. 

tritious,  but  not  so  laxative.  The  mulberry  is  of  a  moistening  na- 
ture, cools  moderately,  and  loosens  the  belly  when  taken  first,  nei« 
ther  does  it  disagree  with  the  stomach,  but  is  little  nutritious. — Of 
cherries,  the  sweeter  kinds  loosen  the  belly,  but  are  bad  for  the 
stomach ;  those  which  possess  astringency  are  not  so  bad  for  the 
stomach,  but  do  not  evacuate  the  belly.  The  same  rule  will  apply 
to  the  grape,  the  mulberry,  and  many  other  fruits ;  for  astringents 
in  general,  when  eaten  or  drunk  at  the  beginning  before  any  other 
food,  bind  the  belly ;  but  they  who  have  their  bowels  constipated 
from  atony,  and  have  taken  some  articles  of  food  of  a  laxative  na- 
ture, such  as  pot-herbs,  fishes,  or  the  like,  will  find  that  astrin- 
gents taken  afterwards  will,  by  strengthening  the  bowels,  evacuate 
downwards.  The  fruit  of  the  pine  called  strobilus  has  good  juices 
and  thick ;  is  nutritious,  but  not  of  easy  digestion.  The  juices  of  the 
peach  are  of  a  bad  quality,  turn  acid,  and  soon  spoil ;  and,  therefore, 
ought  to  be  taken  first,  that  they  may  readily  pass  downwards,  and 
not  spoil  by  remaining  in  the  belly.  The  fruits  called  apricots  are 
superior  to  the  peaches,  for  they  neither  turn  acid  nor  spoil  so  soon, 
and  are  sweet.  Of  apples,  those  that  are  sweet  are  more  heat- 
ing, and  easier  assimilated  than  the  others,  especially  when  roasted 
or  boiled ;  the  acid  are  colder  and  more  calculated  to  cut  the  hu- 
mours in  the  stomach;  the  austere  strengthen  the  stomach  and 
bind  the  belly,  more  especially  quinces.  Of  pears,  the  large  and 
ripe  are  more  nutritious  than  these ;  but  the  pomegranates  are  cool- 
ing, and  contain  little  nourishment.  The  medlars  and  services  are 
more  astringent  and  fitted  for  a  loose  belly.  Dates  are  stomachic, 
unless  very  fatty,  they  bind  the  belly,  form  thick  and  viscid  chyme, 
and  occasion  headachs.  Of  olives,  those  called  drupm  injure  the 
stomach,  and  form  a  fatty  chyme ;  those  that  are  pickled  and  hung 
(halmadea  et  colynibadesj  when  eaten  beforehand,  whet  the  appetite, 
and  loosen  the  belly,  more  especially  if  prepared  with  vinegar,  or 
vinegar  and  honey.  Of  nuts,  those  called  royal  (walnuts)  are  less 
nutritious  than  the  filbert,  and  more  stomachic.  The  green  wal- 
nuts are  more  juicy  and  laxative ;  and,  if  you  will  strip  off  the  inner 
membrane  of  dried  ones  which  have  been  macerated  in  water,  they 
will  become  like  the  green.  Almonds  have  incisive  and  attenuat- 
ing powers,  and,  therefore,  they  evacuate  the  intestines  and  chest, 
and  more  especially  such  as  are  bitter ;  and,  in  like  manner,  the 
pistacs,  which  are  also  more  calculated  for  removing  obstructions  of 
the  liver.  Damascenes  loosen  the  belly  when  eaten  before  food, 
either  xaw  or  boiled  in  honied  water.  The  jujubes  are  of  difficult 
digestion,  injurious  to  the  stomach,  and  give  little  nourishment. 
Carobs  are  of  difficult  digestion,  bind  the  belly,  and  produce  bad 
chyme.  Sycamores  are  decidedly  of  a  cooling  and  a  moisten- 
ing nature.  Of  the  citron,  the  outer  part  is  acrid  and  indigestible, 
but  that  part  which  is  as  it  were  its  flesh  is  nutritious,  and  yet  it 
is  hard  to  digest.  The  inner  part,  whether  acid  or  watery,  is  mo- 
derately cooling.  Acorns  are  nutritious,  no  less  so  than  com,  but 
of  difficult  digestion,  contain  thick  juices,  and  are  slowly  evacuated. 
Chesnuts  are  in  every  respect  superior  to  them. 


BOOK    FIRST.  45 


LXXXII. — On  Animals;  and,  firsts  of  FovAs. 

The  nourishment  derived  from  fowls  is  less  than  that  from 
beasts,  and  more  especially  swine,  hut  it  is  of  easier  digestion,  par- 
ticularly the  partridge,  wood-cock,  pigeon,  hen,  and  pheasant. 
That  from  thrushes,  hlackhirds,  and  small  sparrows,  (among  whom 
are  those  called  pyrgitai)  is  harder ;  and  still  more  so  the  turtle, 
wood-pigeon,  and  duck.  But  the  peacock  is  still  more  indigestible, 
harder,  and  more  stringy.  The  flesh  of  geese  and  ostriches  is  ex- 
crementitious,  and  more  indigestible  than  any  of  the  afore-men- 
tioned ;  except  their  wings,  for  they  are  not  less  wholesome  than  the 
same  parts  in  other  animals.  The  flesh  of  the  crane  is  stringy  and 
hard.  In  general,  the  yoimg  are  more  juicy,  digestible,  and  nutri- 
tious than  the  aged,  and  are  more  readily  evacuated  by  the  belly. 
The  boiled  are  superior  to  the  roasted  and  fricasseed ;  and  those  that 
live  on  dry  and  mountainous  places  are  more  digestible  and  less 
excrementitious  than  those  which  live  in  marshy  places. 


LXXXIII.— 0»  Effgs. 

The  eggs  of  hens  and  pheasants  are  the  best  of  all ;  those  of 
geese  and  ostriches  the  worst :  of  all  animals,  fresh  eggs  are  su- 
perior to  the  old.  Those  that  are  moderately  boiled  are  most 
nutritive ;  those  that  are  slightly  boiled  pass  downwards  most 
easily,  and  smooth  asperities  in  the  throat.  All  the  other  kinds 
are  difficult  to  digest  and  evacuate,  and  contain  thick  juices,  ex« 
cept  those  that  are  said  to  be  suflbcated.  These  are  prepared  by 
mixing  raw  eggs  with  sauce,  wine  and  oil,  and  coagulating  to  a 
middling  consistence  in  a  double  vessel.  In  this  state  they  are  of 
easy  digestion,  and  supply  good  juices.  But  of  all  others  the  fried 
are  the  worst. 


LXXXIV.-^On  Beasts. 

Among  quadrupeds,  swine's  flesh  is  more  nourishing  than  any 
other  food,  because  it  is  most  nearly  allied  to  the  human  in  taste 
and  sm^ll,  as  some  have  declared  who  have  tasted  human  flesh  by 
mistake.  Bat  the  nourishment  derived  from  it  is  viscid  and  imper- 
spirable.  That  from  sheep  is  excrementitious  and  supplies  bad 
juices.  That  from  goats  is  acrid  and  has  bad  juices.  But  the 
worst  of  all  is  the  flesh  of  the  buck-goat  as  to  the  quality  of  its 
juices  and  to  digestion.  That  of  oxen  forms  melancholic  humours ; 
that  of  hares  has  thick  juices,  but  less  so  than  that  of  sheep  and 
oxeu.  That  of  roes  is  hard  and  of  diflicult  digestion.  In  general, 
the  flesh  of  young  beasts  is  more  humid,  softer,  and  more  digestible 
than  that  of  the  aged  ;  of  gelded  animals  than  of  those  having  tes- 
ticles ;  and  of  the  well-fed  than  of  the  lean. 


46  PAULUS    JilGINETA. 


LXXXV.— On  the  Parts  of  Animals. 

The  extremities  are  tendinous,  without  fat  and  without  flesh ; 
and  are  therefore  viscid,  contain  little  nourishment,  and  are  laxa- 
tive of  the  belly,  except  those  of  birds  owing  to  their  great  dry- 
ness. The  moat  and  ears  are  gristly  and  indigestible.  The  tongue 
is  spongy,  full  of  blood,  and  gives  little  nourishment.  The  glands 
are  sweet  and  friable ;  and  those  of  the  breast  are  sweeter  than  the 
others,  and,  in  particular,  those  of  swine  which  are  giving  milk. 
These  are  no  less  nutritious  than  the  flesh.  The  kidneys  and  testi- 
cles are  strong-smelled  and  indigestible,  but  those  of  cocks  fed  upon 
grain  are  sweet,  and  supply  a  good  nourishment  to  the  body; 
whereas  those  of  bulls,  buck-goats,  and  rams,  are  indigestible,  and 
contain  bad  juices.  The  brain  produces  phlegm,  thick  and  bad 
chyme,  is  difficult  to  evacuate  and  digest,  injurious  to  the  stomach, 
and  occasions  nausea ;  but  when  properly  digested  it  is  sufficiently 
nutritious.  The  marrow  is  oily  and  sweeter  than  the  brain,  but  in 
other  respects  resembles  it.  Fat  and  suet  contain  little  nourish- 
ment, and  are  hurtful  to  the  stomach.  The  heart  and  liver  contain 
thick  juices,  are  difficult  to  digest  and  evacuate.  But  the  liver  of 
swine  is  better.  The  spleen  contains  bad  juices,  and  occasions  me- 
lancholic humours.  The  lungs  are  more  digestible  as  being  spongy, 
bat  contain  less  nourishment  and  form  phlegm.  The  stomach, 
womb,  and  intestines  are  hard,  indigestible,  and  form  phlegm.  In 
general,  the  nourishment  from  wild  animals  is  drier  and  less  excre- 
mentitiotts  than  that  from  tame.  All  blood  is  of  difficult  digestion, 
especially  the  thick  and  melancholic  as  is  that  of  oxen ;  but  that  of 
hares  is  esteemed  very  delicious,  and  many  are  in  the  practice  of 
boiling  it  with  the  liver,  and  some  with  the  other  viscera.  Some 
eat  also  that  of  young  swine ;  and  even  Homer  was  aware  that  the 
blood  of  goats  is  eaten  by  certain  people. 


LXXXVL— 0»  MilL 

Milk,  when  digested,  is  nutritive,  but  is  injurious  to  the  gums 
and  teeth ;  and,  therefore,  after  taking  it,  one  ought  to  rinse  one's 
mouth,  first  with  honied  water,  and  then  with  an  astringent  wine, 
It  also  produces  headach,  occasions  flatulence  of  the  stomach,  and 
hypochondria,  and  engenders  stones  in  the  kidneys.  The  more 
watery  kind  contains  less  nourishment,  but  is  more  laxative,  while, 
on  the  other  hand,  the  thick  is  more  nutritive,  and  moves  the  belly 
less.  That  of  the  goat  is  of  a  middling  consistence,  as  that  of  the 
sheep  is  thicker ;  and  it,  immediately  after  the  ewe  has  brought 
forth  lambs,  is  thinner,  but  it  afterwards  becomes  thicker  and 
worse. 


BOOK    FIUST.  47 

LXXXVIL— On  the  Drinking  0/ Milk. 

Hb  who  drinks  milk  ought  to  abstain  from  all  other  food  until  it 
be  digested,  and  pass  downwards.  It  is  best  therefore  to  drink  it  in 
the  morning,  newly  milked,  and  to  take  no  food  after  it,  nor  any 
bard  exercise,  because  this  would  make  it  turn  acid.  But  it  is 
better  to  walk  about  gently,  and  rest  between,  without  sleeping. 
After  doing  this,  the  first  part  will  be  evacuated,  and  then  one  may 
drink  another  part,  and  when  it  is  evacuated  another  may  be  taken. 
At  first,  therefore,  it  purges  properly,  not  indeed  from  the  rest  of 
the  body,  but  what  was  contained  in  the  belly.  Afterwards  it  en- 
ters the  veins,  and  nourishes  excellently,  and  is  no  longer  evacuated. 
In  bilious  defluxions,  and  colliquative  diarrhaeas,  the  milk  should  be 
given  boiled.  Boil  it  at  first  gently,  and  for  a  short  time,  so  that 
none  of  it  may  run  over,  and  that  part  of  it  may  be  consumed.  Af- 
terwards it  may  be  boiled  more  and  more,  taking  care  not  to  bum 
it,  nor  convert  it  into  cheese.  This  will  be  best  guarded  against  by 
boiling  it  softly,  and  clearing  away  what  is  separated  by  the  agita- 
tion. It  may  be  agitated  with  a  smooth  and  slender  reed ;  and,  if  it 
boil  at  the  lips,  this  h-oth  may  be  cleared  away  with  a  sponge,  for 
often  the  part  there  spoils  all  the  rest.  The  milk  then,  as  is  said, 
ought  to  be  boiled  until  it  become  thicker  and  sweeter  than  the  raw. 
And  the  thin  and  serous  part  may  be  dissipated  by  putting  heated 
pebbles  into  the  mUk.  Tliis  is  beneficial  in  defluxions  of  the  belly, 
and  particularly  in  bilious  ones. 


LXXXVIII. — On  Milk  that  has  been  separated  into  Parts. 

By  powerful  boiling  at  a  strong  fire  without  smoke,  the  serous 
part  of  the  milk  is  separated  from  the  caseous,  and  is  then  strained 
through  a  sieve  or  piece  of  rag  carefully,  and  to  the  serous  part  is 
added  a  moderate  quantity  of  honey,  or  of  vinegar  and  honey,  or 
salts ;  and  it  is  given  to  evacuate  the  bowels  in  the  quantity  of  two 
sextarii  to  adults,  and  to  younger  persons  not  less  than  a  sextarius. 
And  milk  thickened  by  ignited  pebbles  or  iron  may  be  given  with 
advantage  for  dysenteries  and  alvine  discharges. 


LXXXIX. — On  Cheese. 

All  cheese  is  acrid,  occasions  thirst,  is  difficult  to  digest,  forms 
bad  chyme,  and  engenders  stones.  That  is  best  which  is  new, 
spongy,  soft,  sweet,  and  has  a  moderate  share  of  salt.  The  opposite 
kbd  is  the  worst. 


48  PAULUS    iEGINETA. 


XC.—On  Fishes. 

That  all  fishes  are  of  a  cold  and  humid  temperament  is  obvious. 
Those  that  are  found  among  rocks  are  the  best,  being  of  easy  diges- 
tion, furnishing  good  juices,  and  being  moderately  moistening  when 
their  flesh  is  not  hard.  Of  those  that  do  not  dwell  among  rocks, 
the  most  excellent  are  those  that  live  in  the  sea,  or  where  rivers  meet 
the  sea.  But  still  worse  are  those  which  are  found  in  marshes  and 
stagnant  parts  of  the  sea.  In  particular,  the  pollard  (capito)  being 
a  sea  fish,  is  moderately  sweet,  not  very  indigestible,  furnishes  good 
chyme,  but  the  blood  formed  from  it  is  thin  and  weak.  So  it  is 
also  with  the  barb  (lupus).  The  surmullet,  as  being  a  sea  fish,  is 
harder  than  the  others,  dry,  digestible,  nutritive,  sweet,  and  free 
of  fat, 


XCI. — On  the  Testacea. 


Thb  testacea  in  general  form  a  saltish  and  crude  chyme;  but  of  them 
the  oysters  have  the  softest  flesh,  and  are  most  laxative.  The  che- 
mae,  purpuras,  solenes,  spondyli,  buccinse,  cochleae,  and  such  like,  are 
hard.  And  those  covered  with  a  soft  shell  (crustacea)  such  as 
the  astaci,  paguri,  crabs,  common  lobsters,  and  tliose  called  squillse, 
are  of  diflicult  digestion,  nutritious,  and  bind  the  belly  when  often 
boiled  in  sweet  water.  The  juices  of  all  the  testacea  are  laxative, 
and  therefore  from  the  land  snails,  although  their  flesh  be  hard,  in- 
digestible, nutritious,  and  contains  bad  juices,  some  make  a  sauce, 
with  oil  and  pickle,  which  they  use  for  opening  the  belly.  The  sea 
urchins  (echini)  are  moderately  cooling,  contain  little  nourishment, 
and  are  diuretic. 


XCII. — On  the  Molltisca. 

Thb  mollusca,  such  as  polypi,  sepise,  and  loligines,  are  hard  and 
indigestible,  and  particularly  the  polypi.  Their  juices  are  saltish, 
but  when  digested  they  furnish  considerable  nourishment  to  the  body, 

XCIII. — On  the  Cartilaffinotis  Fishes. 

Of  the  cartilaginous  fishes,  the  torpedo  and  pastinaca  have  soft 
and  sweet  flesh,  which  passes  readily  downwards,  is  easily  digested, 
and  proves  nutritive.  The  rays  (raitej,  leviraiae,  skates  (squatina), 
and  the  like,  are  harder  and  diflicult  to  digest,  and  more  nutritious. 
In  general,  those  animals  which  have  hard  flesh  are  difficult  to  di- 
gest, and  contain  much  nourishment.  When  properly  digested, 
they  furnish  much  and  substantial  nourishment. 


BOOK  FIRST.  49 


XCIV.— On  the  Cetacea. 

Thb  cetacea,  or  whale  species,  such  as  the  balaense,  seals,  zygseaae, 
dolphin,  and  great  tunnies,  have  hard  and  indigestible  flesh,  con- 
taining thick  juices.  When  pickled,  they  are  more  moderately  so. 
And  of  the  other  fishes,  those  which  are  most  humid  and  excremen- 
titions  are  most  fitted  for  pickling ;  but  there  is  the  same  di£ference 
in  pickles  as  in  the  fishes  .^om  which  they  are  formed. 


XCV. — Oh  the  Properties  of  Wine. 

He  who  has  taken  the  subject  of  health  into  consideration  ought 
to  be  acquainted  with  the  powers  of  wine.     Wine  in  general  is  nu- 
tritious, but  that  which  is  red  and  thick  is  more  particularly  so  ;  but 
its  juices  are  not  good.     The  sweet  also  is  nutritious,  but  not  sto- 
machic.    The  astringent  is  stomachic,  but  is  distributed  with  dif- 
ficulty to  the  parts  of  the  body,  and  nourishes  less.     The  white 
nourishes  lees  still.     Wine  of  a  yellow  colour  is  the  best  of  all. 
That  which  is  old  is  more  heating  and  desiccant  than  the  new. 
Such,  in  a  word,  are  the  properties  of  wine.     But  wine  in  general 
resuscitates  the  natural  heat  within  us,  and  therefore  it  improves 
digestion,  and  forms  good  blood.     And  being  of  a  penetrating  na- 
ture, it  difinses  the  nourishment  all  over  the  body,  and  therefore  it 
recruits  those  who  are  emaciated  by  disease,  for  it  gives  them  an 
appetite  for  food.     It  attenuates  phlegm,  clears  away  the  bile  by 
nrine,  and  imparts  a  good  colour.     To  the  soul  also  it  communicates 
gladness  and  pleasure,  and  improves  the  strength.     Such  are  the 
good  efiects  of  the  moderate  use  of  wine.     But  its  immoderate  use 
produces  just  the  reverse ;  wherefore,  those  who  are  drunk  become 
changed,  are  delirious^  and  disposed  to  heavy  sleep.     On  that  ac- 
count, such  an  immoderate  use  of  wine  ought  to  be  avoided  ;  but  at 
greater  intervals  it  may  be  drank  liberally,  for  it  promotes  the  dis- 
charges by  urine  and  perspiration.     But  it  is  better  in  such  cases  to 
vomit,  by  taking,  beforehand,  of  honied  water,  so  that  one  may  not 
be  injurcMl  by  it.    When  one  has  drunk  largely,  it  is  not  proper  to 
take  much  of  any  other  food ;  but  while  drinking,  one  should  eat 
boiled  cabbage,  and  tiMste  ^ome  sweet  meat,  particularly  almonds. 
These  things  relieve  headach,  and  are  not  difficult  to  vomit.     It  is 
also  very  proper  to  take  the  infusion  of  wormwood  before  drinking, 
for  of  all  things  it  is  the  best  preservative  from  surfeit.     If  one  ex- 
perience any  painful  effects  from  wine,  one  should  drink  cold  water, 
and  the  next  day  again  the  infusion  of  wormwood;  and  by  using 
eiercise,  friction,  the  bath,  and  restricted  food,   in  this  way  get 
restored  to  healths 


£ 


50  PAULUS  iEOINETA. 


XCVI. — On  Honey  and  Honied  Water, 

Boiled  honey  is  rather  nutritive  than  laxative ;  but  when  un- 
boiled the  contrary.  It  agrees  with  cold  and  humid  temperaments, 
but  in  the  warm  it  is  converted  into  bile.  Honied  water  does  not 
agree  well  with  those  who  are  affected  with  bitter  bile,  being  con- 
verted into  bile.  In  such  constitutions  the  honied  water  ought  to 
be  very  weak ;  but  it  is  not  proper  for  those  whose  bowels  are  easily 
affected.  The  honied  water  may  be  prepared  by  adding  eight  parts 
of  water  to  the  honey,  and  thus  boiling  it  until  it  cease  from. froth- 
ing. It  is  expedient  also  to  clear  away  the  scum  as  soon  as 
formed. 


XCVIL— 0»  Sleep. 

It  remains,  after  having  treated  of  every  thing  connected  with 
diet,  to  say  something  of  sleep,  which  is  generally  taken  after  every 
other  thing.  Sleep,  then,  may  be  briefly  defined  a  relaxation  of 
the  vital  powers,  occasioned  by  a  suitable  humidity  irrigating  the 
brain.  When  properly  taken  it  may  produce  many  good  effects. 
It  digests  the  food,  concocts  the  fluids,  soothes  pain,  alleviates 
lassitude,  and  relaxes  that  which  is  contracted.  It  is  also  calculate' 
ed  to  produce  oblivion  of  mental  sufferings,  and  to  rectify  the  dis- 
tracted powers  of  reason.  The  most  suitable  season  for  sleep  is 
after  a  meal.  But  that  during  the  day  does  not  agree  with  all,  be* 
cause  the  time  spent  in  sleep  is  not  sufficient  for  the  complete 
digestion  of  the  food ;  and,  when  the  digestion  is  interrupted  unsea- 
sonably, those  who  rise  from  sleep  at  noon  are  often  troubled  with 
acidity  and  flatulence,  and  sometimes  even  with  a  gargling  noise  in 
their  bowels,  unless  from  habit  or  sufficient  rest  these  bad  effects  be 
obviated.  The  best  season  for  sleep  is  the  night,  for  the  humidity 
and  drowsy  stillness  of  night  contribute  to  perfect  digestion. 
Wherefore  after  these  nocturnal  slumbers  we  feel  the  most  desire 
for  evacuation.  The  proper  limit  to  sleep  is  the  complete  digesticm 
of  the  food,  as  may  be  ascertained  by  the  eructations,  and  by  tap- 
ping over  the  stomach ;  after  which  it  may  be  useful  to  awake  in 
order  to  evacuate  the  excrementitious  renmins  of  the  digestion. 


XCVIIL— CM  Watchfulness. 

The  cure  of  watchfulness  in  disease,  whether  proceeding  from 
pain,  fever,  or  some  acute  sjrmptom,  will  be  treated  of  under  the 
head  of  fevers,  but  we  shall  now  treat  of  the  watchfulness  of  those  in 
health.  If  their  watchfulness  proceed  from  sorrow,  care,  or  any 
mental  emotions,  we  must  endeavour  if  possible  to  remove  the  of- 
fending cause,  and  then  to  divert  the  attention  by  agreeable  sounds. 
For  this  purpose,  some  seek  after  the  gentle  noise  of  waters,  by 


BOOK  FIRST.  51 

which  they  are  soothed  and  lulled  to  rest.  After  proper  digestion, 
they  should  use  baths  especially  in  the  evening,  and  a  moistening 
diet,  such  as  lettuces  and  the  like.  They  may  also  mix  the  green 
leaves  of  the  black  poppy  with  condiments,  and  eat  fish  of  easy  di- 
gestion. They  should  sdso  use  plenty  of  wine  which  is  light  and 
not  old.  When  about  to  go  to  bed,  their  heads  should  be  anointed 
with  rose  oil,  or  with  oil  in  which  the  heads  of  poppies  or  mandrake 
have  been  boiled.  And  the  oil  of  dill  not  too  old  is  soporific.  I 
have  known  rest  succeeding  suddenly  to  fatigue  produce  this  effect. 
Moderate  coition  will  sometimes  do  the  same.  Others  easily  pro- 
cure rest  by  having  their  head  and  ieet  cooled.  But  if  their  watch- 
fulness be  occasioned  by  their  stomachs  being  oppressed  by  the 
quantity  or  bad  quality  of  the  food  (and  I  have  known  this  happen, 
in  like  manner  as  in  others  it  arises  from  an  unseasonable  absti- 
nence or  diminution  of  their  accustomed  food),  this  ought  to  be  in- 
quired into  and  the  cause  removed. 


XCIX. — On  Somnolency. 

If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  sleep  be  profound  and  heavy,  we  must 
abstain  from  frequent  baths  and  cooling  unguents ;  we  must  use 
masticatories,  and  upon  the  whole  change  the  regimen  for  one  of  a 
hotter,  drier,  and  less  nutritive  character,  because  the  afifection  is 
occasioned  by  a  cold  and  humid  matter  irrigating  the  brain. 


C. — The  Epistk  of  Diocles  on  the  Preservation  of  Health, — 

IHocles  to  King  Antigomie. 

SiMCB  of  all  kings  you  are  the  most  skilled  in  the  arts,  and  have 
lived  longest,  and  have  become  acquainted  with  all  philosophy,  and 
attained  the  highest  rank  in  mathematics,  I,  supposing  that  the 
science  which  treats  of  whatever  relates  to  health  is  a  branch  of  phi- 
losophy becoming  a  king  and  befitting  to  you,  have  written  you 
tins  account  of  the  causes  of  diseases,  of  the  symptoms  which  pre- 
cede them^  and  of  the  modes  by  which  they  may  be  cured.  For 
neither  does  a  storm  gather  in  the  heavens  but  it  is  preceded  by 
certain  signs  which  seamen  and  skilful  men  attend  to,  nor  does 
any  disease  attack  the  human  frame  without  having  its  precursory 
symptoms.  If,  then,  you  will  only  be  persuaded  by  what  we  say  re- 
gar&ng  them,  you  may  attain  a  correct  acquaintance  with  these 
things.  We  divide  the  human  body  into  four  parts,  the  head,  the 
diest,  the  belly,  and  the  bladder.  When  a  disease  is  about  to  fix  in 
Ihe  head,  it  is  usually  preceded  by  vertigo,  pain  in  the  head,  heavi- 
ness in  tiie  eye-brows,  noise  in  the  ears,  and  throbbing  of  the  tem- 
ples ;  the  eyes  water  in  the  morning,  attended  with  dimness  of 
sight;  the  sense  of  smell  is  lost,  and  the  gums  become  swelled. 
When  any  such  symptoms  occur,  the  head  ought  to  be  purged>  not 
indeed  with  any  strong  medicine,  but  taking  the  tops  of  hyssop  and 

b3 


52  PAULUS  iEGlNETA. 

sweet  marjoram,  pound  them  and  boil  them  in  a  pot  with  half  a  hae- 
mina  of  must  or  rob,  rinse  your  mouth  with  this  in  the  morning 
before  eating,  and  evacuate  the  humours  by  gargling.  There  i» 
no  gentler  remedy  than  this  for  affections  of  the  head.  Mustard  ia 
warm  honied  water  also  answers  the  purpose  well.  Take  a  mouth- 
ful of  this  in  the  morning  before  eating,  gargle  and  evacuate  the 
humours.  The  head  also  should  be  warmed  by  covering  it  in  such 
a  manner  as  that  the  phlegm  may  be  readily  discharged.  Those  who 
neglect  these  symptoms  are  apt  to  be  seized  with  the  following  dis- 
orders :  inflammations  of  the  eyes,  cataracts,  pain  of  the  ears  as  if 
from  a  fracture,  strumous  affectiopsof  the  neck,  sphacelas  of  the  brain ». 
catarrh,  quinsy,  running  ulcers  called  achores,  caries,  enlargement  of 
the  ruvula,  defluxion  of  the  hairs,  ulceration  of  the  head,  pain  in  the 
teeth.  When  some  disease  is  about  to  fall  upon  the  chest,  it  is  usually 
announced  by  the  following  symptoms :  there  are  profuse  sweats  over 
the  whole  body  and  particularly  about  the  chest,  the  tongue  ia 
rough,  expectoration  saltish,  bitter,  or  bilious,  pains  suddenly  seiz- 
ing the  sides  or  shoulder-blades,  frequent  yawning,  watchfulness, 
oppressed  respiration,  thirst  after  sleep,  despondency  of  mind,  cold- 
ness of  the  breast  and  arms,  trembling  of  the  hands.  These  symp- 
toms may  be  relieved  in  the  following  manner :  procure  vomiting 
after  a  moderate  meal  without  medicine.  Vomiting  also  when  the 
stomach  is  empty  will  answer  well,  to  produce  which  first  swallow 
some  small  radishes,  cresses,  rocket,  mustard,  and  purslain,  and  then 
by  drinking  warm  water  procure  vomiting.  Upon  those  who  neglect 
these  symptoms  the  following  diseases  are  apt  to  supervene :  pleu- 
risy, peripneumony,  melancholy,  acute  fevers,  phrensy,  lethargy, 
ardent  fevers  attended  with  hiccough.  When  any  disease  is  about 
to  attack  the  bowels,  some  of  the  following  symptoms  announce  its 
approach.  In  the  first  place,  the  belly  is  griped  and  disordered,  the 
food  and  drink  seem  bitter,  heaviness  of  the  knees»  inability  to 
bend  the  loins,  pains  over  the  whole  body  unexpectedly  occurring, 
numbness  of  the  legs,  slight  fever ;  when  any  of  these  occur,  it  will 
be  proper  to  loosen  the  belly  by  a  suitable  diet  without  medicine. 
There  are  many  articles  of  this  description  which  one  may  use  with 
safety,  such  as  beets  boiled  with  honied  water,  boiled  garlic,  mal- 
lows, dock,  the  herb  mercury,  honied  cakes ;  for  all  these  things 
are  laxative  of  the  bowels.  Or,  if  any  of  these  symptoms  increase, 
mix  bastard  safifron  with  all  these  decoctions,  for  thereby  they  will 
be  rendered  sweeter  and  less  dangerous.  The  smooth  cabbage 
boiled  in  a  large  quantity  of  water  is  also  beneficial ;  this  decoction 
with  honey  and  salt  may  be  drank  to  the  amount  of  about  four 
haeminse,  or  the  water  of  chick-peas  or  tares  boiled  may  be  drank 
in  the  same  manner.  Those  who  neglect  the  afore- mentioned  symp- 
toms are  apt  to  be  seized  with  the  following  affections :  diarrhcea* 
> dysentery,  lienter}%  ileus,  ischiatic  disease,  tertian  fever,  gout,  apo- 
plexy, haemorrhoids,  rheumatism.  When  any  disease  is  about  to 
seize  the  bladder,  the  following  symptoms  are  its  usual  precursors  : 
a  sense  of  repletion  after  taking  even  a  small  quantity  of  food,  fla- 
tulence^ eructation,  paleness  of  the  whole  body,  deep  sleep,  urine 


BOOK  FIRST.  53 

pale  and  passed  with  difficulty,  swellings  about  the  privy  parts. 
When  any  of  these  83rmptoms  appear,  their  safest  cure  will  be  by 
aromatic  diuretics.  Thus  the  roots  of  fennel  and  parsley  may  be  in- 
fused in  white  fragrant  wine,  and  drank  every  day  when  the  sto- 
mach is  empty  in  the  morning  to  the  amount  of  two  cyathi,  with 
water  in  whidi  carrot,  myrtle,  or  elecampane  has  been  macerated 
(you  may  use  any  of  these  you  please,  for  all  are  useful)  ;  and  the 
infusion  of  chick-pease  in  water  may  be  drank  in  like  manner. 
These  symptoms  when  neglected  are  commonly  followed  by  these 
diseases :  dropsy,  enlargement  of  the  spleen,  pain  of  the  liver,  cal- 
culus, inflammation  of  the  kidneys,  strangury,  distention  of  the 
belly.  Regarding  all  these  symptoms  it  may  be  remarked  that 
children  ought  to  be  treated  with  gentler  remedies,  and  adults  with 
more  active.  I  have  now  to  give  you  an  account  of  the  seasons  of 
the  year  in  which  each  of  these  complaints  occur,  and  what  things 
ought  to  be  taken  and  avoided.  I  begin  with  the  winter  solstice. — 
Of  the  winter  solstice, — ^This  season  disposes  men  to  catarrhs  and 
defluxions,  until  the  vernal  equinox.  It  will  be  proper  then  to  take 
such  things  as  are  of  a  heating  nature,  drink  wine  little  diluted  or 
drink  pure  wine,  or  of  the  decoction  of  marjoram,  and  indulge  in 
vcnery.  From  the  winter  solstice  to  the  vernal  equinox  are  ninety 
days.  Of  the  vernal  equinox. — ^This  season  increases  phlegm  in 
men,  and  the  sweetish  humours  in  the  blood  until  the  rising  of  the 
pleiades.  Use  therefore  juicy  and  acrid  things,  take  labour,  and 
indulge  in  venery.  To  the  rising  of  the  pleiades  are  forty-six  days. 
Of  the  rising  of  the  pleiades, — ^This  season  increases  the  bitter  bile, 
and  bitter  humours  in  men,  imtil  the  summer  solstice.  Use  therefore 
all  sweet  things,  laxatives  of  the  belly,  and  indulge  but  sparingly 
in  venery.  To  the  summer  solstice  are  forty-five  days.  0/  the 
summer  solstice. — This  season  increases  the  formation  of  black  bile 
in  men,  until  the  autumnal  equinox.  Use  therefore  cold  water,  and 
every  thing  that  is  fragrant ;  and  do  not  indulge  in  venery,  or  do  so 
more  sparingly  than  is  generally  directed  regarding  these  matters. 
To  the  autumnal  equinox  are  ninety-three  days.  Of  the  autumnal 
equinox, — ^This  season  increases  phlegm  and  thin  rheums  in 
men  until  the  setting  of  the  pleiades.  Use  therefore  remedies  for 
removing  rheums,  have  recourse  to  acrid  and  succulent  things,  take 
no  Tomits,  and  abstain  from  labour  and  venery.  To  the  setting  of 
the  pleiades  are  forty-five  days.  Of  the  setting  of  the  pleiades, — ^This 
season  increases  phlegm  in  men  until  the  winter  solstice.  Take 
therefore  all  sour  things,  drink  as  much  as  is  agreeable  of  a  weak 
wine,  use  fat  things,  and  labour  strenuously.  To  the  winter  sol- 
stice are  forty-five  days. 


COMMENTARY 


ON   THE 


FIRST    BOOK 


OF 


PAULUS    iEGINETA. 


I.— ON  THB  COMPLAINTS  OF  PREGNANT  WOMEN  AND  THE 

REGIMEN  PROPER  FOR  THEM. 

Hippocrates  says  that,  when  pregnant  women  long  to  eat  coals  and  earth, 
the  likeness  of  these  things  appears  on  the  head  of  the  child.  De  Superfata- 
tionef  c.  8. — Galen  likewise  believed  in  the  influence  of  the  imagination  of 
pregnant  women  on  the  foetus  in  tUero.  Ad  PUonem.  This  belief  was  very 
ancient,  for  it  appears  to  be  countenanced  by  the  Jewish  historian. — See 
Genesis  xxx.  37 — 39.  Traces  of  this  opinion  may  be  found  in  Hesiod ;  and 
distinct  allusion  to  it  is  made  in  the  Cynegetics  of  Oppian.  Lib.  i.  327. 
The  story  in  the  Mihiopics  of  Heliodorus  respecting  Chariclea,  the  white 
daughter  of  the  black  King  and  Queen  of  the  Ethiopians,  bespeaks  the  pre- 
valence of  the  belief  at  the  time  when  this  celebrated  romance  was  written. 
My  limits  do  not  admit  of  my  tracing  the  history  of  this  singular  notion  in 
modem  times.  I  may  mention,  however,  that  it  was  adopted  by  the  celer 
brated  Sir  Everard  Home,  in  a  late  publication,  on  the  existence  of  nerves  in 
ike  placenta, — Philosoph,  Trans,  for  1825.  Andreas  Laurentius  gives  an 
interesting  statement  of  ancient  and  modem  opinions  on  this  subject,  de 
Mirab.  Strum.  Sanit, 

The  bird  pica  is  mentioned  by  name(ictrTa)  in  the  Aves  of  Aristophanes. — 
See  also  Schol.  in  Aristoph,  in  Fac.  496,  and  Vesp.  348. — ^Aristoteles,  H.  A.v  ii. 
4,  and  Plinius,  H.  N,  z.  41.  Hardouin  concludes,  from  Pliny *s  account  of 
it,  that  it  was  the  magpie. 

On  the  disease — See  Galenus,  Hygieine,  de  Causis  Sympt.  i.  7. — Aetius, 
XTi.  10. — ^Theophanes  Nonnus,  c.  213. — Moschion  de  Morh,  Mulier.  c. 
27. — Eros  apud  Gynacia — ^Alexander  Aphrodisieus,  ProbUmata  lib.  ii.  p. 
73. — Pseudo-Dioscorides,  Euporist,  ii.  16.  Rhases,  ContinenSf  lib.  xi. 
Avicenna,  lib.  iii.  fen.  21,  tr.  2. — Haly  Abbas,  Theorica,  vi.  17. — Serapion. 
tr.iii.  22. — ^Alsaharavius,  Pract.  lib.  xxv.  §.  2.  c.  8.  It  appears  to  be  the 
nalacia  of  Pliny,  H.  N.  xxiii.  56. 


56  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

Moschion  defines  the  pica  to  be  an  appetite  for  unusual  food,  which  bap- 
pens  to  pregnant  women  at  some  irregular  period ;  being  attended  with  a 
collection  of  depraved  humours  and  nausea.  It  occurs,  he  says,  most  com- 
monly in  the  second  month,  but  sometimes  earlier,  and  sometimes  later. 
He  recommends  a  restricted  diet  at  first,  then  wine,  dry  astringent  food, 
cataplasms  of  a  repellent  nature,  and  bodily  motion. 

But  the  account  of  the  disease  given  by  Galen  and  Aetius  is  the  fullest. 
They  derive  the  name  either  from  the  bird,  as  mentioned  above,  or  from  ivy 
{klttos),  because,  as  ivy  entwines  itself  about  various  plants,  so  does  this  ap- 
petite in  pregnant  women  fasten  upon  a  variety  of  improper  articles  of  food. 
It  is  attended  with  languor  of  the  stomach,  nausea,  and  loathing  of  food,  bring- 
ing on  vomiting  of  bile  or  phlegm,  anxiety,  and  pains  in  the  stomach.  All 
these  symptoms  arise,  they  say,  from  a  sanguineous  plethora,  brought  on  by 
a  suppression  ot  the  menstrual  discharge.  They,  therefore,  recommend  a 
restricted  diet,  and  moderate  exercise  when  the  woman  was  accustomed  to 
it.  When  the  humour  which  infests  the  stomach  is  of  an  acid,  acrid,  or 
saltish  nature,  they  direct  to  give  draughts  of  tepid  water,  in  order  to  en- 
courage vomiting ;  they  forbid  ail  sweet  things ;  and  recommend  an  old  sub- 
astringent  wine.  When  there  is  a  loathing  of  food,  they  advise  to  tempt  the 
appetite  with  a  variety  of  savoury  things.  To  those  who  have  a  desire  for 
eating  earth,  they  particularly  recommend  starch.  When  the  fluid  which  is 
vomited  is  of  a  thick  and  viscid  nature,  they  recommend  to  give  pickles, 
radishes,  and  oxymel,  for  an  emetic.  TTiey  also  particularly  direct  to  apply 
astringent  cataplasms  and  plasters  to  the  prscordia. 

As  the  practice  of  the  other  authorities  is  conducted  upon  similar  prin- 
ciples, we  shall  only  mention  them  very  succinctly.  For  the  depraved  ap- 
petite which  longs  for  earth,  Serapion  recommends  aromatic  spices,  such  as 
cardamom,  cubebs,  and  the  like.  For  the  coatinued  romiting,  Alsaharavius 
directs  to  apply  over  the  stomach  plasters,  containing  the  oil  of  spikenard, 
mastich,  quinces,  wormwood,  and  the  like,  or  a  vessel  filled  with  hot  water ; 
to  give  pomegranate  seeds  to  hold  in  the  mouth ;  to  make  the  patient  take 
gentle  exercise,  and  abstain  from  all  sweet  things. 

Alexander  Aphrodisieus  accounts  for  the  disease  in  much  the  same  way  as 
Galen  and  Aetius.  He  says  that,  when  the  menstrual  fluid  is  suppressed,  a 
determination  of  it  takes  place  to  the  stomach,  until  the  foetus  becomes  as 
large  as  to  consume  it. 

Pliny  strongly  commends  citrons  for  the  cure  of  the  disease. 

For  the  Edematous  swellings  of  the  feet  and  legs,  most  of  the  other  autho- 
rities concur  with  our  author  in  recommending  astringent  applications.  The 
anthyllis  mentioned  by  him,  is  supposed  by  Sprengel  to  have  been  the  cres$a 
cretica» 

We  shall  conclude  our  commentary  on  this  chapter  with  an  outline  of  the 
directions  given  by  Aspasia  for  the  managementof  pregnant  women.  Women 
who  have  conceived  are  to  be  guarded  from  frights,  sorrow,  and  all  violent 
mental  perturbation.  They  are  to  avoid  gestation  in  carnages,  severe  exercise, 
inordinate  breathing,  and  blows  about  the  loins ;  also  lifting  heavy  loads, 
•dancing,  and  sitting  on  hard  seats.  Likewise  all  acrid  and  flatulent  food^ 
strong  clysters,  and  too  much  or  too  little  food  and  drink  are  to  be  avoided^ 
All  discharges  of  blood,  whether  from  the  nose  or  hemorrhoids,  are  dangerous 
in  the  pregnant  state.  Moderate  and  wholesome  food,  gestation  in  a  sedan, 
gentle  walking,  soft  friction,  and  the  exercise  of  spinning,  are  proper.  About 
the  eighth  month,  which  is  the  most  critical  period  of  pregnancy,  the  diet  is 
to  be  more  contracted,  and  the  exercise  increased .  If  the  belly  is  constipated 
owing  to  compression  of  the  rectum,  occasioned  by  the  enlarged  oterus, 
laxative  food  is  to  be  given,  such  as  ptisan  and  mallows.  In  the  ninth  month 
the  regimen  is  to  be  of  a  relaxing  nature,  and  for  this  purpose  the  tepid  bath 


COMMENTARY  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK.  57 

is  to  be  frequently  taken,  for  it  has  a  great  effect  in  rendering  parturition 
easy.    Aetius,  lib.  xvi.  12. 

Our  author  borrows  part  of  this  chapter  from  Oribasius,  and  abridges  th« 
rest  from  Galen  and  Aetius. 


II. ON  THB  NURSE. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasicis,  Sj/nops.  v.  2. 

Aetius  gives  somewhat  fuller  directions.  He  says,  the  nurse  ouzht  not  to  be 
younger  than  twenty,  nor  older  than  forty ;  should  be  free  from  disease,  and 
have  breasts  neither  too  small  nor  too  large.  When  the  breasts  are  too  large, 
they  contain  more  milk  than  the  child  can  manage ;  and  part  being  retained 
spoils,  and  proves  injurious  to  the  child,  and  even  affects  the  health  of  tho 
nurse.  When  too  small,  on  the  other  hand,  they  do  not  contain  a  sufficient 
supply  of  milk.  Large  nipples,  he  remarks,  hurt  the  gums,  and  impede 
deglutition ;  whereas,  when  too  smaAl,  they  cannot  be  got  hold  of.  The 
nurse,  he  says,  should  be  chaste,  sober,  cleanly,  and  cheerful.    Lib.  iv.  c.  4. 

The  directions  given  by  the  other  authorities  are  very  similar  to  our  au- 
thor's.— See,  in  particular,  Rhases,  ad  mansor,  iv.  30. — Avicenoa  Cantica, — 
Averrhoes  in  Cant.  p.  ii.  tr.  1 .  Avicenna  says,  the  nurse  ought  to  be  from 
25  to  35  years  old.    Averrhoes  says,  from  20  to  30. 

It  appears  to  have  been  a  general  practice  among  the  Romans,  after  they 
became  luxurious  and  effeminate,  for  the  ladies  of  noblemen  to  consign 
the  care  of  their  infants  to  wet  nurses.  Tacitus,  in  his  elegant  dialogue  de 
Oratoribuiy  inveighs  against  this  practice,  p.  105,  Ed.  Barker. — See  also  a 
spirited  declamation  on  this  subject,  by  the  philosopher,  Phavorinus,  in  the 
Nodes  Attica  of  Aulus  Gellius,  lib.  xii.  c.  1.  It  is  to  be  lamented  that,  at 
the  present  time,  this  unnatural  mode  of  bringing  up  children  is  far  from 
being  uncommon.  It  is  animadverted  upon  in  very  striking  and  forcible 
terms  by  the  well-known  William  Cobbett,  in  a  sermon  on  the  following 
text: — **  Even  the  sea-monsters  draw  the  breast;  they  give  suck  to  their 
young  ones."     Lamentations  iv  3. 

III. ON  THE  nurse's  MTLK. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Si/nop.  y.  3,  and  Aetius  iv.  3. 

The  method  of  trying  the  quality  of  the  milk  here  recommended  is  men- 
tioned by  Aetius,  Barytius  (ap.  Geopon,  xviii.  20.)  Dioscorides,  Avicenna, 
Haly  Abbas,  and  Alsaharavius.  It  is  approved  of  by  Smellie  (Midwifery, 
vol.  i.  p.  285),  and  by  Van  Swieten  (§.  1354,  Comment.)  According  to 
Avicenna,  a  child  ought  not  to  be  allowed  to  take  suck  oftener  than  twice  or 
thrice  in  the  day.— See,  in  particular,  Haly  Abbas,  Pract.  i.  21,  and  Alsaha- 
ravius, Pract.  tr.  xxx.  c.  3. 


IV. HOW  TO  CORRECT  VITIATED  MILK. 

Aristotle  forbids  wet  nurses  to  drink  wine.  It  is  the  same  thing,  he 
adds,  whether  the  nurse  or  the  child  drink  it.     De  Somno. 

Oribasius,  Aetius,  and  Avicenna,  give  similar  directions  to  our  author's. 
They  all  permit  nurses  to  take  a  moderate  allowance  of  animal  food  and  wine. 
When  the  nurse  has  too  little  milk,  Aetius  recommends  to  make  her  drink 
ale,  (Ztfthus.)  He  also  approves  of  sweet  wine,  gruels  prepared  with  fennel, 
or  green  dill  boiled  with  ptisan.    When  the  milk  is  thin,  he  directs  to  ab- 


58  COIIIISNTART  ON  THB  VIBST  BOOK. 

staiD  from  baths,  and  to  take  food  of  a  nutritive  quality,  such  as  fine  brea'l, 
the  legs  of  swine,  tender  birds,  the  flesh  of  kids,  and  sweet  wine.  When  the 
milk  is  thick,  he  recommends  frequent  baths,  and  an  attenuant  diet.  When 
the  milk  is  excessive,  he  directs  to  diminish  the  quantity  of  tlie  food,  and  to 
give  what  is  less  nutritive,  and  to  make  discutient  applications  to  the  breasts, 
such  as  a  linen  cloth  wet  in  vinegar,  and  to  wash  them  frequently  with  warm 
salt  water,  or  the  decoction  of  myrtle. 

Hippocrates  forbids  the  nurse  to  take  things  of  an  acrid,  saltish,  acid,  or  crude 
nature.  He  recommends  fennel,  cytisus,  parsley,  and  the  hot  bath  as  a  gene- 
ral regimen  to  nurses.    De  Mulieb. 

Haly  Abbas  gives  similar  directions.  He  properly  recommends  to  pre- 
vent the  nurse  from  taking  things  of  a  pungent,  sour,  and  bitter  nature. 
When  the  nurse's  milk  is  deficient,  he  directs  to  give  her  the  milk  of  cows 
and  goats,  fennel,  lettuce,  parsley,  and  the  like.    Fract.  i.  21. 


y. ON  THB  NURTURB  OF  THE  CHILD. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  v.  5. 

The  practice  of  giving  honey  to  new-bom  children  is  similar  to  that  of 
tlie  common  people  in  Scotlano,  who  give  sugar  and  water  in  these  cases. 

Galen,  in  like  manner,  approves  of  the  honey.  He  directs  to  sprinkle  the 
body  of  a  new-born  child  with  salt ;  and  afterwards  to  rub  it  every  day  with 
oil.  After  the  milk  diet  is  given  up,  the  first  food  to  be  administered,  he 
says,  should  be  bread,  and  a^rwards  pulse  and  flesh.  He  forbids  the  use 
of  veine,  because  the  temperament  of  a  child  is  hot  and  humid.    Hygiene. 

Aetius  recommends  to  bring  up  the  child  upon  milk  for  twenty  months. 
Moschion  says,  from  eighteen  months  to  two  years  will  be  sufficient.  Avicenna, 
like  our  author,  mentions  two  years.  It  is  stated  by  Selden,  that  the  Hebrew 
women  gave  suck  to  their  children  for  two  years.  This  practice  is  enjoined 
in  the  Koran.  Aetius  is  not  so  strict  in  regard  to  regimen  as  Galen ;  he 
allows  to  vary  the  milk  diet,  by  giving  occasionally  soft  eggs,  mead,  or 
sweet  wine  diluted  with  water.    Lib.  iv.  c.  28. 

Moschion,  Averrhoes,  and  Avicenna,  approve  of  exercising  the  child  in  a 
cradle,  and  of  lulling  him  with  music.  When  the  cord  falls  off,  Avicenna 
advises  to  sprinkle  the  part  with  the  powder  of  burnt  lead. 

Averrhoes  disapproves  of  sprinkling  the  child's  body  with  salt,  as  recom- 
mended by  Galen,  Colliget.  lib.  ii.  c.  6.  He  agrees  with  Galen,  however, 
in  condemning  the  use  of  wine.  He  directs  to  give  the  child  exercise  every 
day,  after  exercise,  friction,  and  after  friction,  the  bath.  He  forbids  the  use 
of  the  cold  bath,  however,  because  it  retards  the  growth.  When  the  child 
does  not  sleep,  Avicenna  and  Averrhoes  recommend  to  give  him  poppy  in 
his  food.     CanticGf  p.  ii.  tr.  1. 

Haly  Abbas  directs,  when  there  is  any  malformation  of  the  head,  to  reduce 
it  to  its  proper  shape,  and  bind  it  firm.  Like  Galen,  he  recommends  to 
sprinkle  the  body  of  a  new-born  child  with  salt  and  powdered  roses,  to  har- 
den the  skin.  He  directs  to  give  the  child,  for  the  first  two  days,  sugar, 
triturated  with  the  oil  of  sesame.  He  recommends  the  frequent  use  of  the 
tepid  bath.  He  properly  directs,  not  to  expose  the  child's  eyes  to  the  strong 
lieht  of  day,  nor  to  allow  him  to  sleep  in  a  strong  sun,  for  fear  of  injuring 
his  eyes.  When  a  child  cries,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  nurse,  he  says,  to  find  out 
the  cause,  as  a  child  never  cries  except  when  something  hurts  it.  The  most 
common  causes,  he  adds,  are,  heat  or  cold,  fleas  or  gnats,  hunger  or  thirst,  re- 
tention of  urine  or  of  the  faeces.  For  retention  of  the  urine,  he  recommends 
to  give  melon  seed  with  julep  both  to  the  x^hild  and  the  nurse ;  and,  when 
the  child's  bowels  are  constipated^  he  directs  to  give  the  nurse  laxative  herbs. 


coif  MINT  ABT  ON  THB  FIRBT  BOOK.  59 

oil  of  olives,  prunes,  and  so  forth.  It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  he  was  aware, 
that  a  child  may  be  operated  upon  by  medicines  given  to  the  nurse.  Dr. 
Cullen  considers  this  practice  to  be  altogether  nugatory ;  but  general  ex- 
perience, both  in  the  human  species  and  in  the  inferior  animals,  has  proved 
the  contrary.    Haly  Abbas,  Fract.  i.  20. 

The  directions  given  by  Alsaharavius  are  very  similar.  He  remarks  that 
violent  crying  may  occasion  a  descent  of  the  bowels. 

Syrasis,  one  of  the  commentators  on  Avicenna,  recommends  the  tepid  bath 
for  young  children,  and  food  after  it.  He  directs  to  exercise  the  child  before 
putting  him  into  the  bath. 

From  what  we  have  stated,  it  will  be  seen,  that  the  ancient  physicians  did 
not  approve  of  the  cold  regimen,  absurdlyproposed  by  certain  modem  phi- 
losophers as  the  most  proper  for  infants.  Tiiey  also  very  properly  forbade  the 
use  of  wine,  a  practice  strongly  reprobated  by  the  celebrated  Dr.  Waters 
house  of  America.  Public  Lecture,  containing  Cauiiont  to  Young  Penom 
concerning  Healthy  p.  29. 

VI. ON  THB  BXANTHBIIATA,   OB  BBUPTI0N8  OF  INFANCY. 

This  chapter  is  taken  ^m  Oribasius,  Synoptiiy  v.  6.  See  also  Aetius, 
lib.  iv.  21.  The  exanthemata  here  referred  to  appear,  properly  speaking,  to 
be  the  ttropkuli  of  Dr.  Willan,  but  the  ancients  used  the  term  rather  vaguely 
for  several  eruptive  diseases.  See  book  4th.  The  exanthemata  appear  to 
be  the  '^  pustulae  parvs'*  of  Eros,  apud  Gynaeia,  p.  59.  For  the  Arabians, 
see  in  particular  Haly  Abbas,  Fract,  i.  20. — ^Avicenna,  lib.  i.  f.  3.  d.  1. — 
Alsaharavius,  tr.  xxvi.  c.  7  and  8.  Alsaharavius  describes  two  cutaneous 
complaints  of  infency  by  the  names  of  Alseafa  and  Alkaba,  The  former  he 
describes  as  consisting  of  pustules,  which  affect  the  heads  of  infants,  and 
sometimes  the  face.  They  are  attended,  he  says,  with  a  constant  itching, 
and  occasion  erosion.  This  appears  to  be  the  porrigo  larvalis  of  Drs.  Willan 
and  Bateman.  He  directs  to  shave  the  head,  and  to  apply  to  it  first  a  leaf 
of  blite  (bleta  vel  betal)  and  afterwards  an  ointment  composed  of  spuma 
argenti,  ceruse,  and  lye  with  rose  oil  and  wax.  The  Alkaba  is  said  to  be  of 
the  same  nature,  only  that  the  fluid  which  runs  ftx>m  the  pustules  resembles 
honey.  This,  therefore,  must  be  the  porrigo  favosa.  He  directs  to  wash  the 
head  frequently  with  a  lotion  made  from  maijoram,  mint,  or  centaury ;  and 
then  to  apply  an  ointment  composed  of  spuma  argenti,  ceruse,  Armenian 
bole,  sulphur,  almonds,  and  quicksilver;  and  also  liniments  of  rose-oil  and 
vinegar,  with  the  free  use  of  the  bath.  As  Dr.  Willan  remarks,  he  has  de- 
scribed the  strophuli  by  the  name  of  pustulae  (bothor),  tr.  xxvi.  c.  25. 
He  says  of  them :  *^  Alise  sunt  albs,  alise  rubee,  aliae  nigrae,  alise  magns,  alis 
parvs  et  multee  et  panes?,  alis  fortis  et  acuti  doloris,  et  mortiferce,'*  &c. 
It  appears,  therefore,  that  he  applies  the  term  in  a  very  lax  signification. 

Rhases  describes  the  exanthemata  by  the  name  of  vesica.  He  recom- 
mends to  give  at  the  commencement  medicines  for  expelling  the  morbific 
superfluity  firom  the  inner  parts,  such  as  the  decoction  of  dates  or  figs,  with 
fennel  water.  When  the  eruption  is  fiurly  come  out,  he  recommends  baths 
medicated  with  roses,  myrtles,  and  the  like ;  after  which,  the  child  is  to  be 
robbed  with  the  oil  of  roses  or  of  violets.  De  .^ritvd,  Infantium,  c.  19. 
Lanfrancus,  and  the  other  medical  authorities  of  that  age,  describe  them  by 
the  name  of  sopAa^t. 

VII.— ON  THB  COUOH  AND  DBFLUXION  OF  INFANTS. 

See  Oribasius,  Synop.  v.  7,  and  Aetius,  iv.  18.  Aetius  recommends 
various  lohochs  or  linctus.  One  of  them  consists  of  pine  kernels,  almonds, 
linseed,  liquorice  juice,  and  honey. 


60  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIB8T  BOOK. 

Emetics  and  demulcents,  such  as  gum  arable  and  liquorice,  are  the  reme- 
dies recommended  by  Avicenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  3.  doct.  1. 

Haly  Abbas  approves  of  lohochs  containing  almonds,  honey,  &c.  Pract. 
i.  20.  Alsaharavius  recommends  various  demulcents,  and  an  electuary  con- 
taining poppy  seed,  tragacanth,  and  the  seeds  of  citrons,  to  be  taken  in  a 
decoction  of  Sebesten  plums.  lie  also  directs  to  produce  vomiting,  by  mak- 
ing the  patient  swallow  copious  draughts  of  honied  water.    Tr.  xxvi.  c.  24. 

Hhases  recommends  nearly  the  same  remedies,  de  Morbis  Infant,  c.  18. 


VIII. — ON  PRURITUS. 

See  Galenus,  Ht/g.  lib.  v. — Oribasius,  Synop.  v.  8. — Avicenna,  lib.  i. 
fen.  3.  d.  1. — Haly  Abbas,  Pract.  i.  20. — Rhases  de  Morb.  Infant,  c.  19. — 
Alsaharavius,  Pract,  xxvi.  25. 

The  account  given  by  Oribasius  is  similar  to  our  author*s.    Synop.  v.  8. 

Alsaharavius  properly  directs  to  pay  attention  to  correct  the  acrimony  of 
the  nurse's  milk ;  to  wash  the  child  with  decoctions  of  roses,  myrtle  leaves, 
and  the  like ;  if  the  pustules  are  of  a  dry  nature,  to  rub  them  with  oil  of 
sesame  or  of  violets ;  and,  if  humid,  with  an  ointment  made  of  wax,  litharge, 
and  rose  oil. 

Rhases  directs  to  make  the  nurse  abstain  from  sweet  and  salt  things,  as 
they  inflame  the  blood ;  and  to  put  the  child,  into  a  bath  medicated  with 
mallows,  pearl-barley,  fenugreek,  gourds,  &c. 

Avicenna  and  Haly  Abbas  treat  the  complaint  upon  similar  principles. 


IX.— ON  DENTITION. 

See  in  particular  Oribasius,  Synop.  v.  9,  and  Aetius,  iv.  9.  Ilippoci-ates 
and  Aetius  recommend  a  jasper  amulet.  Hippocrates  remarks  that  pains, 
restlessness,  and  convulsions  are  apt  to  come  on  at  the  time  of  dentition,  if 
the  child  be  plethoric,  and  his  belly  constipated.  AphoriSy  cum  Comment. 
Galeni, 

Moschion  directs  to  rub  the  gums  of  the  child,  after  the  fifth  month,  with 
sweet  oil,  the  fresh  grease  of  a  hen,  the  brain  of  a  hare,  and  lastly  with 
boiled  honey.  When  inflammation  supervenes  afterwards,  he  recommends 
fumigations  and  cataplasms,  and  directs  to  restrict  the  food  and  drink  of  the 
nurse.    C.  119. 

The  directions  given  by  Avicenna  are  similar  to  those  of  Moschion,  lib.  i. 
fen.  3.  doct.  1.  Alsaharavius  properly  states  that  the  best  way  to  avoid  dif- 
ficult dentition  is  to  guard  against  corruption  of  the  food  and  drink,  and  to 
abstain  from  emetics,  acids,  figs,  &c.  To  remove  the  painful  symptoms 
attendant  on  dentition,  he  directs  to  rub  the  gums  with  olive  oil,  honey  in 
which  aloes  and  gum  arabic  have  been  boiled,  and  the  like ;  to  wrap  the  head 
in  soft  wool,  and  to  pour  tepid  water  upon  it.     Pract.  xxxvi.  19. 

The  treatment  recommended  by  the  other  authorities  is  very  similar.  See 
in  j^rticular  Rhases,  iii.  c.  13. 

The  only  ancient  authors  who  make  mention  of  scarification  of  the  gums 
as  a  remedy  for  painful  dentition  are,  Marcellus  Sideta  (Mcdicina  ex  Pisci- 
bus)  and  Pliny,  H.  N,  xxxii.  26.  Both  direct  to  do  it  with  the  sting  of  the 
Pastinaca  Marina. 

Ambrose  Par^  recommends  to  open  the  gums  with  a  lancet  in  extreme 
cases,  but  mentions  the  practice  in  such  terms  as  shows  that  it  was  not  com- 
mon in  his  time. 

Sprengel  gives  the  history  of  this  simple  operation.  Hist,  de  la  Med. 
§  xviii.  c.  17. 


COMMKNTAUr  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK.  6L 


X. — ON  APHTHJB,  OR  THB  THRUSH. 

The  aphtha  appears  to  be  the  otcedo  of  Isidorasy  Orig,  iv.  8. 

Our  author  copies  from  Oribasius,  Synop,  ▼.  10.  See  also  Aetius,  viii. 
39.  Aetius  borrows  his  account  from  Graleo,  who  is  very  iiiU  upon  the 
treatment  of  aphthee.  He  remarks,  that  recent  superficial  ulcers  are  easily 
cui-ed,  but  that  such  as  spread  and  are  of  a  gangrenous  nature  are  very  dan- 
gerous. He  gives,  at  great  length,  directions  for  the  composition  of  applic^- 
tionsy  suited  to  every  modification  of  the  complaint.  When  the  pustules  are 
red,  he  directs  to  use  washes  of  a  moderately  astringent  and  cooling  nature ; 
if  yellowish,  the  same,  but  somewhat  more  refrigerant ;  if  whitish  and  pitui- 
tons,  detergents  are  to  be  used ;  and,  if  black,  the  most  powerful  discutients. 
For  simple  cases  of  the  aphthae  infantium,  he  merely  recommends  the  flowers 
of  roses  with  honied  water.  Most  of  his  remedies  are  astringents.  De  Med, 
sec.  Loc.  lib.  vi.  In  another  work,  he  says  that  aphthae  are  occasioned  by 
the  acrimony  of  the  milk,  and  are  to  be  cured  with  astringents.  Comment, 
in  III,  Popul, 

Avicenna  recommends  at  first  washes  prepared  from  the  vegetable  acids, 
and  afterwards  astringents,  such  as  galls,  sumach,  balaustine,  &c.  Lib. 
i.  fen.  3.  doct.  1.    See  also  Haly  Abbas,  Pract,  i.  20. 

Alsaharavius  states  that  aphthae  generally  arise  from  the  sharpness  of  the 
milk.  His  general  treatment  consists  in  regulating  the  diet  of  the  nurse,  and 
using  washes  principally  of  an  astringent  nature  for  the  child's  mouth. 
When  they  are  very  painful,  he  directs  to  add  to  the  washes  the  juice  of 
lettuce,  endive,  and  the  like.  When  they  are  whitish,  he  recommends  to  use 
a  powder  consisting  of  myrtle,  saffron,  and  sugar.  Tr.  xxvi.  20.  Rhases' 
treatment  is  quite  similar,  de  Morbii  Infantium,  c.  14. 

The  author  of  the  Euporiston,  which  has  been  falsely  ascribed  to  Dios- 
corides,  recommends  certain  applications  of  a  strongly  escharotic  nature, 
such  as  the  following:  Of  arsenic,  p.  i.;  of  burnt  paper,  p.  iii.;  or  this,  of 
sandarach  and  rose-oil  equal  parts.    Euporist,  i.  82. 

Psellus  enumerates  two  kinds  of  aphthae,  namely,  the  white  and  the  red ; 
the  fonner,  he  says,  is  mild,  the  latter  very  dangerous.    Poema  Medicum, 


XI. ON  BZCORIATIONS  OF  THB  THIGHS. 

See  in  particular  Oribasius,  Synop,  v.  11. — Aetius,  iv.  24,  and  Avicenna, 
lib.  i.  fen.  3.  doct.  1.  All  recommend  nearly  the  same  astringent  applications 
for  the  Intertrigo  of  infants. 


XII. ON  DI8CHAR0BS  PROM  THB  BARS. 

Oribasius,  Aetius,  Avicenna,  and  Haly  Abbas,  recommend  the  same 
treatment,  which  would  seem  to  be  very  proper.  Alsaharavius  recommends 
to  apply  wor)l  soaked  in  a  solution  of  alum,  and  to  use  injections,  consisting 
of  solutions  of  nitfe  (soda)  in  vinegar.  Rhases  makes  mention  of  nearly  the 
same  applications,  de  Morb.  Infant,  c.  9. 


XIII. — ON  SIRIASIS. 

See  Oribasius,  iSynop.  v.  13. — Aetius,  lib.  iv.  c.  13. — Avicenna,  lib.  i. 
fen.  3.  doct..  1, — Haly  Abbas^  Pract,  i.  20.    Alsaharavius,  Pract,  xxvi.  9. 


62  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

Khases,(ie  Morb,  Infant,  c.  5. — ^Pseudo-Dioscorides,  Euporist.  i.  9.— Alex- 
ander Aphrodisieus,  ProbUm  i.  98. — Plinius,  H,  N.  xxxii.  48. 

Aetius  and  Avicenna  agree  in  describing  it  as  an  inflammation  and  swell- 
ing of  the  brain  and  its  membranes,  so  as  to  occasion  a  hollow  at  the  bregma, 
and  as  being  attended  with  ardent  fever.  The  account  given  by  the  others  is 
very  similar.  All  recommend  cooling  and  astringent  applications  to  the  part. 
According  to  Alexander  Aphrodisieus,  children  are  most  subject  to  this  affec- 
tion, especially  in  the  summer  season ;  for  which  he  attempts  to  assign  the 
reason.  He  describes  it  as  an  inflammation  of  the  membranes  of  the  brain. 
The  author  of  the  Euporiston  recommends  the  juices  of  various  cooling  herbs, 
as  local  applications.  Pliny  represents  the  heat  of  it  as  excessive.  He  says, 
''  Siriasesque  intotium  spongia  frigida  crebro  humefectata,  rana  inversa  adal- 
ligata  efficacissime  sanet,  quam  aridam  inveniri  affirmant." 

Sprengel,  treating  of  Paulus,  says,  **  II  decrit  fort  au  long  Tinflammation 
de  la  tete  connue  depuis  long-temps  sous  le  nom  de  Siriasis.''  Hist,  de  la 
Med,  §  vi.  c.  3, 

XIV. — ON  THE  RBOIMEN  OF  INFANCY  AND  OF  THE  SUCCEEDING 

AGES,  UNTIL  MANHOOD. 

These  simple  but  judicious  directions,  respecting  the  regimen  of  the  differ- 
ent periods  orlife,  are  taken  from  Oribe^ius,  Synap,  v.  14. — or  from  Aetius, 
iv.  29.    Many  of  them  are  borrowed  originally  from  Galen,  Hyg.  lib.  i. 

Similar  directions  are  given  at  great  length  by  Haly  Abbas.  He  positively 
prohibits  children  flrom  taking  wine.  He  insists  that  wine  not  only  proves 
prejudicial  to  health,  but  also  deteriorates  the  morals,  Pract.  i.  22.  Alsa- 
haravius  agrees  with  him  in  proscribing  wine  to  children,  Theor.  xiii.  2. 

Avicenna  makes  very  judicious  observations  on  this  subject,  but  the  greater 
part  of  them  are  taken  nrom  Galen.  He  insists  with  becoming  earnestness 
on  the  propriety  of  attending  to  the  regulation  of  the  passions  of  the  child,  as 
being  conducive  to  his  health  as  well  as  to  his  morals.  As  soon  as  the  boy 
is  roused  from  sleep  he  is  to  be  bathed ;  then  he  is  to  be  allowed  to  play  for 
an  hour ;  afterwards,  he  is  to  get  something  to  eat,  and  then  is  to  be  allowed 
more  play.  Afterwards  he  is  to  be  bathed ;  then  he  is  to  take  food ;  and,  if 
possible,  he  is  to  be  prohibited  from  drinking  water  immediately  after  a  meal, 
as  it  has  a  tendency  to  make  unconcocted  chyle  be  distributed  over  the  body. 
When  six  years  old,  he  is  to  be  consigned  to  the  care  of  a  teacher,  but  he  is 
not  to  be  compelled  to  remain  constantly  in  school.  And  here,  by  the  way, 
I  will  digress  to  introduce  the  sentiments  of  Quintilian,  the  great  Roman 
authority,  on  all  matters  relating  to  education :  **  Nee  sum  adeo  imprudens 
aetatum,  ut  instandum  teneris  protinus  acerb^  putem,  exigendamque  plenam 
operam.  Nam  id  in  primis  cavere  oportebit,  ne  studia  qui  amare  nondum 
potest,  oderit,  et  amaritudinem  semel  prsceptam,  etiam  ultra  rudes  annos  re- 
rormidet.''  Inst.  Orat.  lib.  i.  Avicenna  goes  on  to  state  that,  at  the  age  he 
has  then  reached,  he  is  to  be  more  sparingly  bathed,  and  that  his  exercise 
is  to  be  multiplied  before  eating.  Like  most  of  the  ancient  authorities,  he 
forbids  to  allow  the  child  wine.  Thus,  he  adds,  is  the  regimen  of  the  child 
to  be  regulated  until  he  reach  the  age  of  fourteen.   Lib.  i.  fen.  doct.  i.  c.  4. 

Averrhoes  gives  very  sensible  directions  on  this  subject.  He  forbids  the 
use  of  wine  and  ales  until  manhood.     ColUget.  lib.  vi.  6. 


XV. ON  THE  PREPARATORY  FRICTION. 

A  MORE  circumstantial  account  of  the  mode  ofpreparing  the  body  for  gym- 
nastic exercises  is  given  by  Oribasius,  Med.  Collect,  vi.  13:    It  is  .taken, 


GOMMSNTART  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK.  68 

however,  from  Galen's  2d  book  of  Hygiene.  See  a  similar  account  in  Actios, 
lii.  1.  and  Avicenna,  lib.  1.  fen.  3,  doct.  2.  The  object  of  it,  according  to 
Alexander  Aphrodisieus,  was  to  soften  the  parts  so  that  they  might  not  be 
niptured.  Frob,  i.  119.  To  rub  the  body  with  oil  was  a  general  practice  of 
the  ancients  before  strong  exercises  of  every  kind.  Hence  Horace  cbarac* 
terises  an  inactive  person  by  his  dread  of  oil :  **  Cur  olivum  sanguine  viper* 
ino  cautius  vitat  r — that  is  to  say,  as  his  commentator  Acron  explains  it, 
^  Cur  Titat  olivum,  id  est  oleum,  quo  unctus  tutius  natet  et  luctetur  ?**  The 
poet  alludes  to  the  practice  in  another  place :  ^  Ter  uncti  transnanto  Tiberim.'^ 
It  appears  from  Martial  that  a  composition  of  oil  and  wax,  called  eeromoy  was 
sometimes  used  for  this  purpose. 

"  Vara  nee  ii^jecto  ceromate  brachia  tendis.*' — Lib,  vii.  Epiffr.  32. 

According  to  Thucydides,  the  Lacedemonians  were  the  first  who  rubbed 
their  bodies  with  oil  before  wrestling.  Lib.  i.  c.  1 .  Pliny  mentions  the  use 
of  oil  before  the  gymnastic  exercises  as  a  luxury  introduced  by  the  Greeks. 
It  appears  from  him  that  cheap  aromatics  were  sometimes  added  to  the  oil. 
He  mrther  relates,  that  some  barbarous  nations  used  butter  instead  of  oil.  H. 
AT.xi.  41. 

Athenseus  mentions  that  Atitiochus  Epiphanes  supplied  the  wrestlers  at 
Daphne  with  oil  of  saffron,  of  marjoram,  and  the  like.    Deipn.  lib.  v. 

Lucian  makes  Solon  say  to  Anacharsis  that  oil  produces  the  same  effect 
upon  the  living  body  as  upon  leather,  softening  it,  and  rendering  it  stronger 
and  less  apt  to  break.    Anacharsis, 

Mercurialis  gives  a  learned  disquisition  on  the  preparatory  friction,  in  his 
work,  de  Arte  Gt/mnastica,  lib.  i.  8.  Baccius  approves  very  much  of  the 
unction  with  oil  previous  to  going  into  the  bath.  t)e  Thermis,  lib.  iii.  The 
Roman  emperors,  and  other  luxurious  persons,  often  made  use  of  perfumed 
ointments  instead  of  oil.  See  Suetonius,  in  Vita  Caligiday  Lampridius,  in 
Vita  Heliogabali.  It  would  appear  that  under  the  empire  the  people  of 
Rome  were  supplied  gratuitously  with  oil  in  their  public  baths.  V.  Lamp, 
c.  24,  and  Burman,  de  V,  R,  c.  iii. 


XVI.-^ON  BXERCI8B8. 

The  remarks  of  our  author  on  the  effects  of  exercise  are  exceedingly  per- 
tinent and  comprehensive.  See,  in  like  manner,  Aetius,  iii.  2,  and  Oribasius, 
Med.  Collect,  vi.  11.  But  Galen  is  the  great  authority  on  this  subject,  which 
he  treats  of  very  folly  and  philosophically,  in  the  2d  book  of  his  Hygiene, 
He  agrees  entirely  with  Hippocrates,  in  stating  that  the  proper  time  for  exer- 
cise is  before  a  meal,  because,  the  excrementitious  superfluities  being  thereby 
evacuated,  the  body  is  in  a  fit  condition  for  receiving  a  new  supply.  He 
explains,  however,  afterwards,  that  it  is  after  the  digestion  and  distribution  of 
a  preceding  meal  have  been  accomplished  that  exercise  will  be  most  proper. 

Averrhoes,  in  like  manner,  insists  upon  this  rule.  Collect,  §  ii.  c.  2.  Dr. 
Paris,  by  the  way,  states  that  this  is  the  proper  season  for  exercise.  Al- 
tbou^  he  disapproves  of  exercise  immediately  after  a  meal,  he  does  not 
approve  of  taking  it  when  the  stomach  is  empty. — (On  Diet,) 

According  to  Haly  Abbas,  exercise  is  useful  for  three  purposes :  1 .  For 
rousing  the  innate  or  natural  heat,  whereby  the  processes  of  digestion  and 
distribution  are  accelerated.  2.  For  opening  the  pores  of  the  body,  and 
evacuating  its  superfluities.  3.  For  strengthening  and  rousing  the  animal 
actions,  by  the  friction  it  occasions.  Theor,  v.  2.  Avicenna  gives  nearly 
the  same  enumeration  of  the  good  effects  of  exercise.  Haly  Abbas  forbids 
to  take  exercise  immediately  after  dinner.    He  adds,  that  exercise  taken 


64  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  flRST  BOOK. 

immediately  after  a  meal  makes  the  food  descend  to  the  intestines,  where  it 
is  absorbed  by  the  veins  before  it  is  properly  concocted,  and  thereby  the 
liver  becomes  loaded  vrith  crudities.    Pract^  i.  3. 

Alsaharavius  directs  to  take  exercise  before  a  meal,  but  advises  not  to  con- 
tinue it  after  one  feels  fatigued  and  languid.  Theor,  tr.  ii.  c.  2.  The  same 
rule  is  distinctly  laid  down  by  Rhases,  Continens,  lib.  xxxiii.  Dr.  Paris,  in 
like  manner,,  directs  not  to  carry  exercise  the  length  of  occasioning  fatigue. 
He  mentions  that  he  had  known  many  valetudinarians  who,  seeking  to  im- 
prove the  state  of  their  stomachs,  by  taking  exercise  before  a  meal,  had  de- 
feated their  end,  by  carrying  it  tlie  length  of  fatiguing  and  weakening  the 
powers  of  the  system. — (On  Diet.) 

It  appears  that,  instead  of  taking  exercise  after  food,^  the  ancients  were  in 
the  practice  of  indulging  in  a  short  sleep  after  their  dinner  or  mid-day  meal. 
See  Plautus,  MostelL  ac.  iii.  sc.  2. 1.  8,  and  the  note  of  Meursius.  Ed. 
Gronov.  Homer  says  that  it  is  beneficial  to  old  men  to  indulge  in  sleep 
after  the  bath  and  taking  food.    V.  Galen.  Hi/g,  lib.  1. 

Plutarch  mentions  that  Cicero  was  cured  of  debility  of  the  stomach  by 
taking  moderate  exercises.    In  vita  Ciceronis. 

It  was  one  of  the  extravagant  opinions  of  the  otherwise  justly<^elebrated 
Erasistratus,  that  exercise  is  not  at  all  necessary  for  the  health  of  the  animal 
frame. 

Hieronymus  Mercurialis  gives  many  pertinent  remarks  on  the  ancient 
exercises.  De  Art.  Gymnastica^  lib.  iv.  See  also  Baccius,  de  ThermiSf  lib. 
vi.  and  Vossius,  de  Natura  Artium,  lib.  i. 


XVII. ON  THE  KINDS  OF  EXERCISE. 

We  shall  now  give  a  brief  account  of  the  ancient  exercises,  some  of  which 
are  altogether  omitted  by  our  author. 

The  a-Kiofrnxui  is  thus  explained  by  Cornarius :  "  Porro  a-Kiofiaxuip  acci- 
pio  umi)ratilem  pugnam,  quk  quis  privatim .  dpmi  aut  sub  umbra,  non  in 
propatulo  se  exercet,  ac  veluti  prsparat  ad  justam  pugnam  publice  facien- 
aam."  Nota  in  Paul.  .^in.  h.  I.  This  account,  however,  does  not  agree 
with  that  of  Oribasius,  who  describes  it  as  a  mock  encounter  at  boxing  and 
jumping  with  one's  own  shadow.  Med.  Collect,  vi.  29.  It  is  thus  described 
in  the  Latin  translation  of  Avicenna :  '*  £t  ex  eis  est,  insequi  umbram  suam, 
ut  ipsam  percutiat  in  capite,  et  manus  ad  invicem  percutere.''  Lib.  i.  fen.  3. 
doct.  2.  c.  2.  It  is  mentioned  in  this  sense  by  Plato,  de  Legibus,  lib.  vii. ; 
and  by  Plutarch,  Frohl.  Conviv.  lib.  vii.  Juvenal  probably  alludes  to  this 
sport.  Sat.  vi.  246.  I  have  therefore  translated  it,  "  fighting  with  one's 
own  shadow." 

The  aKpoxfipio-fios  is  thus  described  by  Scaliger :  ''  Est  autem  aKpoxfip^C^uf 
luctae  pars,  cum  primoribus  tantumdigitis  insertis  roboris  faciunt  pei-iculum." 
PoeticeSy  lib.  i.  c.  22.  Suidas  explains  it  thus :  XafAfiopofuvos  yap  oKp&p  rap 
X€ip&v  Tov  carrayovurrov  tiCKa^  Kui  ov  nporepov  ^(jnei  irpiv  diarooiTO  oTroyo- 
peva-avTos.  The  term  occurs  in  Aristotle,  Eth.  Nicom.  iii.  1.  See  also, 
Athenseus,  Deipnos.  iv.  13.  It  is  called  oKpoxtipuns  by  Hippocrates,  De 
Diata. 

The  exercise  with  the  K&pvKOSf  or  leather  bag,  is  described  by  Oribasius  in 
the  following  manner :  A  bag  filled  with  flour  or  sand  was  suspended  from 
the  top  of  the  house,  on  a  level  with  the  navel ;  it  was  then  pushed  forwards 
with  the  hands  to  the  extremity  of  the  rope,  and,  as  it  recoiled,  the  person 
performing  the  exercise  retreated  backwards,  so  as  to  escape  from  it.  Med. 
Collect,  vi.  33.  This  exercise  is  mentioned  by  Hippocrates,  De  Diwta,  lib. 
ii.     Cornarius  confounds  it  with  the /o//is  of  the  Romans;  but  Mercurialis 


COMMBNTAK7  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  Gj 

clearly  shows  that  they  were  quite  different.  The  follis  was  a  leather  ball, 
inflated  with  air:  such  is  the  description  of  it  by  Ccelius  Aurelianus,  *'  Follis 
erat  piia  magna  ex  alutli  confecta,  soloque  vento  repleta.''  Martial  repre- 
sents it  as  a  becoming  exercise  for  boys  or  old  men : 

Ite  procnl  juvenes,  mitis  mihi  conveoit  tetas, 
FoUe  deoet  pueros  ludere,  foUe  senes. — Epiyr,  ziv.  45. 

They  were  different  from  the  pila  magna  and  parva.  These  are  minutt  ly 
described  by  Oribasius,  Med.  Collect,  vi.  32.  See  also  Horace,  Sat.  ii.  2,  and 
Martial,  EpigrAy.  15.  See  a  most  learned  and  accurate  account  of  all  these 
sports  in  Mercurialis,  de  Arte  Gymnaitkay  lib.  ii.  c.  4.  Galen  wrote  a  trea- 
tise on  the  exercise  of  the  parva  pila.  To  this  class  we  may  refer  the  pitch- 
ing  of  a  »ton€,  which  is  mentioned  by  Avicenna. 

Our  author  has  neglected  to  make  mention  of  the  halteres  in  this  place, 
but  recommends  the  exercise  for  the  cure  of  elephantiasis,  lib.  iv.  c.  1 .  The 
exercise  with  them  is  thus  described  by  Potter :  "  The  exercise  of  leaping 
they  sometimes  performed  with  weights  upon  their  heads  or  shoulders,  some- 
times carrying  them  in  their  hands ;  these  were  called  oXr^pcr,  which,  though 
now  and  then  of  different  figures,  yet,  as  Pausanias  reports,  were  usually  of 
an  oval  form,  and  made  with  holes,  or  else  covered  with  thongs,  through 
which  the  contenders  put  their  fingers."  Antiquities  of  Greece,  c.  20.  Mer- 
corialis  describes  them  as  masses  or  weights  of  different  materials,  and  of 
such  a  size  as  that  they  could  be  held  in  the  hands.  Ropes,  too,  he  adds, 
were  often  fastened  to  them,  to  hold  with.  De  Arte  Gymnasticuy  ii.  12. 
The  Pythagoreans  were  fond  of  this  exercise.  Iambi ichus,  de  Vita  Pytha- 
gora,  c.  21. 

The  funambulatio  consisted  merely  in  scaling  ropes,  which,  as  we  may 
suppose,  was  done  in  various  ways.  See  Mercurialis,  iii.  5,  and  Baccius, 
de  ThermiSf  viii.  7. 

The  €«arXe^pi^€iv,  as  Galen  and  Avicenna  explain,  consisted  in  running 
round  the  plethrum,  or  sixth  part  of  the  stadium,  and  always  contracting  the 
circle  of  one's  course,  until  one  stopt  in  the  middle.  The  irirvXt^ctv,  as  the 
same  authors  explain,  consisted  in  walking  upon  one*s  toes,  and  tossing  one*s 
hands  backwards  and  forwards. 

The  cricilasia  appears  to  have  been  a  large  hoop,  or  circle,  which  was  rol- 
led on  the  ground.  Even  Mercurialis  admits  the  obscurity  of  Oribasius's 
description  of  it,  Med.  Collect,  vi.  26. 

The  petaurum  was  a  seat  suspended  by  ropes,  in  which  seat  the  person 
taking  the  exercise  sat,  and  was  tossed  about  by  assistants.  It  is  mentioned 
by  Juvenal,  Sat.  xiv.  and  Martial,  Epigr.  xi.  22. « 

Antyllus  thus  describes  the  effects  of  equitation  on  the  human  frame :  ''  It 
strengtiiens  the  body,  especially  the  stomach,  more  than  any  other  mode  of 
exercise ;  it  clears  the  organs  of  the  senses,  and  renders  them  more  acute  ,* 
but  it  is  most  inimical  to  the  thorax.*'  Oribasius,  Med.  Collect,  vi.  24. 
Pliny  (H.  N.  xxviii.  4.)  and  Aetius  agree  with  Antyllus  as  to  the  good 
effects  of  equitation  on  the  stomach.  Hippocrates  and  Ccelius  Aurelianus 
state  that  equitation  is  hurtful  in  disease  of  the  hip-joint.  All  agree  that 
riding  on  horseback  is  hurtful  to  diseases  of  the  chest. 

Of  oi&poy  or  gestation,  there  were  various  modes.  That  in  a  carriage  was 
very  ancient,  and  is  often  mentioned  by  the  medical  authors.  It  appears 
from  Pliny  (H.  N.  xvi.  42.)  that  carriages  were  generally  made  of  fir,  and 
that  the  axles  were  of  ilex,  mountain  ash,  or  elm.  Sometimes,  however,  the 
whole  chariot  was  adorned  with  gold  and  silver,  (Pliny,  H.  N.  xxiv.  17.) 
They  appear  to  have  been  often  covered  in  with  skins,  (Plutarch,  Prob. 
Roman.)  They  were  generally  drawn  by  horses  or  mules,  sometimed  by 
oxen,  and  occasionally  by  slaves.    Th6y  were  so  constructed  that  a  person 

F 


C6  COMMENTARY  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK. 

could  either  sit  or  lie,  according  to  pleasure,  (Galen.  Ht/g.)  At  first,  accord- 
ing to  Pliny,  they  had  only  two  wheels ;  the  Phrygians,  he  says,  added  two 
more ;  and  Hippocrates  mentions,  that  the  Scythians  introduced  the  use  of 
six-wheeled  carriages.  The  sedan  and  chair  are  often  mentioned  by  the 
Latin  poets,  as  well  as  by  the  medical  writers.  It  is  sufficient  for  our  purpose 
to  state,  that  they  were  so  constructed,  that  one  could  either  sit  or  lie  in  them. 
They  sometimes  had  windows,  formed  from  the  lapis  specularis.  Juvenal, 
Sat.  iv.  21.  Navigation,  or  sailing  in  ships  and  boats,  is  often  mentioned  by 
ancient  authors  as  a  remedial  measure.  It  was  practised  on  the  sea,  or  in 
rivers.  According  to  Aetius,  gestation  in  general  ventilates  the  natural  beat, 
produces  excitement,  dispels  collected  humours,  strengthens  the  frame,  and 
rouses  the  actions  when  m  an  indolent  state.  Lib.  iii.  c.  6.  Celsus  has  art 
interesting  chapter  on  gestation.  The  following  rule  for  the  application  of  it 
is  very  judicious  :  ^*  Gestatio  quoque  longis  et  jam  inclinatis  morbis  aptissi- 
ma  est;  utilisque  est  et  iis  corporibus  quae  jam  ex  toto  febre  carent,  sed  adhuc 
exerceri  per  se  non  possunt ;  et  iis  quibus  lentae  morborum  reliquiae  rema- 
nent, neque  aliter  eliduntur."  Upon  the  whole,  he  holds  it  to  be  a  doubtful 
practice  in  ardent  fever,  although  sanctioned  by  the  authority  of  Asclepiades : 
at  all  events,  he  insists  that  gestation  is  improper  when  there  is  any  local 
pain  or  swelling.  After  characterising  the  different  modes  of  gestation,  be 
remarks  respecting  them: — ^**  Levia  quidem  genera  exercitationis  infirmis 
conveniunt :  valentiora  vero  iis  qui  jam  pluribus  diebus  febre  liberati  sunt-; 
aut  iis,  qui  gravium  morborum  initia  sic  sentiunt,  ut  adhuc  febre  vacent, 
quod  et  in  tabe,  et  in  stomachi  vitiis,  et  cum  aqua  cutem  subiit,  et  interdum 
in  regio  raorbo  fit ;  aut  ubi  quidam  morbi,  qualis  comitialis,  qualis  insania 
est,  sine  febre,  quamvis  diu,  manent.''    Lib.  ii.  c.  15. 

Galen  eulogises  hunting  as  being  an  excellent  exercise  to  the  body,  and  an 
agreeable  recreation  to  the  mind.  He  says,  that  by  the  mental  excitement 
which  it  produces,  many  have  been  cured  of  dangerous  diseases.  X)c  parva 
pita.  Rhases  mentions,  that  during  the  prevalence  of  a  certain  pestilential 
epidemic,  it  was  observed,  that  huntsmen  were  the  only  class  of  people  who 
escaped  its  contagion.  Continens,  lib.  iii.  The  ancients  have  transmitted 
to  us  many  elegant  treatises,  both  in  prose  and  in  verse,  on  this  delightful 
recreation.  Those  of  Xenophon,  Oppian,  Gratius,  and  Nemesianus,  will  be 
found  particularly  interesting.  The  younger  Pliny  attributes  his  recovery 
from  a  certain  complaint,  to  the  exercise  of  hunting.     Epkt.  lib.  v.  6. 

The  occupation  of  fishings  according  to  Plato,  produces  neither  mental 
nor  bodily  excitement.  In  Sophisfa.  Galen  and  Avicenna  briefly  mention 
it,  as  an  exercise  which  may  tend  to  the  preservation  of  health ;  but  neither 
of  them  appears  to  have  attached  much  importance  to  it.  The  poet  Oppian, 
however,  nas  celebrated  the  pleasures  and  dangers  of  fishing,  with  all  the 
enthusiasm  of  an  Isaac  .Walton,  or  a  Washington  Irving. 

Oribasius  states,  that  swimming  tends  to  warm,  strengthen,  and  attenuate 
the  body.  He  says,  that  swimming  in  the  sea  is  particularly  applicable  in 
cases  of  dropsy,  eruptive  diseases  of  the  skin,  and  elephantiasis.  It  is  apt, 
however,  he  adds,  to  prove  injurious  to  the  head,  and  also  to  the  nerves  when 
too  long  continued.  We  have  mentioned  in  the  15ih  Chapter,  that  the  an- 
cients got  their  bodies  rubbed  with  oil  before  going  into  the  water.  Celsus 
gives  nearly  the  same  account  of  it,  as  a  remedy  for  the  cure  of  diseases,  as 
Oribasius. 

Jumping  and  dancings  according  to  Oribasius,  occasion  a  determination 
downwards,  and  hence,  they  may  prove  useful  in  cases  of  amenorrhea.  Med. 
Collect,  vi.  31.  It  appears  from  a  case  related  in  a  work  attributed  to  Hip- 
pocrates, that  jumping  was  had  recourse  to,  to  procure  abortion.  Dertnt. 
pueri.  The  pyrrhic  dance  of  the  ancients  was  particularly  celebrated.  It 
was  performed  by  armed  men. — See  Vossius,  de  naf.  art.  lib.  i. 


COmilNTABT  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK.  G7 

On  the  Apotherapia  or  Restorative  process.—- See  Galenus,  Hyg.  iii.  Ori- 
basius,  Mea.  Collect,  vi.  16,  and  Avicenna,  lib.  i.  Fen.  3.  D.  2.  It  consisted 
simply  in  mbbing  the  body  softly  and  moderately  with  oil.  According  to 
Galen,  the  object  of  it  was  to  relieve  the  feelings  of  lassitude,  and  prevent 
any  l>ad  effects  from  the  exercise.  Mercurialis  states,  that  when  applied  after 
the  bath,  it  was  with  the  intention  of  preventing  the  humidity  from  being 
dissipated.  Odoriferous  ointments  and  powders  were  sometimes  used,  in- 
stead of  the  oil.     De  arte  gymnasticOf  lib.  i. 


XVIII. ON  THB  MODBS  OF  FBICTION. 

HiPPOCRATEs's  brief,  but  comprehensive  rules  for  the  application  of  fric- 
tion, are  tbus  given  in  the  language  of  Celsus : — "  Hippocrates  dixit,  fric- 
tione,  si  vehemens  sit,  durari  corpus ;  si  lenis,  molliri ;  si  multa,  mioui ; 
si  modica,  impleri.''  Celsus  adds,  that  according  to  circumstances,  the  body 
may  be  braced  by  it,  if  relaxed ;  may  be  softened,  if  indurated ;  may  have  its 
superfluities  expelled,  if  loaded  with  plethora,  and  have  nourishment  attracted 
to  it,  if  emaciated.  He  remarks,  that  it  is  mostly  applicable  in  the  decline  of 
a  disease.  His  other  directions  for  the  application  of  it  are  very  apposite. 
Lib.  ii.  c.  14. 

Pliny  delivers  the  rules  of  Hippocrates  in  nearly  the  same  words  as  Celsus. 
H.  N,  xxviii.  14. 

Our  author's  account  of  friction  is  taken  from  Oribasius.  Med.  Collect. 
lib.  vi.  or  from  Aetius,  lib.  iii.  All,  however,  are  indebted  to  Galen,  who 
handles  the  subject  most  scientifically.     Hyg.  lib.  ii.    * 

Similar  directions  are  given  by  Avicenna.  Lib.  i.  fen.  3.  Doct.  2.  and 
by  Haly  Abbas.  Theor.  v.  12.  Averrhoes  gives  the  sum  of  the  directions 
liud  down  by  Galen  and  the  other  authorities.  Strong  friction,  he  says, 
braces  and  hardens  the  body ;  weak,  rarifies  and  softens ;  moderate,  operates 
in  an  intermediate  degree.  Besides,  he  adds,  hard  friction  diminishes  obe- 
sity ;  moderate,  on  the  other  hand,  tends  to  remove  emaciation.    Collect,  ii.  3. 

It  was  a  general  practice  of  the  ancients  to  have  recourse  to  friction  in  the 
momiog  aim  evening.  Oribasius  has  many  excellent  observations  on  this 
practice,    u.  s. 

Dr.  Paris  remarks,  ''  the  ancients  are  well  known  to  have  held  friction  in 
high  estimation,  not  only  in  the  cure,  but  for  the  prevention  of  diseases.  The 
modems  have  unwisely  suffered  the  practice  to  rail  into  disuse.'*  On  Diety 
p.  362. 


XIX. ON  YOCITBBATION,  OB  THB  EXBBCISB  OF  THB  VOICE. 

Th£Se  remarks  of  our  author  are  very  pertinent;  but  Oribasius  has  given 
amoreoomprehensive  view  of  the  subject,  from  the  works  of  Antyllus.  He 
thus  describes  the  mode  of  performing  vociferation.  The  bowels  being 
eracoated,  the  person's  body  is  to  be  first  rubbed,  and  then  the  inferior  parts 
and  the  fi^  are  to  be  sponged  with  water :  He  is  to  begin  talking,  at  first,  in 
t  moderate  tone,  while  at  the  same  time  he  walks  about,  and  afterwards 
straining  his  voice  to  a  louder  tone,. he  is  to  repeat  certain  verses.  Med. 
Collect,  lib.  vi. 

Plutarch  gives  nearly  the  same  account  of  it.  He  commends  vociferation 
as  giving  strength  to  the  internal  parts,  increasing  the  vital  heat,  purifying 
the  veins,  attenuating  the  blood,  and  dispelling  the  humours.  He  cautions, 
however,  net  to  strain  the  voice  to  too  great  a  pitch,  lest  it  occasion  rupture 
of  any  of  the  vessels.     De  sanitate  tuendd. 

f2 


68  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

Vociferation,  according  to  Aetius,  is  an  exercise  of  the  chest  and  tl>e  organs 
of  speech,  improving  the  vital  heat ;  attenuating  and  strengthening  the  solid 
parts  of  the  body.  He  recommends  it  for  the  cure  of  asthma,  orthopnsa, 
phthisical,  and  chronic  pains  of  the  chest,  or  aposthemes  ^hen  they  burst; 
also,  in  tertian  intermittents,  and  affections  of  the  stomach  attended  with  vo- 
miting.   It  is  unsuitable,  he  says,  in  complaints  of  the  head.    Lib.  iii.  c.  5. 

Celsus  recommends  loud  reading  for  curing  weakness  of  the  stomach. 
Ijb.  i.8. 

Galen  scarcely  takes  any  notice  of  vociferation,  except,  that  in  one  place, 
he  states,  that  it  exercises  the  chest  and  lungs.  De  sanitate  tuenda.  Lib. 
ii.  11. 

Avicenna,  in  giving  an  account  of  vociferation,  follows  Aetius.  He  says, 
that  it  exercises  the  parts  about  the  mouth  and  chest ;  and  hence,  that  it  im- 
proves the  complexion.  He  likewise  cautions  not  to  prolong  loud  enuncia- 
tion, lest  it  occasion  a  rupture  of  the  vessels.  He  directs  to  begin  moderate, 
and  then  strain  the  voice  gradually,  and  afterwards  to  allow  it  to  sink  by  de- 
grees.    Lib.  i.  fen.  3.  doct.  2. 


XX. — ON  LASSITUDE  FROM  EXERCISES. 

There  is  a  short  treatise  on  this  subject^  among  the  minor  works  of  Theo- 
pbrastus.  He  states,  that,  as  the  excess  of  motion  in  this  case  has  produced 
a  preternatural  dryness  of  the  body,  the  indication  of  cure  is  to  humectate, 
that  is  to  say,  to  dilute  by  baths  and  drinks.  The  work  contains  many  in- 
genious observations;  but  our  limits  do  not  admit  of  our  giving  a  proper  out- 
line of  it. 

Our  author  copies  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  v.  15. — See  also,  Aetius,  iv.  55. 
el  seq.  They  all,  however,  are  indebted  to  Galen,  de  sanit,  tuend.  Lib.  iii. 
c.  7.  The  ulcerose  lassitude,  he  says,  arises  from  a  collection  of  excremen- 
titious  superfluities,  which  are  produced  by  the  melting  of  fat  and  muscle,  lu 
the  second  species,  called  the  tensive,  there  is  no  collection  of  humours,  but 
the  muscular  fibres  are  excessively  stretched.  The  third  species,  or  the  inflam- 
roative,  is  characterised  by  a  sensation,  as  if  the  parts  affected  were  bruised 
or  inflamed,  and  happens  when  the  muscles  being  excessively  heated,  attract 
the  superfluities  from  the  surrounding  parts.  From  the  pain  being  deep 
seated,  is  has  been  called  ostalgia.  He  adds  a  fourth  species,  being  a  case 
somewhat  different  from  all  those  we  have  been  describing.  It  is  the  contrary 
state  to  that  of  the  inflammative,  the  body  appearing  squalid  and  contracted. 
The  first  case,  as  it  is  connected  with  redundance  of  humours,  is  to  be  cured  by 
discutients ;  and  hence  the  proper  remedy  for  it,  is  much  friction,  with 
emollient  oils,  wholly  devoid  of  astringency.  He  also  approves  of  the  gentle 
exercise,  called  the  restorative.  The  second  species,  or  the  tensive,  is  to  be 
cured  by  gentle  friction,  with  emollient  oils  heated  in  the  sun  ;  by  complete 
quietude,  and  the  frequent  repetition  of  the  tepid  bath.  In  particular,  unction 
with  oil  is  proper.  The  third  species,  as  it  is  occasioned  by  violent  motions, 
and  is  attended  with  excruciating  pains,  is  to  be  cured  by  the  gentlest  friction, 
with  the  most  emollient  oils ;  by  the  most  perfect  rest,  and  the  tepid  bath. 
The  fourth  species,  characterised  by  squalor  and  constriction  of  the  skin,  is  to 
be  treated  by  the  hot  bath,  to  warm  and  invigorate  the  skin,  then  soft  and  slow 
molions  and  friction ;  and  then  again  by  the  hot  bath.  But,  he  adds,  the 
patient  must  straightway  leave  the  cistern  of  the  hot  bath,  and  plunge  into 
that  of  the  cold.  He  directs  not  to  remain  long  in  it.  The  diet  in  all  these 
cases,  is  to  be  restricted  and  cooling,  especially  in  the  inflammative. 

As  all  the  subsequent  authorities,  whether  Greek  or  Arabian,  adopt  the 
views  of  Galen,  I  need  not  enter  into  thedetail  of  their  plans  of  treatment. 


COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIB8T  BOOK.  69 

See  Psellus,  Opus  Medicum. — Ai^icenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  3.  doct.  2. — Rhases, 
Continens,  xxxi. — ^Alsaharavius,  Pract.  xxxi.  11.— Averrhoes,  CoUiget,  vi.  8. 
Collect,  ii.  15.  The  bath,  emollient  friction,  diluent  food,  and  quietude,  are 
the  remedies  generally  recommended  by  all  the  ancient  authorities ;  and  they 
are  directed  with  a  nice  discrimination  that  cannot  be  too  much  admiredf. 
Syrasis,  one  of  Ayicenna's  expositors,  also  gives  the  rules  of  treatment  with 
great  judgment. 

Prosper  Alpinus,  gives  a  fair  account  of  the  ancient  doctrines  on  this  sub- 
ject.    Meth,  Med.  iv.  16.  and  de prcttag.  vita  et  morte,\\.  21. 


XXI. ON  CONSTRICTION  OP  THE  SKIN. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  St/nops.  v.  16.  But  a  somewhat 
fuller  account  is  given  by  Galen.  Hyg*  iii*  10.  Like  our  author,  he  states, 
that  this  affection  is  occasioned,  either  by  a  collection  of  thick  viscid  humours 
in  the  body,  or  by  contraction,  that  is  to  say,  spasm  of  the  cutaneous  pores. 
It  is  generally  brought  on,  he  says,  by  exposure  to  cold,  or  going  into  an 
astringent  bath.  He  gives  very  minute  directions  about  the  treatment,  re* 
commending  hot  baths,  and  friction  with  oils  of  a  calefacient  and  attenuant 
nature. — See  also  Aetius,Iib.  iv.46.  and  Actuarius,  Meth.  Med.  iii.  16. 

Avicenna  treats  of  it  in  the  same  terms  as  Galen.  Lib.  i.  fen.  3.  doct. 
3.  c.  15. 


XXII. — ON  SPONTANBOUS    LASSITUDE. 

These  judicious  observations  are  taken  from  Oribasius,  Sj/nops.  v.  21 . — 
See  alsoGalenus,  de sanitate  tuenda,  lib.  iv. — Aetius,  lib.  iv.  41. — Avicenna, 
lib.  i.  fen.  S.  doct.  3.  c.  16. — Alsaharavius,  Prac^  lib.  xxxi.  §.  2.  c.  11. 
Rhases,  Contin.  lib.  xxxi. — ^Averrhoes,  Colliget.  vi.  14. 

All  the  authorities  recommend  nearly  the  same  methods  of  treatment.  Ga- 
len's account  of  the  subject. is  full,  complete,  and  satisfactory;  but  so  lengthy, 
that  I  cannot  venture  even  upon  an  abstract  of  it.  He  gives  proper  directions 
for  the  physician  to  endeavour  to  find  out  the  cause  of  the  lassitude,  and  to 
remedy  it  accordingly.  It  is  often  connected,  he  says,  with  retention  of  the 
menstrual  or  hemorrhoidal  evacuation,  or  the  stoppage  of  some  customary  dis- 
charge. When  attended  with  inflammatory  symptoms,  he  is,  properly,  very 
urgent  in  recommending  immediate  venesection,  without  which,  as  be  re* 
marks,  the  patient  cannot  escape  with  his  life,  unless  he  is  saved  by  a  critical 
evacuation,  such  as  bleeding  from  the  nose,  or  profuse  sweating. 

When  in  the  inflammative  lassitude,  the  head  is  affected,  Aetius  directs 
to  open  the  cephalic  vein;  when  the  chest  or  back,  the  basilic;  and  when 
the  whole  body  equally,  the  median.  He  recommends  also,  cooling  herbs, 
nich  as  beet,  mallows,  lettuce,  and  the  like,  with  ptisan  and  tepid  water. 
He  forbids  the  use  of  cold  water.  After  the  third  day,  if  the  patient  is  con- 
valescent, he  allows  a  thin  weak  wine,  much  diluted. 

Averrhoes  approves  very  much  of  Galen's  directions  respecting  the  treat- 
ment, except  that  the  peppers  recommended  by  him  had  not  been  found  to 
answer  in  nis  climate  (Corbuda).  Instead  of  them,  he  directs  to  give  cinna^ 
mon,  amber,  cassia  lignea,  and  similar  aromatics. 

Avicenna  joins  Galen  in  cautioning  the  physician  to  be  guarded  in  allow- 
ing his  patient  to  take  much  food,  as  the  vems  being  emptied  by  the  remedies 
applied  for  removing  the  lassitude,  greedily  absorb  the  chyle  before  it  is  pro- 
perly concocted. 


70  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 


XXIII. ON  THE  REGIMEN  OF  OLD  PERSONS. 

This  chapter  is  copied  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  v,  18. — See  also  Aetias, 
lib.  iv.  c.  30.  These  directions  are  all  borrowed  from  Galen,  {Hyg.  lib.  v.) 
-who  has  treated  of  the  subject  with  his  characteristic  elegance  and  good  sense.^ 
The  following  is  a  brief  exposition  of  his  views  of  practice  in  such  cases : — 
<'  Old  age  is  cold  and  dry,  and  is  to  be  corrected  by  diluents  and  calefa- 
cients,  such  as  hot  baths  of  sweet  waters,  drinking  wine^  and  taking  such  food 
as  is  moistening  and  calefacient/'  He  strenuously  defends  the  practice  of  al- 
lowing old  persons  to  take  wine.  He  properly  expresses  his  disapprobation 
of  giving  them  aloetic  pills  to  remove  constipation  of  the  bowels,  and  advises 
rather  to  keep  them  open  with  laxative  herbs  and  oily  clysters,  in  the  manner 
stated  by  our  author.  Aetius  remarks,  in  like  manner,  that  old  men  are  much 
hurt  by  strong  purgatives,  which  only  increase  the  disposition  lo  costiveness. 
All  that  is  required  m  such  cases,  he  remarks,  i^  to  lubricate  the  rectum  with 
an  injection  of  oil.  The  Arabians  follow  closely  in  the  same  strain.  Alsa- 
haravius  recommends  old  persons  to  drink  strong  diuretic  wines.  He  also 
approves  of  the  tepid  bath,  and  fiiction  with  emollient  oils.  He  disapproves 
of  much  exercise  and  of  taking  aloetic  pills,  instead  of  which,  he  directs  to 
give  oily  clysters  and  laxative  herbs. — Pract.  xxvii.  10. — See  more  particu- 
larly Averrhoes's  Commentary  on  the  Cantka  oi  Avicenna,  tr.  i.  They 
agree^  that  if  an  old  man  had  been  accustomed  to  be  frequently  bled,  the 
practice  is  not  to  be  wholly  laid  aside.  Avicenna  particularly  approves  of  a 
milk  diet.  He  recommends  to  drink  old  red  wines,  but  to  avoid  such  as  are 
new  and  sweet.    Lib.  I.  fen.  3.  doct.  3. 


XXIV. ON  RU008ITT  OF  THE  SKIN. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,    Synops.  v.  20. 

XXV. — TO  MAKE  THE  PERSPIRATION  FRAGRANT. 

This  is  copied  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  v.  21 . — See  alsoRhases,  ad  Mansor. 
V.  53. — Rhases  recommends  to  take  the  heads  of  cardui  for  food,  and  the 
seed  of  juniper  or  cassia  lignea  in  the  drink.  He  also  directs  to  rub  the 
body  with  pastils  of  roses,  and  to  drink  aromatic  wine. 

XXVI. TO  WARM  THE  HABIT. 

All  this  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  excepting  the  part  relating  to 
the  draught  or  propoma.  The  nature  of  the  Propomata  will  be  explained  in 
the  7th  Book. 

XXVII. ON  LIVIDITY, 

This  is  taken  from  Oribasius.    Synops,  v.  24. 

XXVIII. PRESERVATIVES    OF   THE  TEETH* 

This  chapter  is  mostly  taken  from  Oribasius.    Synop.  v.  25, 


COMMSNTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  7  1 

Rhases  gives  similar  directioDS.  He  recommends  to  avoid  emetics,  and 
to  pay  attention  to  keeping  them  clean.  He  recommends  the  following 
dentifrice : — Of  hartshorn,  of  the  seeds  of  tamarisk,  of  cypenis,  of  spiken- 
ard, of  each  3)9  of  the  salt  of  gem  3ij,  to  be  pulverised,  and  the  teeth  rubbed 
with  it.     Ad  Mansor,  iv.  21. 


XXIX. ON  PRB8BRVATIVBS  FROM  DBAFNB88. 

This  is  taken  from  Oribasius.    Synops.  v.  23. 

Rhases  particularly  directs  to  avoid  indigestion,  which,  without  doubt,  is 
occasionally  the  cause  of  indistinct  hearing.  He  recommends  to  introduce 
some  almond  oil  into  the  meatus,  and  to  guard  against  cold  wind.  Ad 
Mamor.  iii.  23. 


XXX.— ^ON  DIMNB88  OF  8IGHT. 

This  is  copied  firom  Oribasius.    Synopt.  v.  27. 

Rhases  gives  very  copious  and  sensible  directions  on  this  subject,  but 
many  of  them  are  the  same  as  those  given  by  our  author.  He  directs  to 
avoid  all  gross  and  diffusible  articles  of  food,  and  also  thick  wines.  Al- 
though he  forbids  to  read  books  written  in  small  characters,  he  recommends 
to  exercise  the  eyes,  by  looking  at  large  letters  or  pictures.  He  also  recom- 
mends various  coilyria,  containing  antimony,  tutty,  calamine,  camphor,  and 
the  like.     Ad  Mansor,  iv.  22. 


XXXI. ON  REPLETION  OR  PLETHORA. 

Our  author,  as  usual,  copies  from  Oribasius.     Synops.  v.  28. 

Hippocrates  describes  accurately  the  bad  effects  of  plethora,  but  at  so 
great  length,  that  I  cannot  venture  to  give  an  outline  of  his  practice.  I  may 
mention,  however,  that  purging  with  hellebore,  emetics,  the  warm  bath,  ana 
venesection,  are  his  most  powerful  remedies.     De  Diata.  iii.  16.  et  seq. 

Galen  also  has  a  treatise  of  considerable  length  on  the  same  subject. 
Among  the  causes  of  plethora  enumerated  by  him,  I  remark,  that  he  men- 
tions the  use  of  the  warm  bath  after  meals,  whereby  he  holds  that  the  system 
is  overloaded  with  imperfectly  concocted  chyle.  De  Plenitudine,  if  Meth, 
Med,\TL.  5. — See  also  Rhases,  ad  Mansor,  ii. — Haly  Abbas,  Prac^  i.  12. — 
Alsaharavius.  Pract.  v.  4. — Averrhoes,  Comment,  in  Cantic.  Avicenna, — 
Avicenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  2.  doct.  3. 

Alsaharavius  says,  that  plethora  is  marked  by  ruddiness  of  the  body, 
heaviness,  torpor,  large  veins,  somnolency,  a  large  face,  and  brawny  limbs. 
U  is  usually  accompanied,  he  adds,  by  impairment  of  the  understanding, 
forgetfiilness,  heaviness  of  the  head,  weakness  of  sight,  great  pulsation 
of  the  arteries,  and  a  disposition  to  epistaxis.  He  directs  to  use  a  restricted 
diet,  consisting  of  articles  not  very  nutritious,  to  take  exercise,  the  bath,  along 
with  friction,  and  medicines  calculated  to  evacuate  the  prevailing  humour, 
whether  blood,  phlegm,  or  bile. 

Haly's  account  is  very  like  our  author's. 

Rhases  gives  a  good  description  of  repletion,  which,  he  says,  is  ge- 
nerally brought  on  by  excess  in  eating  and  drinking,  along  with  too  much  in- 
dulgence in  sleep.    Avicenna's  description  is  similar. 


72  COMMENTARr  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 


XXXII. —  ON  INTOXICATION. 

Th£S£  simple  directions  are  extracted  from  Oribasius.  Sj^nopsUf  v.  33, 
Hippocrates  recommends  an  emetic  after  intoxication,  de  DicstUy  iii.  4. 

For  the  cure  of  intoxication,  Haly  Abbas  recommends  the  tepid  bath, 
aflfusion  of  tepid  water,  and  friction  with  oil.  If  headach  prevails,  he  directs 
to  pour  cold  rose  oil  on  the  head  ;  or,  if  it  is  summer,  cold  water.  After 
ill  is,  the  person  is  to  be  rubbed,  and  to  take  things  of  a  cooling  nature,  such 
as  prunes,  tamarinds,  and  the  like.     PracL  i.  8. 

Khases  recommends  vinegar  and  water,  or  the  like,  for  drink ;  to  apply 
vinegar  and  oil  of  roses  to  the  head,  and  camphor  and  water  to  the  nose. 
He  also  approves  of  emetics,  and  of  putting  the  person's  hands  and  feet  into 
cold  water.     Ad  Mansor.  v.  72. 

The  practice  of  taking  an  emetic  after  a  debauch,  is  often  alluded  to  in  the 
works  of  the  classical  authors.  Thus,  it  is  mentioned  by  Aristophanes  in  bis 
Acharnenses.  Suetonius,  in  the  lives  of  Vitellius  and  Claudius,  states,  that 
these  Emperors  were  in  the  practice  of  procuring  vomiting,  in  order  to  re- 
lieve themselves  from  the  effects  of  excessive  eating  and  drinking. — See  also 
Plin.  H.  A',  xiv.  §.  28. 


XXXIII.— ON  WRONG    DIGESTION  OF  THE  FOOD. 

See  Oribasius'  Euporiitj  i.  3,  and  Sj/nops.  v  30.     This  subject  will  be 
more  fully  treated  of  in  the  3d  Book. 


XXXIV. — ON    VENERYr 

The  contents  of  this  chapter  are  mostly  taken  fvom  a  fuller  account  of 
(his  delicate  subject,  given  in  an  extract  from  the  works  of  Ruffus,  preserved 
by  Oribasius.  Med.  Coil.  vi.  38.—  See  also  Aetius,  iii.  18.  and  Galenus^ 
Ars.  Medica. — Avicenna,  Cantica. — Averrhoes,  Comment,  in  Cantica,  and 
Colliget  vi.  7. — Rhases,  ad  Mansor.  iv.  17. — Haly  Abbas,  Prac^  i.  10. 13. 
— Alsaharavius,  Thcor.  tr.  x. 

Averrhoes  says,  venery,  in  a  word,  induces  the  following  evils :  dryness  of 
the  body,  effeminacy,  imbecility,  exhaustion,  and  at  the  same  time,  prostra- 
tion ;  wherefore  the  friction  which  is  had  recourse  to,  after  it,  ought  to  remove 
the  inconveniences  occasioned  by  it.  This  should  be  much  and  rough  fric- 
tion, and  be  performed  with  oil. 

According  to  Avicenna,  excessive  indulgence  breaks  down  the  powers  of 
the  constitution,  and  superinduces  either  a  cold  intemperament  or  hectic 
fever.  Abstinence,  on  the  other  hand,  by  those  who  had  been  in  the  habit 
of  indulgence,  is  said  to  bring  on  heaviness  of  the  head,  and  diseases  of  the 
joints  and  testicles.  In  this  case,  he  recommends  rue,  and  various  other 
articles,  which  were  supposed  by  the  ancients  to  be  possessed  of  anti-aphro- 
disiacal  properties.    Cicuta,  according  to  Pliny,  produces  this  eiect. 

Alsaharavius  forbids  coition  when  the  body  is  either  reduced  by  absti- 
nence, or  overloaded  with  too  much  food  and  drink.  The  proper  season  for 
it,  he  says,  is  after  sleep,  when  digestion  is  accomplished,  and  towards  morn- 
ing. It  is  prejudicial,  he  says,  in  very  hot  seasons,  and  to  persons  of  a 
dry  intemperament.  Rhases,  like  our  author,  says,  that  moderate  indulgence 
removes  plethora,  lightens  the  mind,  and  cures  sorrow. 

According  to  Haly  Abbas,  the  most  proper  time  for  enjoymenl  is  after 
digestion,  and  when  the  food  has  descended  from  the  stomach.   If  performed 


COMMXNTART  ON  THX  FIRST  BOOK.  73 

before  sleep,  he  says,  there  is  most  chance  of  impregnation.  Abstinence, 
when  one  bad  become  habituated  to  the  act,  he  says,  weakens  the  natnral 
heat,  hurts  the  breast,  stomach,  and  liyer,  induces  coldness  of  the  body,  and 
renders  it  dry,  sluggish,  and  enervated.  Excess,  on  the  other  hand,  brings  on 
premature  old  age,  and  consumption. 

It  will  be  remarked,  that  our  author  and  Alsaharavius,  differ  in  opinion  as 
to  the  best  season  for  partaking  of  the  dwp  iparh  xpv^f  A<l>podtTrj£,  Sanc- 
torius,  the  great  moaem  anthority  on  this  subject,  agrees  with  the  latter. 
One  of  his  aphorisms,  is  as  follows : — '*  Coition  is  injurious  after  exercise, 
after  meat  not  so  much;  but  after  sleep  it  is  the  most  wholesome  of  all." — 
Non  nostrum  inter  eos  tantas  componere  lites  1 

See  a  learned  disquisition  on  this  and  other  similar  matters  in  the  Sj/wpo- 
siacon  of  Plutarch. 

As  an  apology  for  having  ventured  upon  the  discussion  of  this  subject  at 
all,  I  beg  leave  to  quote  the  following  epigram,  wherein,  as  will  be  re- 
marked, **  Venus*'  is  mentioned  as  one  of  tne  three  grand  causes  which  pro- 
duce health  and  disease : — 

**  Balnea,  Vina,  Venus  corrumpunt  corpora  Sana, 
Corpora  sana  dabnnt  Balnea,  Vina,  Venus.'* 


XXXV. ON  IMPOTSNCB. 

AxHENiEUS  mentions  that  it  was  a  practice  with  some  to  put  sponges  into 
beds,  as  incentives  to  venery.  He  states  upon  the  authority  of  Theophrastus, 
that  certain  medicines  are  possessed  of  aphrodisiacal  properties,  to  an  almost 
incredible  degree.     Deipnos  i.  15. 

The  ancients  held,  that  most  of  the  testacea  are  aphrodisiacal  — See  Plau- 
tus,  Casinoy  Ac.  ii.  sc.  8. 1.  59.  and  the  note  of  Lambinius. — Ed.  Grononii, 
also  Petronius  Arbiter,  Satyricon. 

The  rocket  (eruca)  was  particularly  celebrated  as  an  aphrodisiacal  herb. — 
See  Pliny,  Ji.  N,  xix.  8.  and  Juvenal,  Sat,  ix.  134.  Columella,  in  Hori. 
Galenus,  defac.  alim.  lib.  ii. 

On  this  subject,  see  Rhases,  ad  Mansor.  v.  62,  Continens,  lib.  xxiv. 
Avicenna,  lib.  iii.  fen.  20.  tr.  1. — Alsaharavius,  Pract.  xxii.  11.  Rhases 
gives  a  long  list  of  articles  which  were  supposed  to  be  possessed  of  aphrodi- 
siacal properties,  such  as  nettle-seed,  elecampane,  rape-seed,  mint,  rocket, 
cresses,  &c.  Avicenna's  account,  however,  is  the  ftiUest.  He  directs  to  rub 
into  the  parts  liniments,  containing  stavesacre,  pellitory,  squills,  myrrh,  assa- 
foetida,  and  the  like. 


XXXVI. ON  INORDINATE  YENSRT. 

This  chapter  is  partly  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synops,  v.  35.  A  similar 
account  is  given  by  Rhases,  ad  Mansor.  v.  67.  Inordinate  venery,  he  says, 
occasions  premature  old  age,  dries  the  body,  and  brings  on  frigidity.  Conn 
iinens,  c.  xxiv. — See  in  like  manner,  Avicenna,  lib.  iii.  fen.  20.  tr.  1 .  c.  36. 
To  restore  the  body  when  debilitated  by  excessive  enjoyment,  he  recom- 
mends a  cale£stcient  and  diluent  regimen,  nutritious  food,  baths,  aromatics, 
and  everyt  hing  that  can  exhilarate. 

Sanctorius  on  this  subject  holds,  that  '^  coition  to  excess  does  great  harm, 
by  heating  and  drying  the  body."     Medicina  Statica,  sect.  vi.  ap.  38. 


74  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 


XXXVII. ON  REDUNDANCE  OF  SEMEN. 

This  chapter  is  taken  with  a  very  few  slight  alterations,  from  Galen,  de 
sanitate  tuend&y  yi.  14.  The  same  treatment  is  recommended  by  Avicenna, 
lib.  iii.  fen.  20.  tr.  1.  c.  35.  and  by  Rhases,  ad  Mantorem,  v.  67.  Alsaha- 
ravius  recommends  bleeding,  and  various  cooling  and  astringent  remedies, 
both  internally  and  externally.     Pract,  xxii.  9. 

Hippocrates  says,  that  the  strychnos  cuies  impure  dreams.  De  Diaia, 
lib.  ii.  Serapion  states,  that  the  lettuce  possesses  '<  virtus  contraria  sper- 
mati.''     De  simpL  ex  plantU, 

We  may  remark  here,  once  for  all,  that  by  the  juice  (xvXog)  of  herbs,  the 
Greek  medical  authors  generally  mean  the  decoction.  Thus,  according  to 
Dr.  Coray,  by  ^vXor  tS>v  €p€piv6&v,  Hippocrates  undei'stood  d(f)€yln]fia  r.  c. 
Xenocrat,  etjGalen  ex  aquat.  p.  219 ;  and,  in  like  manner,  as  Le  Clerc  re- 
marks, by  x^\os  TrTKTajnjs,  was  meant  strained  ptisan.     Hist,  de  la  Med, 


XXXVIII. ON  PERSONS  WHO  Hi^YB  SUFFERED  FROM  COLD. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Sj/nops.  v.  36. 

Rhases  directs  to  lay  a  person  congealed  with  cold  in  a  warm  apartment, 
and  to  rub  with  hot  hands  the  whole  of  his  body,  with  the  exception  of  the 
bead,  which  is  to  be  warmed  with  hot  cloths.  Persons  having  warm  bodies 
are  then  to  lie  down  in  bed  beside  him ;  and  he  is  to  take  a  draught  con- 
taining assafcetida,  myrrh,  pepper,  and  strong  wine.  When  the  respiration 
is  fairly  restored,  he  is  to  take  some  nourishing  food  and  wine ;  and  is  then 
to  be  covered  up  with  many  blankets  and  left  to  sleep.  When  he  awakes, 
he  is  to  be  put  into  a  hot  bath,  and  after  remaining  for  a  long  time  in  it,  he  is 
to  be  strongly  rubbed  when  he  leaves  it  with  cale^ient  oil,  such  as  the  oil  of 
lilies  or  narcissus,  to  which  costus,  castor,  musk,  and  spurge  have  beeil  ad- 
ded.   Ad  Mansor.  vi.  5. 

Let  the  reader  remark  the  similarity  of  the  ancient  practice  in  the  cases  of 
persons  who  have  been  exposed  to  great  cold,  and  of  those  who  have  been 
poisoned  with  opium. — See  Book  v.  c.  43.  Galen  remarks,  that  the  effects 
of  opium  and  of  the  exposure  of  the  body  to  extreme  cold  are  very  like 
Comment,  in  Epidem. 

In  the  4th  book  of  Xenophon's  Anabasis,  there  is  an  interesting  description 
of  the  effects  resulting  from  the  exposure  of  the  Grecian  army  to  extreme 
cold,  and  the  means  which  they  took  to  preserve  themselves  from  being  in- 
jured by  it.  The  historian  relates,  that  they  rubbed  themselves  before  the 
fire  with  an  ointment  composed  of  swines'  seam,  and  oils  of  sesame,  of  bit- 
ter almonds,  and  of  turpentine.  The  Carthaginian  soldiers  of  Hannibal,  in 
like  manner,  when  exposed  to  great  cold  among  the  mountains  of  Italy,  rub- 
bed their  bodies  with  oil  as  a  protection  from  its  effects,  and  with  great  suc- 
cess, if  we  may  believe  Florus  the  historian-  He  says,  *^  tunc  callidissimi 
hostes  frigid um  et  nivalem  nacti  diem,  quum  se  ignibus  prius,  oleoque  fo vis- 
sent  (horribile  dicta!)  homines  a  meridie,  et  sole  venientes, nostra  nos  hieme 
vicerunt.^'  Hist.  Rom.  ii.  6. — It  is  worthy  of  remark  by  the  way,  that  Baron 
Larrey,  in  his  account  of  the  retreat  of  the  French  army  from  Moscow,  states, 
that  the  inhabitants  of  southern  climates  endured  the  cold  better  than  those 
of  the  north.  The  fact,  that  the  Carthaginian  soldiers  rubbed  their  bodies 
with  oil  on  the  occasion  we  have  mentioned,  is  stated  also  by  Polybius,  Hist. 
iii.  72.  and  by  Livy,  Hist.  Roman,  xxi.  55. 

Quintus  Curtius  relates,  that  the  soldiers  of  Alexander  the  Great,  rubbed 


COMMJBNTMIT  ON  THX  FIRST    BOOK.  75 

their  bodies  with  the  juice  of  sesame,  instead  of  oil,  when  eiposed  to  intense 
cold  while  crossing  the  Bactrian  mountains.    Lib.  vii.  c.  15. 

Pliny,  with  his  usual  terseness,  thus  states  the  powers  of  oil  in  protecting 
the  body  both  from  cold  and  heat :  <*  Oleo  natura  tepefacere  corpus,  et 
contra  algores  munire :  eidemque  fervores  capitis  refrigerare.''  U,  N,  xv.  6. 

XXXIX. — FOR   FBR80N8  WHO    HAVB   8UFFBRXD   BT  BXFOSURB  TO 

BXCBSSIYB  HBAT. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synopx.  v.  37. 

When  a  person  has  suffered  from  exposure  to  great  heat,  Rhases  recom- 
mends rest,  the  tepid  bath,  and  fruits  and  food  of  a  cooling  and  moistening 
nature.  When  there  is  headach,  he  directs  to  anoint  the  head  with  oil  of 
roses  and  vinegar.    Ad  Maruor.  vi.  i. 

Averrhoes  recommends  when  a  person  has  suffered  from  exposure  to  the 
sun,  to  put  him  into  a  tepid  bath,  and  rub  him  afterwards  with  refrigerant 
oils.     Collect.  §  iii.  c.  9. 


XL. ON  COLLBCTIONS  OF  PHLBOK  IN  THB  STOMACH. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  who,  in  his  turn,  is  indebted  to 
Galen. 

A  similar  account  of  the  matter  is  given  by  Rhases,  Contineru,  xi.  tr.  1. — 
He  recommends  emetics,  Ad  Maruor,  iv.  16. 


XLI. HOW  TO  PRODUCB  BAST  VOMITING. 

This  ehapt^  is  abridged  from  Oribasius,  Med.  Collect,  viii.  21. — ^The 
opinions  of  Gralen,  Diocles,  and  Archigenes,  on  this  subject,  may  likewise 
be  learned  from  Oribasius.  Galen  recommends  vomiting  for  collections  of 
yellow  bile,  and  when  the  stomach  is  loaded  with  viscid  matters,  but  forbids 
it  when  the  stomach  is  weak.  The  opinions  of  Celsus  are  very  similar : 
**  Vomitus  ut  in  secunda  quoque  valetudine  ssepe  necessarius  biliosis  est,  sic 
etiam  in  iis  morbis  qnos  bilis  concitavit. — ^Vomitus  utilior  est  hieme  quam 
aestate ;  nam  tum  est  pituits  plus,  et  capitis  gravitas  major  subest.  Inutilis 
est  gracilibus  et  imbecillum  stomachum  habentibus:  utilis  est  plenis  et 
biliosis  omnibus  si  vel  nimium  se  replerunt,  vel  parum  concoxerunt.''  These 
rules  of  Celsus  are  approved  of  by  Dr.  Pemberton,  on  Abdominal  Diseases. 
—The  directions  given  by  Celsus  for  producing  vomiting  are  very  simple ; 
^  Qui  vomere  post  cibum  volet,  si  ex  facili  facit,  aquam  tantum  tepidam 
ant^  debet  assnmere :  si  difficiliils,  aquae,  vel  salis,  vel  mellis  paulum  adjicere. 
At  qui  mane  vomiturus  est,  ant^  bibere  mulsum,  vel  hyssopum,  aut  esse  1^- 
diculam  debet,  deinde  aquam  tepidam  (ut  supra  scriptum  est)  bibere.'' — 
Galen  commends  the  bulb  pf  the  narcissus  as  an  emetic.  He  forbids  those 
who  have  contracted  chests  to  take  emetics  frequently.  De  Furgantibus 
Medkinis. 

Aetius  gives  an  interesting  account  of  this  subject  in  an  extract  from  the 
works  of  Rufius.  He  forbids  to  excite  vomiting  when  the  eyes  are  affected, 
or  when  haemoptysis  is  apprehended.  He  commends  it  for  the  cure  of  arth- 
ritic diseases,  dropsy,  and  jaundice.  One  of  his  simplest  emetics  consists  of 
the  decoction  of  radishes,  with  the  strained  infusion  of  dried  figs.  He  men- 
tions the  oil  of  Privet  as  a  most  effectual  emetic.  Lib.  iii.  c.  19. 
Avicenha*s  information  on  this  subject  is  very  ample ;  but,  upon  the  whole. 


76  COMMBNTART  ON  THB  PIRST  BOOK. 

his  directions  are  mostly  the  same  as  our  author's.  He  properly  states,  that 
the  too  frec|uent  repetition  of  emetics  hurts  the  stomach,  is  prejudicial  to  the 
chest,  the  sight,  the  teeth,  in  chronic  pains  of  the  head,  unless  arising  from 
sympathy  with  the  stomach ;  and  in  epilepsy,  when  the  cause  of  it  is  seated 
in  tne  head.  Lib.  i.  fen.  4. — According  to  Avicenna  and  Averrhoes,  the 
proper  season  for  emetics  is  the  summer.     Cant,  p.  i.  tr.  1 . 

llhases  says,  that  much  vomiting  hurts  the  liver,  breast,  eyes,  and  lungs, 
occasioning  haemoptysis.  He  directs  to  bind  a  compress  on  the  forehead 
before  taking  an  emetic ;  and  to  wash  the  mouth  and  face  with  hydromel 
after  its  operation.  He  adds,  that  persons  who  have  long  necks,  prominent 
chests,  and  who  are  lean,  ought  to  abstain  altogether  from  emetics.  Ad 
Mansor.  iv.  16. 

Haly  Abbas  forbids  emetics  in  chronic  complaints  of  the  head  and  chest, 
especially  if  the  person  be  threatened  with  Phthisis.  He  says,  that  the  repe- 
tition of  them  weakens  the  stomach,  and  may  induce  haemoptysis.  Pract.  i. 
12, 13.  Alsaharavius  delivers  exactly  the  same  detail  of  the  cases  in  which 
emetics  prove  hurtful  or  beneficial.     Theor.  x.  2. 

Serapion  gives  a  full  account  of  these  gentle  emetics,  De  Antidotis,  c.  36. 

On  the  simpler  methods  which  the  ancients  had  recourse  to  in  order  to 
produce  vomiting ;  see  Prosper  Alpinus,  Med.  Meth.  iii.  1 0. 

Dr.  Paris  says,  '*  The  predilection  of  the  ancients  for  emetics  is  the  more 
extraordinary,  as  they  were  acquainted  with  those  only  which  were  of  the 
most  violent  and  unmanageable  description ;  the  veratrum  or  white  helle- 
bore, was  sometimes  fatal.''  Pharmacologiay  vol.  i.  It  is  certain,  however, 
that  the  ancients  did  not  use  the  more  violent  emetics  on  ordinary  occasions, 
nor  unless  when  it  was  found  very  difficult  to  produce  vomiting.  The  learn- 
ed Andreas  Laurentius,  physician  to  Henry  the  IV.  of  France,  gives  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  the  ancient  method  of  vomiting,  which,  it  would  appear, 
was  still  practised  in  his  time :  ''  Grsecis  vomitus  ante  pastum  matutini  et 
jejuui  (Tvpfuutrfioi  dicti,  commendabantur.  Quibus  igitur  hoc  pacto  vomere 
pfacuerit,  radiculas  tenues,  nasturtium,  erucam,  portulacam  devorent,  deinde 
aqua  tepida  affatim  hausta  vomant.  Veteres  utebantur  aqua  mulsa  mera- 
ciore,  succo  ptisans  ex  aqua  per  se,  vel  cum  melle  decocto,  et  iis  efficaciori- 
bus  surculis  veratri  albi  in  rafanum  defixis,  vel  rafiwis  solis  postero  die  ex 
aceto  mulso  comestis.*'  De  Strum.  Nat.  p.  274.  I  have  been  informed, 
that  several  of  the  bulbous  roots  were  formerly  used  in  Scotland  as  domestic 
remedies  for  producing  vomiting. 


XLII.-— ON  LAXATIYBS  AND  DIURBTICS  TO  PBRSONS  IN  HBALTH. 

ORiDAsr US  treats  fully  of  purgatives  towards  the  end  of  the  8th  Book  of 
Med,  Collect.    He  gives  a  list  of  gentle  laxatives.    Euporist,  i.  45. 

Hippocrates  frequently  recommends  gentle  purgatives  for  the  preservation 
of  the  health.  Of  this  class,  the  herb  mercury  appears  to  have  been  his  fa- 
vourite. 

Galen  has  given  two  distinct  treatises  on  purgatives,  and  the  cases  in  whidi 
tliey  are  applicable.  He  dissuades  those  who  are  in  perfect  good  health 
from  taking  them,  but  says  that  they  may  often  be  used  so  as  to  prevent  the 
recurrence  of  diseases.  Hence,  he  says,  that  he  had  of^en  prevented  gout 
and  rheumatism  from  relapsing,  by  the  seasonable  administration  of  purga- 
tives. He  forbids  purgatives  when  the  hypochondria  are  distended  with  fla- 
tulence. 

Aetius  gives  a  veiy  lengthy  account  of  the  preparation  of  purgative  me- 
dicines, which,  however,  will  be  noticed  more  properly  in  the  Seventh  Book. 
— He  states,  that  all  medicines  of  a  cutting  or  penetrative  nature  are  diuretic. 


COMMSNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  77 

He  mentions  plantain,  fennel,  parsley,  beseli,  anise,   valerian,  bitter   al- 
monds, &c.     Lib.  iii. 

Celsus  gives  the  following  list  of  gentle  diuretics :  **  Urinam  movent,  quae- 
cunque  in  horto  uascentia  boni  odoris  sunt,  ut  apiuro,  ruta,  anethum,  ocimum, 
mentha,  hyssopum,  anisum,  coriandruro,  nasturtium,  eruca,  feniculum: 
prster  h«c,  asparagus,  capparis,  nepeta,  thymum,satureia,lapsana,  pastinaca, 
magisque  agrestis,  radicula,siser,  cepa;  ex  venatione,  maxim^  lepus ;  vinum 
tenue,  piper  et  rotundum  et  longum,  sinapi,  absinthium,  nuclei  pinei.'' — He 
also  gives  a  long  list  of  laxative  articles,  such  as  cabbage,  mallows,  sorrel, 
gourds,  cherries,  all  ripe  apples,  green  6g8,  cockles,  oysters,  muscles,  milk, 
crude  honey,  and  all  tatty  and  saltish  substances.  Lib.  ii.  29.  Horace 
makes  mention  of  the  laxative  properties  of  muscles,  shell-Bsh,  dock,  and 
white  wine : 

Si  dura  morabitur  alvns, 
Mitolus  et  viles  peUent  obstantia  conchse, 
Et  lapaihi  brevis  herba ;  sed  albo  non  sine  Coo.^ — Sat,  ii.  4. 

Avicenna  gives  very  minute  directions  respecting  the  use  of  purgatives. 
He  very  properly  recommends  when  a  purgative  medicine  has  been  taken, 
and  instead  of  operating,  has  occasioned  heat,  vertigo,  and  headach,  to  admi- 
nister an  injection.    Lib.  i.  f.  4. 

Haly  Abbas  treats  of  these  medicines  in  pretty  much  the  same  terms  as 
our  author.  He  remarks,  that  obstruction  of  the  bowels  leads  to  colic,  flatu- 
lence, difficult  respiration,  and  vertigo.  Retention  of  urine,  he  says,  leads  to 
ulcers  in  the  bladder.  He  states,  that  diuretics  are  useful  in  diseases  of  the 
joints  and  spine,  dropsy,  and  various  complaints,  but  are  apt  to  render  the 
body  dry.  Tract,  Lib.  i.  12.  Diuretic  medicines,  he  remarks  in  another 
place,  are  of  a  hot  and  sharp  nature,  so  that  they  heat  the  kidneys,  and  there- 
by increase  their  attractive  power.    Lib.  ii.  c.  27. 

Alsaharavius  cautions  against  the  indiscriminate  use  of  purgatives,  which, 
he  says,  in  a  dry  temperament  disposes  to  phthisis,  and  to  dropsy  when  the 
stomach  is  weak.  When  a  purgative  medicine  has  induced  hypercatharsis, 
he  directs  to  take  astringent  powders,  containing  sumach,  pomegranate,  and 
the  like.     Theor.n.l, 

Rhases  gives  some  very  sensible  observations  on  the  use  and  abuse  of  pur- 
gatives. He  says,  that  persons  who  lead  an  indolent  life,  are  of  a  gross 
habit,  and  live  freely,  are  most  benefited  by  them.  To  those  of  a  dry  tem- 
perament, on  the  other  hand,  they  prove  prejudicial,  by  pre-disposing  to  hectic 
fever.  He  recommends  to  eat  fat  food,  and  to  go  into  the  warm  bath  before 
taking  a  purgative. — Ad,  Mansor,  Lib.  iv.  c.  15. 
See  a  full  account  of  these  laxative  medicines  in  Serapion  de  Antidotis, 


XLIIL ON  CLYSTERS. 

Hippocrates  frequently  recommends  the  administration  of  clysters.  He- 
rodotus mentions,  that  the  ancient  Egyptians  had  recourse  to  clysters  at 
stated  periods  every  month.    Lib.  ii.  c.  77. 

Oribasius  has  treated  of  the  composition  of  clysters,  and  the  cases  in  which 
they  are  to  be  applied  so  fully  in  the  Eighth  Book  of  his  Medica  Collectanea, 
that  he  may  be  said  to  have  exhausted  the  subject.  It  appears  from  his  ac- 
count, that  the  ancients  used  a  syringe  for  throwing  up  injections.  A  large 
clyster,  he  says,  amounts  to  three  heminse,  a  small  one  to  one  hemina,  and  a 
moderate  one  to  two  hemins.    Si/nop,  i.  19. 

Celsus,  after  some  very  appropriate  observations  on  the  cases  which  are 
benefited  by  clysters,  concludes  with  the  following  directions  for  the  compo- 
Jition  of  them: — plain  water  may  be  injected,  if  the  case  be  slight;  or  honied 


78  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

water,  if  stronger  means  be  required ;  if  emollients  be  indicated;  the  decoc- 
tion of  mallows,  of  fenugreek,  or  ptisan  may  be  used ;  or  if  astringents  be  pro- 
per, vervain.  Acrid  clysters  may  be  formed  of  sea-water,  or  with  the 
addition  of  some  salt,  and  their  strength  may  be  increased  by  boiling.  Such 
a  clyster  may  be  rendered  still  more  acrid  by  the  addition  of  oil,  nitre,  or 
honey.  He  remarks,  that  the  more  acrid  a  clyster  is,  the  greater  will  be  its 
purgative  effect,  but  the  more  difficult  will  it  be  to  bear.  He  says  it  ought 
to  be  neither  hot  nor  cold.  After  the  injection  has  been  thrown  up,  he  re- 
commends the  person  to  remain  quiet,  and  to  resist  the  first  desire  to  go  to 
stool.    Lib.  ii.  c.  12. 

Aetius  treats  of  clysters  very  fully.  He  prefaces  his  account  of  the  mode 
of  administering  them,  with  a  correct  detail  of  the  evils  arising  from  consti- 
pation, which,  he  justly  remarks,  is  the  precursor  of  most  of  the  ills  which 
break  out  in  the  human  frame.     Lib.  iii.  159. 

See  a  long  list  of  prescriptions  for  Clysters  in  Serapion,  de  AntidotiSy  tr. 
vii.  26.  Rhases  and  Avicenna  give  a  full  account  of  the  nature  of  clysters, 
but  supply  no  additional  information  on  the  subject. 


XLIV. ON  SUPPOSITORIES. 

This  chapter  is  entirely  taken  from  Oribasius,  Si/nop.  i.  20.  See  a  fuller 
account  in  his  Med,  Collect,  viii.  39.  and  Aetius  iii.  t60.  Aetius,  after 
mentioning  the  composition  of  certain  suppositories  similar  to  those  of  our 
author,  speaks  also  of  using  for  this  purpose,  figs  mixed  with  nitre  (soda  ?) 
and  grapes  deprived  of  their  stones,  with  the  addition  of  nitre  and  cumin. 

Actuarius  states,  that  it  is  when  the  obstruction  is  seated  in  the  rectum 
that  suppositories  are  particularly  applicable.     Meth.  Med,  iii.  5. 

See  also  Avicenna.  Lib.  iii.  Fen.  20.  tr.  1.  and  Rhases,  Continens, 
Lib.  xxiv. 


XLV. ON  MEDICINES  WHICH    EVACUATE    THE  HEAD ON  MASTICA- 

TORIES,  SRRHINES,  AND  LINIMENTS  TO  THE  NOSE. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Si/ nop,  i.  21. 

Hippocrates  makes  frequent  mention  of  the  caput-purgiOf  or  medicines 
which  purge  the  head.  On  the  composition  of  thes^  medicines,  see  in  par- 
ticular Aetius  iii.  140,  141. — Nonnus,  Epitome  c.  17.  and  Serapion,  de 
Antidotis,  Lib.  vii.  c.  31.  They  contain  such  articles  as  these:  pepper, 
nitre,  white  hellebore,  spurge,  gith,  pellitory,  mastich,  turpentine,  mustard, 
chalcitis,  alum,  and  the  like.  The  errhines  were  used  principally  in  obstruc- 
tions of  the  nose,  and  when  the  sense  of  smell  was  impaired.  The  opo- 
phlegmatismi  were  supposed  to  prove  useful  in  chronic  affections  of  the  head, 
impairment  of  the  senses  of  smell  and  sight,  and  also  when  the  tongue  and 
throat  were  affected. 

Prosper  Alpinus  gives  a  full  account  of  the  errhines,  masticatories,  and 
cough  medicines  of  the  ancients.  Med.  Meth,  iii.  11.  He  makes  the  caput- 
purgia  to  be  the  same  as  the  errhines,  and  the  apophlegmatismi  the  same 
as  the  masticatories  of  the  moderns. 


XLVL — ON  BMMBNAGOGUBS. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synopi,  i.  22.    A  fuller  list  of  the 
medicinal  articles  which  were  supposed  by  the  ancients  to  promote  the  men- 


COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  79 

struS  discharge,  is  given  by  Aetius.  Lib.  iii.  153, 154.  It  contains  cassia, 
myrrh,  thyme,  centaury,  wormf^ood,  nettle,  elaterium,  black  hellebore,  tur- 
pentine-rosin, cumin,  sage,  and  the  like.  All  these  were  used  in  injections 
and  suppositories.  The  following  were  given  by  the  mouth,  and  were  held 
to  be  likewise  diuretic :  hedge-mustard,  rue,  marjoram,  southernwood,  saga- 
pene,  galbanum,  spikenard,  the  herb  mercury,  savin,  iris,  birthwort,  &c.  See 
Albengnefit,  LibcUus, 

Dioscorides  is  censured  by  Dr.  Cullen  as  being  too  credulous  in  assign- 
iag  fmmenagogue  properties  to  a  variety  of  articles  in  the  Materia  Medica. 
Perhaps,  however,  there  is  some  foundation  for  the  doctrine  of  the  ancients, 
that  all  hot  diuretic  medicines  are  in  so  far  emmenagogue.  Prosper  Al- 
pinus  maintains  this  opinion,  but  remarks,  that  the  action  of  the  emmena- 
gogues  is  more  uncertain  than  that  of  the  diuretics,  and  must  be  assisted  by 
warm  baths,  pessaries,  and  fomentations.  We  will  have  occasion  to  treat 
more  fully  of  these  medicines  in  the  Third  Book. 

XLVIL— ON  suDORirics. 

This  chapter  is  mostly  copied  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  i.  23.  Aetius  enu- 
merates a  good  many  more  medicines  of  this  class.  Of  these  some  are  to  be 
taken  by  the  mouth,  as  cumin,  bay  berries,  cyrenaic  juice,  castor,  and  lovage ; 
some  are  to  be  rubbed  into  the  skin,  as  nitre  with  oil,  the  oil  of  dill,  of  cha- 
momile, of  bays,  and  of  radishes ;  and  some  are  to  be  used  in  fumigations, 
as  pennyroyal,  the  seed  of  balsam,  and  so  forth.  He  recommends  these 
medicines  in  jaundice,  and  for  coldness  and  constriction  of  the  skin.  Aetius, 
Lib.  iii.  c.  157. 

Celsus  treats  of  the  methods  for  producing  free  perspiration  with  more  than 
his  usual  minuteness.  Sweating,  ne  says,  may  be  produced  either  by  dry 
heat,  or  by  baths.  The  modes  of  applying  dry  heat,  which  he  mentions,  are 
by  heated  sand,  the  Laconicum  or  Sweating  apartment  of  the  ancient  bath, 
^e  chap.  51 .)  the  Clibanus  or  moveable  furnace,  and  the  vapour  baths  of 
Bais.  To  these  he  adds  strong  exercise.  He  also  treats  minutely  of  the  ap- 
plication of  baths  and  fomentations  for  the  cure  of  diseases.  Lib.  ii.  c.  17. 
Consult  Stobeeus,  c.  100. 

Haly  Abbas  directs  to  restore  the  perspiration,  when  stopt,  by  exercise, 
friction,  baths,  and  the  affusion  of  hot  water  over  the  body.  He  recommends 
to  perform  friction  with  the  oil  of  violets,  and  such  things  as  are  mentioned 
by  our  author.    Tract,  i.  12. 

Khases  recommends  internally,  castor,  opoponax,  or  opium  mixed  with 
honey,  and  given  in  tepid  water.  Externally,  he  recommends  friction,  with 
the  oil  of  chamomile,  of  pelUtory,  or  the  like.  Continens,  lib.  xxxi.  Mesne 
mentions  fumigations  with  calamint,  cinquefoil,  carpobalsam,  and  bdellium. 
Albengnefit  'recommends  the  same,  and  also  friction  with  calefacient  oils, 
and  the  internal  administration  of  cumin,  calamint,  and  the  like. 

The  ancients,  as  Prosper  Alpinus  remarks,  seem  to  have  trusted  more  in 
external  than  in  internal  means  for  producing  free  perspiration.  They  were 
aware,  that  when  the  system  is  greatly  over-heated,  a  draught  of  cold  water 
by  reducing  the  temperature  of  the  body  may  prove  sudorific.  This  fact  is 
distinctly  stated '  by  Galen ;  and  in  accordance  with  this  principle,  Rhases 
directs  to  give  cold  water  in  the  hot  stage  of  the  small-pox,  to  facilitate  the 
eniption  of  the  pustules.  The  reader  will  find  a  similar  view  of  the  matter 
stated  in  Dr.  Currie's  Medical  Reports. 

On  the  sudatoria  or  vapour  baths  of  the  ancients,  see  Baccius,  dc  Thermis, 
lib.  iv.    Horace  thus  alludes  to  the  vapour  baths  at  Baise : 

'^  Sane  myrteta  relinqui, 
Dictaqne  cessantem  nerris  eudere  morbum 
Sulphura  contemni  viciis  gemit.'' — Epist,  i.  15. 


80  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

Upon  which  SanadoD  remarks :  "  By  sulphur  a,  the  poet  means  tlie  Aves, 
where  sulphureous  vapours  exhaling  from  the  earth  cause  a  dry  beat,  which 
provokes  sweat." 


XLVIII. ON  AIRS. 

The  first  part  of  this  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synopi,  i.  24.  The 
remaining  part  will  be  found  in  the  Med,  Collect,  ix.  1. — where  the  subject 
is  treated  of  at  great  length. — See  in  like  manner,  Aetius,  iii.  162.  All 
these  authors,  however,  are  much  indebted  to  Galen,  de  sanitate  tuenda,  lib.i. 
According  to  Galen,  the  moon  produces  changes  in  the  atmosphere,  whereby 
she  occasions  putrefaction  of  dead  bodies,  impairs  the  colour,  and  hurts  the 
head  of  living  persons.  De  Diebus  Criticts,  lib.  iii.  On  the  supposed 
causes  why  the  moon  occasions  putrefaction,  see  Plutarch,  Sympos,  lib.  iii. 

Antyllus  says,  that  there  are  many  differences  of  airs;  some  arising  from 
the  season  of  the  year ;  some  from  the  changes  of  the  moon ; .  and  some  from 
the  hour  of  the  day  or  night;  some  from  thickness  or  tenuity,  motion  or  rest, 
or  from  the  admixture  of  terrene  exhalations.  The  sun,  he  adds,  warms  the 
body ;  but  the  moon  rather  humectates,  and,  therefore,  she  moistens  the 
brain,  and  occasions  the  putrefaction  of  the  flesh;  renders  the  bodies  of  those 
who  sleep  in  the  open  air  more  humid  and  obtuse;  and,  for  the  same  cause, 
she  induces  epilepsy  and  heaviness  of  the  head.  Cold  air,  he  says,  produces 
plumpness,  good  nutrition,  and  the  formation  of  fat;  it  promotes  the  growth 
of  the  body,  and  hence,  the  inhabitants  of  northern  climates  are  remarked  to 
possess  this  character.  It  is  unsuitable,  however,  to  all  acute  disorders ;  and 
18  also  improper  for  certain  chronic  diseases,  such  as  consumption,  cachexy, 
paralysis,  apoplexy,  and  rheumatism.  But  warm  air  consumes  the  body, 
attenuating  and  wasting  the  system,  but  it  is  preferable  to  cold  air  for  im- 
parting vigour  and  agility;  it  tries  the  powers,  and  is  useful  in  affections  of 
the  nerves  and  chest,  but  not  in  those  of^  other  parts.  Thick  air  has  no  other 
good  property,  except  that  it  prevents  the  powers  from  being  dissipated. 
Thin  air  is  most  conducive  to  health.  The  air  of  high  situations,  is  said  by 
him,  to  be  more  salubrious  to  all  except  persons  labouring  under  diaphoresis 
or  syncope,  and  the  aged.  The  atmosphere  of  places  near  the  sea,  he  re- 
marks, is  milder  than  that  of  inland  parts.  Places  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
marshes  are  at  all  times  unhealthy ;  but,  in  summer,  their  atmosphere  is  pes- 
tilent. Those  by  a  river  side  are  cold  and  changeable. — See  more  fully  Sto- 
baeus,  Sermo,  xcix. 

Hippocrates  gives  many  interesting  observations  on  the  effect  of  climate, 
and  the  state  of  the  atmosphere,  in  influencing  the  health,  but  they  are  de- 
livered so  much  in  detail,  that  my  limits  do  not  admit  of  my  entering  into  an 
exposition  of  them.     De  Aeribus,  aquis,  locis. 

Haly  Abbas  gives  a  very  elaborate  disquisition  on  this  subject.  He  de- 
scribes minutely  the  characters  of  salubrious  airs,  and  the  changes  produced 
upon  them  by  the  seasons  of  the  year,  the  state  of  the  winds,  the  nature  of 
countries,  and  the  stars,  that  is  to  say,  the  sun  and  dog-star.  Theorictty  lib. 
V. — See  also  Rhases,  Continens,  lib.  xxxiii. — Avicenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  2.  doct.  2. 


XLIX. ON  WATERS. 

Our  author  has  given  an  outline  of  Hippocrates'  opinions  on  this  subject, 
and  for  fuller  information,  I  must  refer  to  the  works  quoted  in  the  preceding 
chapter. 

The  characters  of  the  different  kinds  of  water,  are  thus  given  by  Celsus 


COMMBNTART  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK.  81 

with  his  usual  terseness:  ''Aqua  levissima  pluvialis  est:  deinde  fontana; 
torn  exflumine,  turn  ex  puteo;  post  hsc  ex  uive,  aut  glacie;  gravior  his 
exlacu;  gravissima  ex  palude/'  Lib.  ii.  18.  Their  characters  are  some- 
nvhat  differently  given  by  Athensus.  Thus,  he  states,  that  water  from  snow 
or  ice  is  lighter  and  better  than  rain  water;  otherwise  his  remarks  on  the 
qualities  of  waters  are  very  interesting.  He  directs  to  take  a  moderate  draught 
of  water  at  the  commencement  of  a  feast,  in  order  that  the  veins,  being  in  so 
hr  filled  by  it,  may  not  greedily  absorb  the  chyle  before  it  is  properly  con- 
cocted.— See  DeipnosophUta,  lib.  ii. 

Our  author's  account  is  abridged  from  Galen  and  Oribasius,  Collect.  Med, 
lib.  X.  or  rather  is  copied  entire  from  Euporist.  i.  14.  Aetius  gives  a  full 
account  extracted  from  Ruffus,  lib.  iii.  165. 

Haly  Abbas  treats  of  this  subject  at  great  length.  His  characters  of  the 
different  kinds  of  water  agree  very  well  with  those  given  by  our  author.  He 
states  that  rain  water  is  the  purest,  and  snow  water  the  most  impure.  Haly 
AbbaSy  like  our  Mr.  Abernethy,  condemns  the  indulgence  in  a  copious 
draught  after  a  meal.  The  reasons  he  assigns  for  its  proving  injurious  are, 
that  it  prevents  the  surface  of  the  stomach  from  coming  into  proper  contact 
with  the  food,  and  also  that  it  reduces  the  natural  temperature  of  the  stomach. 
He  recommends,  if  thirst  be  urgent,  to  allay  it  by  drinking  a  small  quantity 
slowly.     Theories,  v.  29. 

Alsaharavius  advocates  similar  views.  He  also  forbids  to  drink  during 
the  night,  as  the  sensation  of  thirst  may  be  fallacious ;  and  at  all  events,  he 
says,  it  is  only  increased  by  indulgence.     Theor,  xiii.  1,  and  xii.  2. 

Rhases^in  like  manner  states,  that  a  draught  of  water  immediately  after 
eating  impairs  digestion,  but  is  proper  after  digestion  has  taken  place. 
Continens^  lib.  xxxiii.  (Upon  this  principle  we  may  see  the  propriety  of 
not  taking  tea  until  a  few  hours  after  dinner.)  Rhases,  in  another  place, 
states  that  ice  is  prejudicial  to  the  health,  especially  of  old  persons,  by  con- 
gealing the  stomach  and  hurting  the  nerves.  He  admits,  however,  of  the 
use  of  water  cooled  in  snow,  but  recommends  to  counteract  its  effects  by  a 
moderate  allowance  of  wine.  Water  which  has  been  drawn  from  a  very 
deep  well  he  directs  to  boil  before  using  it.     Lib.  xxxvii.  tr.  i.  70. 

"nie  following  are  the  principal  beverages  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans : 
Wine  diluted  with  water;  Mulsum,  or  a  composition  of  honey  and  wine, 
resembling  the  modem  clary ;  Hydromel,  or  honied  water ;  Zythi,  or  various 
kinds  of  ales ;  the  Spathites,  a  wine  prepared  from  palms,  mentioned  by  our 
author, lib.  iii. c. 39 ;  the  Sicera,  or  cider  prepared  from  apples;  Perry,  pre- 
pared from  pears ;  Posca  or  oxycrate,  a  mixture  of  vinegar  and  water ;  the 
Cyceon,  a  mixture  of  wine,  honey,  flour,  and  water,  according  to  Hesychius; 
the  Dodra  of  the  Romans,  very  like  the  cyceon ;  Ptisan,  prepared  from 
polenta ;  Barley  water,  mentioned  by  Hippocrates,  de  Morh.  Acut.  and  well 
described  by  the  Arabians. 


LI. — ON  BATHS. 

It  is  to  be  recollected  that  the  baths  of  the  ancients  contained  three  dis> 
tinct  apartments.  The  construction  of  them  is  thus  described  by  Wouwer  in 
anote  on  Plautus,  Act  i.  sc.  2. 1.  1  :  "Tres  eedes  seu  cellae  inbalneis.  Prima 
est  CaldariCf  ro  Acuc&pueoPf  Dioni  nvpunmipiop,  Senecse  Sudatorium,  nam 
sicco  calore  sudorem  in  eo  eliciebant.  Secunda  est  media,  quae  et  Tepidaria. 
Tertia  est  Frigidaria.**    Ed,  Gronov, 

Hippocrates  thus  explains  his  views  of  the  effects  produced  by  baths:  The 
hath  or  sweet  water  humectates  and  cools,  for  it  imparts  moisture  to  the 
l»dy.  The  salt  bath  is  calefocient  and  disiccative;  for,  being  naturally  hot,  it 

Q 


82  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

attracts  moisture  from  the  body.  Wben  the  body  is  fasting  the  hot  bath 
is  attenuant  and  refrigerant ;  for  by  its  heat  it  attracts  the  moisture  from  the 
body,  and  when  the  flesh  is  deprived  of  moisture  the  body  is  cooled.  But 
after  a  meal  it  heats  and  humectates,  by  expanding  to  a  greater  bulk  whaU 
ever  predominates  in  the  body.  The  cold  bafiis  produce  the  contrary 
effects ;  for  when  the  body  is  fasting  they  impart  heat  and  moisture  to  it,  and 
after  a  meal  they  abstract  moisture,  and  being  cold  they  fill  it  with  dryness. 
Unction  with  oil  is  calefacient,  moistening,  and  emollient.  De  Diata,  ii.  36. 
In  another  place,  he  states  that  the  warm  bath  in  moderation  softens  aqd 
enlarges  the  body ;  but  when  taken  immoderately  it  humectates  dry  bodies, 
and  dries  humid  bodies.    De  AffectionibuSf  c.  47. 

Celsus  gives  some  ingenious  reflections  on  the  effects  of  the  bath^  espe- 
cially in  fever.  He  thus  states  the  purposes  for  which  it  is  applied :  ''  Fere 
adhibetur,  ubi  summam  cutem  relaxari,  evocarique  corruptum  humorem,  et 
habitum  corporis  mutari  expedit.''  He  recommends  friction  with  oil  before 
going  into  the  bath.     Lib.  ii.  c.  17. 

Psellus  says  that  the  warm  bath  relaxes,  softens,  and  induces  sleep,  oc* 
casioning  plumpness  of  the  body.     Opus  Medicum. 

Our  author  copies  from  Oribasius,  Euporist.  i.  16. — See  a  fuller  account 
in  Med,  Collect,  lib.  x.  Galenus,  de  Sanitate  Tuerida,  Aetius,  iii.  169,  and 
Avicenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  3.  d.  2.  Galen  particularly  recommends  the  cold  bath 
to  persons  in  the  prime  of  life,  and  during  the  summer  season.  Before 
going  into  the  bath  he  directs  to  get  well  rubbed  first  with  rough  towels  and 
then  with  oil.  He  recommends  to  plunge  into  the  water  at  once  and  not 
descend  gradually.  After  coming  out  of  the  water  he  directs  to  get  rubbed 
with  oil  until  the  skin  is  warmed.  Agathinus  forbids  to  bathe  in&nts  in  cold 
water,  but  recommends  the  warm  bath  for  them.    Oribasius,  ii.  7. 

The  ancients  used  baths  medicated  with  mallows,  linseed,  or  fenugreek, 
when  they  wished  to  make  tliem  particularly  emollient;  and  with  roses, 
pomegranate  rind,  or  plantain,  when  they  intended  to  render  them  astrin- 
gent. Oribasius,  u, «.  They  prepared  hip  baths  also  in  this  manner.— 
Aetius,  u,  s, 

Galen  and  Aetius  direct  to  form  the  bath  of  oil  by  adding  the  fifth-part  of 
heated  oil  to  a  bath  of  water.  They  recommend  it  in  protracted  fevers  at- 
tended with  chilis,  convulsions,  retention  of  urine,  and  to  relieve  lassitude 
and  nervous  pains.  The  learned  Bernard  remarks,  that  it  roust  have  been 
the  expense  with  which  it  is  attended  that  has  led  to  the  disuse  of  the  bath 
of  oil.  Ap.  Nonni  Epitom.  Avicenna  and  his  expositor,  Grentilis  Fulginas, 
particularly  commend  it  for  retention  of  urine.  Mengus  Faventinas  pro- 
nounces it  to  be  highly  anodyne. 

Actuarius  forbids  the  use  of  the  bath  to  those  whose  systems  are  loaded 
with  superfluities  and  bad  humours.  De  Diata,  c.  xi.  Averrhoes  lays  down 
the  same  prohibition.     Collectan.  ii.  4. 

The  proper  time  for  the  bath,  according  to  Haly  Abbas,  is  after  exercise 
and  before  eating.  If  used  before  exercise,  it  proves  injurious,  by  occasion- 
ing the  distribution  of  any  superfluities  which  may  be  remaining  indigested 
in  the  body,  and  determining  them  to  improper  parts.  If  used  immediately 
after  a  meal,  he  says,  it  proves  hurtful,  by  promoting  the  absorption  of  un- 
concocted  chyle,  and  sending  humours  to  the  head.  But,  if  used  after  exercise 
and  before  a  meal,  it  moistens  the  body,  strengthens  the  vital  heat,  promotes 
digestion,  opens  the  pores,  mitigates  pain,  and  dispels  flatulence.  He  adds, 
a  short  continuance  in  the  bath  warms  and  moistens  the  body,  but  a  long 
warms  and  dries  it.  Theor,  v.  13.  In  another  place  he  says,  that  the  proper 
time  for  the  bath  is  after  exercise,  vet  not  immediately,  nor  until  the  powers 
of  the  system  are  in  so  far  recruited ;  but  the  body  is  to  be  first  rubbed  with 
oil,  and  then  the  bath  is  to  be  taken,    Pract,  i.  5. 


COMMBNTAKT  ON  THE  VIRST  BOOK.  83 

The  uses  of  the  bath,  according  to  Alsaharavius,  are,  to  moisten  the  body, 
open  the  pores^  dispel  flatalence,  remove  repletion,  procure  sleep,  relieve 
pidnsy  fluxes  of  the  bowels,  and  lassitude,  to  restore  lean  bodies  to  plump- 
ness and  obesity  if  used  after  a  full  diet,  to  soften  contracted  limbs,  moisten 
dry  bodies,  and  dry  humid.  The  evil  effects  of  it  when  misapplied  are  pros- 
tiation  of  the  vital  powers,  syncope,  and  determining  the  humours  to  weak 
parts.     TAeor.  xi.l. 

Aselepiades,  a  celebrated  physician  in  the  time  of  Pompey  the  Great,  was 
a  distinguished  advocate  for  the  use  of  the  bath. — See  Plinius,  H,  N.  xxxvi. 
3.    Celsas,  ii.  6.    Apnleius,  Florid,  c.  4. 

Mercurialis  gives  an  excellent  account  of  the  public  baths  of  the  Romans,  de 
Arte  Oymnastka,  i.  10*— On  the  construction  of  them,  see  Vitruvius,  Arch. 
V.  10.  But  for  a  full  account  of  every  thing  relating  to  baths,  see  Auctores  de 
Balnets,  Venet.  1553,  and  Baccins  de  ThermU^  Roma,  1 622.  Baccius  thus  enu- 
merates the  general  effects  of  the  warm  bath :  **  Humectat  in  primis,  et  calefkcit 
Uandissim^ :  mox  aperit,  lenit,  attenuat,  digerit,  revellit,  maxim^  calidius. 
Deinde  urinas  ac  alvum  ciet,  sudores  ac  habitus  insensibi  les  excitat.  Dolores 
mitigat,  somnum  conciliat,  bonas  concoctiones  molitur,  ac  vires  corroborat.*' 


LIL— ON  THB  NATURAL  BATHS. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  i.  29.  A  fuller  account  is 
given  in  ^  Medka  CoUectaneOy  x.  3.  «^  uq.  See  further  Aetius,  iii.  167. 
Haly  Abbas,  TAror.  v.  13.  Rhases,  Conhneiif,  lib.  xxxvii.  Avicenna,  lib. 
ii.  tr.  2.  c.  15. 

Pliny  enumerates  ftilly  the  good  effects  of  the  natural  baths  at  Baiae, 
fl.  N.  xxxi.  2. 

Aetius'  account  is  borrowed  from  Archigenes,  and  is  much  the  same  as 
our  author's.  He  recommends  the  sulphureous  bath  for  the  cure  of  alphos 
and  nielas,  leprosy,  scabies,  impetigo,  old  ulcers,  scirrhus  of  the  liver,  spleen 
and  utems,  paralysis,  arthritic  diseases,  and  prurigo.  Rhases  and  Avicenna 
also  recommend  it  in  these  complaints. 

The  principal  natural  baths,  as  they  are  called,  are  those  impregnated 
with  sulphur,  alum,  soda,  saltpetre,  iron,  or  copper.  Baccius  also  makes 
mention  of  water  impregnated  with  lead,  mercury,  bitumen,  antimony,  and 
arsenic.  His  directions  for  the  use  of  them  are  most  important,  but  unfor- 
tanatriy  tay  limits  will  not  permit  me  to  do  justice  to  them. 

Georgios  Agricola  particularly  commends  the  sulphureous  bath  for  the 
care  of  arthritic  diseases. 


LIII.— ^N  T&K  EBOIMBN  BBFITTINO  THB  DIFFBRENT  SBASONS. 

Tsii  ig  copied  from  Oribasius,  Euporist.  i.  10. 

It  is  one  of  the  Aphorisms  of  Hippocrates,  that  those  who  require  blood-let- 
ting or  medicine  should  be  bled  or  take  medicine  in  the  spring.  Aphor.  sect, 
vi.  Galen,  Rhases,  Haly  Abbas,  and  in  short  all  the  ancient  authorities 
agree  with  bim  respecting  this  rule  of  practice,  which  is  still  frequently  fol- 
lowed by  the  common  people  in  Scotland.  According  to  Alsabaravius,  the 
palte  is  stronger  and  foller  in  spring  than  at  any  other  season.  Theor.  vii.  2. 

Hippocrates  and  Gralen  linr  it  dovm  as  a  general  rule  that  the  fullest  diet 
is  most  proper  in  vrinter,  and  the  sparest  in  summer.    Aphor,  i.  18. 

Rhaiei  lays  down  very  suitable  directions  for  the  regimen  that  is  most 
proper  during  every  season  of  the  year,  but  they  are  scarcely  at  all  different 
rat  our  authoi^s.    As  we  have  mentioned,  he  recommends  depletion  in 

62 


I 


84  COMMENTA.RY  ON  TH£  FIRST  BOOK. 

• 

spring  before  the  heat  set  in.  In  sununer,  he  approves  of  cooling  acid  fruits 
with  cold  water  for  drink.  In  autumn,  he  directs  to  abstain  from  cold  baths 
and  to  use  a  restricted  regimen.  In  winter,  he  recommends  a  full  propor- 
tion of  calefacients,  such  as  pepper,  cumin,  mustard,  and  rocket.  Ad,  Man- 
$or.  iv.  26.  Winter,  he  says  in  another  work,  favours  the  formation  of  flesh 
and  blood,  braces  the  body,  and  strengthens  the  powers.  Spring  fills  the 
system  with  humours.  Summer  dissolves  the  humours,  and  weakens  the 
internal  powers.  Autumn  engenders  bad  humours,  bile,  and  blood.  Contij 
nensy  lib.  xxxiv. 

Haly  Abbas  recommends  purging  or  bleeding  in  spring,  to  evacuate  the 
superfluities  formed  and  shut  up  in  the  system  during  winter.  In  summer, 
the  regimen  is  to  be  cooling  and  diluent,  little  exercise  is  to  be  taken,  the 
cold  bath  is  to  be  used,  swimming  in  cold  water  is  to  be  practised ;  for  food, 
chickens,  flsh  caught  among  rocks,  grapes,  apples,  and  the  summer  fruits, 
will  be  proper;  but  wine  is  either  not  to  be  drunk  at  all,  or  much  diluted 
with  water  and  cooled  in  snow ;  and  venery  is  to  be  avoided.  In  autumn, 
the  regimen  is  to  be  cooling  and  disiccative,  the  exercise  moderate,  the  cold 
bath  is  to  be  avoided  but  the  tepid  is  to  be  taken,  and  much  fruit  is  to  be 
avoided.  In  winter,  the  regimen  is  to  be  heating  and  disiccative,  and  wine 
is  to  be  taken  moderately.  The  wine,  he  adds,  ought  to  be  strong  and 
heating,  to  counteract  the  cold  of  winter;  but  much  must  not  be  taken,  be- 
cause it  will  dilute  and  humectate  the  body  which  stands  in  need  of  disicca- 
tion.  Wine,  too,  he  says,  possesses  little  nourishment,  whereas  the  system 
requires  much  support  in  winter.  He  recommends  the  flesh  of  quadrupeds 
and  fowls  for  food.  Fracticay  lib.  i.  See,  in  like  manners  Avicenna,  lib.  i. 
fen.  3.  div.  5.    Alsaliaravius,  Theor.  ix.  2. 

The  poet  Ilesiod  recommends  a  full  diet  in  winter.  Opera  et  Dies, 
I.  .558. 

Maximus  Planudes,  in  a  declamation  in  praise  of  winter,  aflirms  that  at 
this  season  the  heat,  being  confined  within  the  body,  operates  more  strongly 
in  performing  the  vital  functions  than  at  any  other  season.  This  season,  he 
says,  is  favourable  to  all  classes  of  men  except  doctors ;  but  they  are  sick  at 
heart  to  see  that  no  other  persons  are  sick,  and,  bewailing  their  own  misery, 
undergo  the  thirst  of  Tantalus  amidst  the  rains  of  winter !  V.  Boissonade, 
Anecdota  Graca,  vol.  ii. 


LIV. ON  THB  REGIMEN  OF  PERSONS  EMPLOYED  IN  BUSINESS. 

Thi3  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Si/nops.  v.  29.  who  extracts  it  from  the  Com? 
mentaries  of  Galen. — See  also  Rhases,  Cont.  xxxiii.  Galen  and  Rhases 
remark  that  persons  who  lead  an  active  life,  such  as  ploughmen  and  la- 
bourers, digest  gross  food  more  readily  than  any  others ;  but  that,  their  bodies 
being  wasted  by  excessive  fatigue,  the  vessels  take  up  the  chyle  before  it  is 
properly  concocted  and  carry  it  over  the  system.  Hence,  such  persons 
bcldom  attain  to  an  old  age,  as  their  bodies  get  loaded  with  improper  juices. 


liV. ON  THE  REGIMEN  FITTING  FOR  TRAVELLERS, 

uis  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  (^Synopt,  v.  31.)  who  admits  that  he 
borrows  in  his  turn  from  Diodes.  The  directions  are  upon  the  whole  very 
judicious  and  proper. 

Galen  forbids  travellers  who  have  been  exposed  to  great  cold  to  take  heat- 
ing things  immediately  after  a  journey.     Meth.  Med, 

Avicenna,  Averrhoes,  and  Haly  Abbas  direct  to  get  bled  before  entering 


COMMBNTART  ON  THE  VIBST  BOOK.  85 

upoD  a  journey ;  and,  in  certain  cases,  this  might  be  a  very  proper  practice  to 
prevent  the  blood  from  being  inflamed  by  violent  exercise,  but,  on  the  other 
band,  unless  judiciously  applied,  it  might  bring  on  such  debility  as  would 
render  the  traveller  unable  to  undergo  the  nece:»sary  fatigue.  They  recom- 
mend to  hold  in  the  mouth  a  small  ball  of  the  trochisk  of  camphor.  The 
Arabians,  it  is  to  be  recollected,  maintained  that  the  action  of  camphor  is 
frigorific,  and  on  this  point  Dr.  CuUen  agrees  with  them.  Instead  of  the 
draught  mentioned  by  our  author,  Avicenna  recommends  vinegar  and  water. 
He  recommends  to  take  little  food,  but  of  good  nourishment ;  and  to  avoid 
pot-herbs  and  fruit.  With  regard  to  the  treatment  of  the  feet,  he  directs  to 
rub  them  until  they  become  warm,  and  then  anoint  them  with  hot  fragrant 
oils.  When  the  feet  have  suffered  from  cold,  some,  he  says,  put  them  into 
cold  water  and  are  thereby  relieved,  in  like  manner  as  congealed  fruits  are 
sometimes  restored.  When  the  water  for  drink  is  bad  he  advises  to  get  it 
distilled. 

Haly  Abbas  gives  very  minute  directions  for  the  conduct  of  travellers. 
Like  our  author,  he  advises  to  gird  the  body  with  a  swath  or  band,  and  to 
use  a  staff.  He  forbids  to  begin  a  journey  either  fasting,  or  in  a  state  of 
repletion  with  food.  Exposure  to  the  sun,  he  says,  is  apt  to  occasion  hectic 
fevers,  headach,  consumption,  and  dryness  of  the  body.  He  directs  to  have 
the  head  covered.  When  hurt  by  exposure  to  heat,  he  advises  to  pour  cold 
water,  or  any  other  thing  of  a  cooling  nature,  over  the  head.  After  exposure 
to  cold,  he  recommends  the  hot  bath.    Pract.  i.  31. 

Rhases  remarks,  that  he  had  known  all  persons  who  had  been  exposed  to 
great  heat  during  a  journey  suffer  from  attacks  of  fever,  except  those  of  a 
humid  and  phlegmatic  temperament.  He  forbids  to  take  much  food  before 
setting  out  on  a  journey.  He  recommends,  if  convenient,  to  take  a  bath  at 
the  close  of  the  day,  then  to  eat  and  go  to  sleep.  He,  and  all  the  authorities 
quoted  by  him,  direct  to  rub  the  body  with  oil  before  and  after  a  journey. 
To  preserve  the  eyes  from  the  effects  of  snow  and  dust,  he  recommends  to 
expose  them  to  the  vapours  produced  by  pouring  wine  on  a  heated  stone, 
or  to  those  of  camomile,  dill,  or  marjoram.  To  protect  the  feet,  he  directs  to 
wrap  them  in  cloths  smeared  with  calefacient  oils.  When  very  hot,  he 
cautions  against  swallowing  much  cold  water  at  once,  but  recommends  to 
hold  some  cool  liquid  in  the  mouth,  and  to  pour  cold  water  on  the  hands 
and  feet.  He  recommends  travellers  to  chew  pickled  onions.  It  is  well 
known,  by  the  way,  that  the  Scotch  Highlander  can  support  a  great  degree  of 
fatigue  by  eating  onions.  During  the  prevalence  of  extreme  cold,  he  ap- 
proves of  drinking  some  hot  wine  before  setting  out  on  a  journey.  When 
the  journey  is  over,  he  directs  the  traveller  to  go  into  a  comfortable  apart* 
ment,  but  not  to  approach  the  fire,  nor  enter  the  bath,  nor  allow  himself  to 
sleep  during  the  space  of  an  hour.  After  this,  he  may  go  into  the  bath  and 
undergo  friction  until  his  body  become  ruddy,  and  then  he  may  go  to  sleep 
on  a  soft  bed ;  by  which  regimen  he  may  be  preserved  from  fever,  if  such 
be  the  will  of  God.     Continens,  xxxiv.    Ad  Mamor.  vi.  3.  and  4. 


LVI.-— ON  THB  BBOIMBN  OF  PBRSON8  AT  SEA. 

This  chapter  likewise  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  {Si/nop.  v.  33.)  who  copies 
^  Diocles.  Similar  directions  are  given  by  Rhases,  Avicenna,  and  Haly 
Abbas.  Haly  remarks  that  persons  on  board  of  a  ship  are  often  infested 
with  lice,  which  are  engendered  by  want  of  cleanliness.  For  them,  he  re- 
conmiends  mercury  killed,  with  oil,  the  long  bithwort,  &c.  Pract,  i.  31. 
Avicenna  says,  that  by  wearing  wool  smeared  with  oil  and  mercury  the 
Hce  will  be  killed.     Can*,  p.  ii. 


86  COMMKNTART  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK. 

When  the  vomiting  is  unusually  severe  and  protracted,  Ithases  recom- 
mends to  treat  it  with  anti-bilious  remedies.  Ad  Mansor.  vi.  14.  Continenif 
xxxiv. 


LVII. — TO    REDUCB    OBESITY. 

This  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  St/nop.  t.  40.  Aetius  uses  nearly  the  same 
words,  lib.  iv.  32.  Celsus  recommends  the  tepid  salt-water  bath,  hard  exer- 
cise, food  of  an  acid  or  austere  kind,  and  restricted  sleep,  lib.  i.  3. 

Galen  gives  an  interesting  account  of  the  manner  in  which  he  cured  a  per- 
son of  obesity  in  a  very  short  space  of  time .  He  says :  '*  I  first  made  him  take 
quick  exercise,  and  aftervrards  wiped  off  the  sweat  with  a  linen  cloth.  I  then 
rubbed  his  body  with  the  volatile  ointments  called  acopa,  and  after  this  fric- 
tion I  led  him  to  the  bath.  I  did  not  then  give  him  food  presently,  but 
directed  him  either  to  rest,  or  follow  any  occupation  he  was  iocHned  for,  and 
then  repeated  the  bath ;  after  which,  I  gave  him  as  much  food,  not  of  a  very 
nourishing  description,  as  he  was  disposed  to  take."  X)e  Sanitate  TuendOy 
vi.  8. 

Avicenna  directs  to  use  hard  exercise  and  frequent  baths,  and  to  drink 
vinegar,  lib.  i.fen.  3.  d.  4.  Rhases  recommends  to  abstain  from  animal  fbod^ 
wine,  milk,  and  all  sweet  things;  to  live  upon  pot  herbs,  and  siich  things  as 
are  saltish  and  sour ;  to  take  purgatives  and  diuretics,  to  use  much  hard  ex- 
ercise, and  to  remain  long  in  the  bath.  Ad  Mansor.  v.  61.  In  another  work 
he  treats  of  this  subject  at  great  length.  He  recommends  acids,  and  espe- 
cially vinegar.  In  short,  he  agrees  with  Galen,  that  all  things  of  a  bitter, 
sour,  and  attenuant  nature,  reduee  obesity ;  and  also  that  saltish  things  which 
have  the  property  of  opening  the  bowels  do  the  same.  Nothing,  he  says, 
tends  more  to  reduce  corpulency  than  frequent  baths  and  hard  friction.  Corh' 
tmenSy  lib.  iv. 

The  directions  given  by  Haly  Abbas  are  to  the  same  effect  as  those  of 
Rhases — that  is  to  say,  he  recommends  to  take  hard  exercise,  to  remain  long 
in  the  bath,  to  use  friction  with  oil  of  dill  and  the  like,  to  live  upon  article»of 
food  not  too  nutritious,  not  to  indulge  in  protracted  sleep,  and  to  have  fre- 
quent recourse  to  laxative  and  purgative  medicines.  Ptact,  i.  16. 

Some  remarkable  cases  of  obesity  are  related  by  Athenteus.  Deipnoi.  xii.  12. 

The  practice  of  the  Methodists  is  described  in  a  very  circamstaQtial  man- 
ner by  Ccelius  Aurelianus,  Tard.  Past.  lib.  v.  9.  They  very  properly  con- 
demned bleeding  and  purging,  and  depended  principally  upon  strong  exer* 
cise,  hard  friction,  and  a  restricted  diet. 


LYIII. HOW  TO  RECRUIT  TH08B  WHO  ARE  BMACIATBD. 

Tnis  is  either  copied  from  Oribasius,  Sjfnop.  y.  41.  or  from  Aetiiis,  till.  iv. 
58.  The  process  of  pitching  the  body  is  thus  described  by  Aetius : — "  Dried 
pitch  is  melted  in  a  moderate  quantity  of  oil,  and  while  still  warm  is  to  be 
rubbed  into  the  skin  (the  part  having  been  previously  shaved),  and  before  it 
cools  completely  it  is  to  be  torn  away.  The  plaster  is  to  be  again  heated  at 
the  fire,  and  spread  upon  the  skin ;  and  before  it  becomes  cold,  it  is  to  be 
torn  away.  This  process  is  to  be  frequently  repeated.''  Lib.  iii.  180.  See 
Celsus,  lib.  i.  3. 

Haly  Abbas  recommends  moderate  exercise,  a  short  continuance  in  the 
bath,  friction  with  emollient  oils,  much  sleep,  two  or  three  meals  every  day, 
food  consisting  of  fat  meat,  bread,  almonds,  &c.  He  also  approves  of  pitch- 
ing. Pract.  i.l6. 


COMMBNTAKT  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  87 

Avicenna  recommends  pitching,  soft  friction,  and  the  rest  of  the  treatment 
recommended  by  Paulus,  lib.  i.  fen.  3.  Doct.  4. 

Rhases  treats  of  the  same  at  great  length.  He  approves  of  protracted  sleep ; 
of  food  consisting  of  fat  meat,  wheat,  and  pulse ;  af\er  food,  of  the  bath,  fric- 
tion with  oil,  and  the  effusion  of  tepid  water  over  the  body  ;  and  also  of  red, 
thick,  and  sweet  wines.  Ad  Mansor.  v.  60.  In  another  work  he  delivers  the 
opinions  of  preceding  authorities,  accompanied  with  his  own  remarks.  He 
agrees  with  Galen,  that  emaciation  generally  depends  upon  the  state  of 
the  liver.  They  recommend  nutritive  articles  of  food,  such  as  boiled  and 
roasted  flesh,  and  the  bath  without  friction  after  a  meal.  Both  speak  fovour- 
ably  of  pitching.  They  also  approve  particularly  of  sulphureous  and  bitumi- 
noos  baths.  With  regard  to  the  bath,  they  explain,  in  another  place,  that  it 
is  proper  in  these  cases  only  afler  the  food  is  digested ;  for,  if  taken  too  soon 
after,  it  loads  the  body  with  unconcocted  chyle ;  and  that,  if  had  recourse  to 
at  other  times,  it  rather  induces  emaciation,  lihases  again  repeats  that  many 
of  the  legumina  are  very  nutritive,  which  statement  is  con6rmed  by  Dr. 
Colleo.  He  states  that  the  vrine  should  be  particularly  thick.  Continens,  lib. 
xiv.  GaleOy  in  another  place,  says  that  emaciated  persons  are  to  be  recruited 
by  thick  wines,  food  consisting  of  thick  juices,  short  exercises,  and  moderate 
finction.  Meth,  Med,  xiv.  16. 

On  the  treatment  of  convalescents,  consult  Celsus,  lib.  iv.  c.  25,  Galenus, 
V^g'  and  particularly  Rhases,  Continens,  lib.  xxxiv.  We  shall  give  Celsus' 
directions  in  his  own  words  :-^^  Ex  quocunque  autem  roorbo  quis  convales- 
dt,  si  tarde  confirmatur,  vigilare  prim&  luce  debet;  nihilominus  in  lectocon- 
quieseere :  circa  tertiam  boram  leniter  unctis  manibus  corpus  permulcere : 
deinde  delectationis  causa,  quantum  juvat,  ambulare,  circumcisa  omni  nego- 
tiosa  actione :  tnm  gestan  diu  :  multa  frictione  uti :  loca,  caelum,  cibos  sspe 
motare :  ubi  triduo  quatriduove  vinum  bibit,  uno  aut  etiam  altero  die  inter- 
ponere  aquam.  Per  hxc  enim  fiet,  ne  in  vitia  tabem  inferentia  incidat,  et 
ttt  mature  vires  suas  recipiat.  Cum  vero  ex  toto  convaluerit.  periculos^  vits 
genus  subito  mutabit,  et  inordinate  aget.  Paulatim  ergo  debebit,  omissis  his 
iegibos,  eo  transire,  ut  arbitrio  suo  vivat." — Galen  and  Rhases  particularly 
lecommend  to  convalescents  to  drink  white  astringent  wines  diluted  with 
water.  Both  enjoin  a  restricted  diet  at  first,  gentle  exercise,  and  the  bath  in 
moderation.  Haly  Abbas  cautions  against  premature  friction  and  exercise, 
bot  recommends  the  tepid  bath,  and  gentle  unction  with  oils,  Pract.  i.  25. 
Syiaat  recommends  the  warm  bath,  moderate  friction  with  rough  towels,  and 
auction  with  a  little  oil.    V.  Auctores  de  Balneis,  p.  334. 


LIX. HOW  TO  RSMEDT  EMACIATED  PARTS  OF  THE  BODY. 

This  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  v.  42,  or  Aetius,  iv.  34.  See  also 
GalenuSy  de  Sanitate  Tuenda,  lib.  v.  Rhases,  Continens,  lib.  xiii.  Haly 
Abbas,  Pract.  i.  16.  Avicenna,  lib.  i.  f.  3.  d.  4.  All  recommend  to  pour 
water  on  the  part,  and  then  to  rub  it  with  towels  and  hot  stimulant  oils,  so  as 
to  produce  a  redness  and  glow  in  it.  Most  of  them  also  approve  of  the  pitch 
plttter. 

The  earlier  modem  authors  in  like  manner  recommend  fomentations,  fric- 
tioD,  and  the  pitch  plaster.  See  Lamfrancus,  doc.  i.  tr.  3.  and  Theodoricus, 
Kb.  ii.  c.  25. 

LX. DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  BEST  TEMPERAMENT. 

This  chapter  is  copied  from  Oribasius,  Synopi.v.  43.  or  Aetius,  lib.  iv.  53. 
^  also  Galenus,  de  Temperanientis,  de  Optima  Corporis  Comtitulione,  de 


88  COMMKNTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

Sanitate  Tuenda,  lib.  v.  and  Ars  Medka,  In  the  last-mentioned,  which  was 
long  the  most  celebrated  of  all  his  admired  works,  he  has  treated  of  the  tein* 
peraments  very  systematically.  Whatever  Oribasius,  Paulus,  or  any  subse- 
quent author,  whether  Greek  or  Arabian,  have  delivered  on  this  subject,  is  al- 
together derived  from  the  works  of  Galen. 

None  of  the  Arabians  has  treated  of  the  temperaments  so  learnedly  as  Haly 
Abbas,  Theories,  lib.  i.  See  also  Averrhoes,  CoUiget.  lib.  vi.  Alsaharavius^ 
Theor,  tr.  vi.  Avicenna,  Cantica. 


XLL ON  THE  CHARACTERS  OF  THE  INTEMFERAMENTS. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  St^ps.  v.  44.  who  borrows  from 
Galen,  Ars  Med.  c.  15.  See  also  all  the  authorities  referred  to  in  the  pre- 
ceding chapter. 

The  ancients,  it  will  be  perceived,  connected  the  passions  and  desires  of 
the  mind  with  the  temperaments ;  and,  to  establish  the  alliance  between  them, 
Galen  wrote  a  treatise,  wherein  he  has  handled  the  subject  very  ingeniously, 
and  has  delivered  many  profound  views  of  the  animal  economy.  I  have  often 
wondered  that  his  arguments  have  never  been  turned  against  the  phrenologists 
of  the  present  day.  The  application  of  them  I  need  scarcely  point  out,  as  it 
mt>st  be  obvious  that  if  tlie  passions,  affections,  desires,  and  dispositions  of  the 
mind,  arise  from  the  temperaments,  the  phrenologists  have  erred  in  referring 
Ihem  solely  to  the  configuration  of  the  skull.  Galen*s  work,  to  which  I  al- 
lude, is  entitled,  QuodAnimi  Mores  Corporis  Temperamenta  sequuntur. 


LXIL ON  THE  CONFIGURATION  OF  THE  HEAD. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synops.  v.  45,  Aetius,  iv.  63,  or  di- 
rect from  Galen,  Ars  Medica,  c.  6. 

Psellus,  like  our  author,  remarks,  that  a  small  head,  by  contracting  and 
binding,  as  it  were,  the  brain,  is  necessarily  a  bad  formation ;  whilst  a  large 
head,  if  it  arises  from  excess  of  the  natural  powers,  is  good ;  but  if  it  is  occa- 
sioned by  a  collection  of  superfluous  matter,  the  contrary.  Here  again  we 
are  furnished  with  another  serious  objection  to  the  phrenological  hypothesis. 
For  surely,  granting  that  the  passions  and  dispositions  depend  upon  the  con- 
struction of  the  head,  the  quality  as  well  as  the  quantity  of  its  component  parts 
ought  to  be  taken  into  account,  as  regulating  its  operations. 


LXIII. —  ON  THE  CHARACTERS  OF  THE  TEMPERAMENTS  OF  THE  BRAIN. 

This  is  taken  from  Oribasius  (Si/n.  v.  46.^,  who  abridges  Galen.  Ars 
Medica. 

As  our  authoc's  description  of  the  temperaments  is  sufficiently  intelligible, 
and  the  others,  whether  Greeks  or  Arabians,  deliver  exactly  the  same  views 
of  the  subject,  without  any  material  improvement,  I  consider  it  unnecessary 
to  multiply  references  to,  and  extracts  from  them,  on  the  present  occasion ; 
and,  therefore,  instead  of  crowding  my  pages  with  superfluous  repetitions,  I 
shall  give  in  this,  and  the  five  following  chapters,  a  brief  exposition  of  the 
physiological  doctrines  of  the  ancients,  with  regard  to  the  principal  organs  of 
tlie  human  body  : — 

The  ancients  divided  the  powers  or  faculties  of  the  human  body  into  the 
natural,  the  vital,  and  the  animal.  The  brain  they  held  to  be  the  seat  of  the 
animal  powers — that  is  to  say,  they  considered  it  to  be  the  organ  from  which 


COMMSNTAEJ  ON  THK  FIRST  BOOK.  89 

sensatioD  and  motion  are  derived,  and  these,  thev  maintained,  are  the  powers 
l^  which  animals  are  distinguished  from  vegetables.    This  doctrine  is  fully 
explained  by  Galen,  in  his  work,  de  FacuUatibm   NaturalUnii,  and  by 
several  of  the  Arabian  authors,  among  whom  I  will  venture  to  mention  Haly 
Abbas,  as  being  particularly  worthy  of  being  consulted  on  this  subject.    The 
brain,  then,  was  accounted  the  seat  of  the  five  external  senses,  and  of  muscu- 
lar motion,  which  also  was  reckoned  as  one  of  the  senses  by  Hippocrates,  (De 
Imomniisy  c.  1 .)    I  may  mention,  by  the  way,  that  the  late  Dr.  Brown,  and 
the  present  Dr.  Abercrombie  of  Edinburffh,  adopt  the  arrangement  of  Hip- 
pocrates.   Galen  and  his  followers  decidedly  taught  that  the  nerves  of  the 
senses  are  distinct  from  those  which  impart  the  power  of  motion,  that  the 
former  derive  their  origin  from  the  anterior  part  of  the  brain  or  cerebrum,  and 
the  latter  from  the  posterior,  called  by  the  Greeks  encephalis  (under  this  term 
they  comprehendea  the  cerebellum,  tuber  annulare,  and  medulla  oblongata  of 
modern  anatomists),  or,  from  its  process,  the  spinal  cord.    They  maintained 
that  the  nerves  of  the  finer  senses  are  formed  of  matter  too  soft  to  be  the  vehi- 
cles of  muscular  motion ;  whereas,  on  the  other  hand,  the  nerves  of  motion 
ure  too  hard  to  be  susceptible  of  fine  sensibility.    Willis,  and  lately  Mr. 
Charles  Bell,  in  his  reply  to  an  article  of  mine  in  the  Medical  Gazette  (May 
2,  1829),  on  the  opinions  of  the  ancient  physiologists  with  regard  to  the 
nerves,  deny  that  the  nerves  of  sensation  are  softer  than  those  of  motion. 
Ackerman  and  Malacarne,  however,  maintain  that  the  opinion  of  Galen  on 
this  point  is  perfectly  correct,  and  with  them  I  entirely  agree.    Let  any  per- 
son attentively  examine  the  gustatory  and  muscular  nerves  of  the  tongue,  and 
he  will  be  sensible  of  the  superior  softness  of  the  former.    As  my  limits  will 
not  admit  of  my  giving  a  full  explanation  of  this  celebrated  theory,  which 
was  lately  revived  with  great  eclat,  I  must  be  content  with  referring  to  Galen, 
de  Usu  Fartiuniy  lib.  ix.  de  AdmmUt.  Anat.  lib.  vii. ;   to  Haly  Abbas, 
Thearica,  lib.  iv.;  to  Averrhoes,  CoUiget,  iii.  33.;  to  Avenzoar,  ii.  7. ;  and  to 
Rbases,  Continens,  lib.  i. 

The  ancients  were  also  of  opinion,  that  the  brain  is  the  coldest  viscus  in  the 
animal  frame,  being  in  this  respect  the  antagonist  of  the  heart,  the  heat  of 
which  they  supposed  that  it  counteracts.  See  Aristot  De  Part,  Anim.  ii.  7. 
and  Pliny,  H.  ^T.  xi.  49.  There  appears  to  be  some  foundation  for  this  opi- 
nion, since,  as  is  remarked  by  Haly  Abbas,  those  parts  of  the  body  which 
are  vascular,  and  contain  much  blood,  are  naturally  hot;  whereas  such  as 
contain  little  blood  are  comparatively  cold.  Of  this  latter  class,  are  the  brain, 
nerves,  and  fat.  Theor.  lib.  i.    . 


LXIV. ON  THB  CHARACTEE8  OF  THE  TEMFKEAMBNTS  OF  THE 

STOMACH. 

We  shall  now  state  briefly  the  opinions  of  the  ancients  with  regard  to  the 
functional  office  of  the  stomach. 

Actuarius  says, ''  I  am  of  opinion,  that  there  are  four  species  of  concoction 
which  are  performed  in  different  parts  of  the  body ;  the  nrst  in  the  stomach ; 
the  second  in  the  vena  ramalis  (vena  portae  ?),  meseraic  veins,  and  concave 
part  of  the  liver ;  the  third  in  the  convex  part  of  the  liver  and  veins  proceed- 
mgfrom  it;  and  the  fourth,  consisting  of  febrication  or  assimilation  which 
takes  place  in  the  extreme  parts  of  the  body.''  De  UrinU.  The  various 
modes  of  change  or  concoction  which  the  food  undergoes  in  the  body,  are 
minutely  described  by  Macrobius.  Satumal,  lib.  vii.  In  another  place, 
Actuarius  says,  '*  Digestion  is  performed  by  moderate  heat  and  moisture.*' 
De  Spiritu  Animali,  p.  ii.  §  1.  Alsaharavius  in  like  manner  states,  that  the 
digestive  faculty  depends  partly  on  the  heat,  and  partly  on  the  humidity  of 


90  COMUKNTART  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK. 

the  stomach.  Praet,  it,  xvi.  c.  1.  It  is  impossible  not  to  see  that  the 
gastric  juice  is  alluded  to  in  these  passages.  It  is  particularly  stated  of  Ascle- 
piadesy  that  he  held  digestion  to  be  the  solution  of  the  food. — See  C.  Aure- 
lianus,  i.  13.  And  that  the  ancients  were  aware  that  the  stomach  secretes 
a  fluid  possessed  of  solvent  properties,  is  put  beyond  a  doubt,  by  the  follow- 
ing extract  from  the  works  of  Haly  Abbas.  Speaking  of  the  changes  which 
the  food  undergoes  in  the  mouth  and  stomach,  he  says : — "  Iramutantur  cibi 
in  ore,  retinenturque,  et  flegmati  admiscetur  quod  digestum  est,  calorque  ei 
datur.  Quod  antem  flegma  hoc  hujusmodi  sit,  signum  nobis  est  quod  im- 
petigines  et  sarpedones  curat,  quedam  maturat  ulcera,  scorpiones  necat. 
liac  ergo  de  causa  et  in  ore  cibus  immutatur.  Sic  et  stoma'shus  ipsum  im- 
mutat:  ejus  etenim  circum  amplectitur  substantia,  quasque  habet  imprimit 
qualitates,  immutaturque  ipsius  natural!  calore  cibus :  Sed  et  quoniam  cibus 
ipse  M  eo  flegmati  admiscetur  humidor  Theor.  iv.  3.  The  whole  bearing 
ai  this  passage,  but  more  especially  the  last  clause,  puts  it  beyond  a  doubt, 
that  the  process  of  digestion  was  supposed  to  be  performed,  in  a  certain 
measure,  by  the  solvent  powers  of  a  fluid  secreted  in  the  stomach.  And  the 
ingenious  Alexander  Aphrodisieus,  in  like  manner,  treating  of  the  digestion  of 
mustard,  pepper,  and  other  acrid  substances,  says  decidedly,  that  their  acri- 
mony is  dissolved  in  the  copious  fluid  of  the  stomach.  Frohl.  i.  30. — See 
also  Macrobius,  Saturnalia^  lib.  vii.  8.  He  calls  it  ventralis  humor.  Part 
of  the  process  was,  no  doubt,  supposed  to  be  performed  indirectly  by  heat ; 
and  deservedly,  for  even  Spallanzani  was  compelled  to  admit,  that  the  com- 
parative temperature  of  animals  exerts  a  considerable  influence  on  their  di- 
gestive powers.  Hence,  as  was  stated  by  Averrhoes,  and  as  is  confirmed  by 
Cuvier,  birds,  which  are  the  warmest  class  of  animals,  likewise  digest  the 
fiutest.  At  all  events,  the  ancients  were  well  aware,  that  digestion  is  not  a 
mechanical,  but  a  vital  process,  being  performed  by  the  principle  of  life. 
*^  Digestion,''  says  Averrhoes, ''  is  performed  by  concoction,  and  the  concoc- 
tion is  influenced  by  heat,  not  that  the  first  mover  in  the  operation  is  heat, 
but  the  nutritive  soul ;  because  the  operations  of  heat  are  indeterminate,  and 
not  directed  to  any  manifest  end.*'  Celliget.  v.  3.  In  the  AverroeanOf  or 
XiCtters  from  Averrhoes  to  Metrodorus,  the  doctrine  of  a  gastric  menstruam 
is  discussed  with  singular  ability.  Metrodorus  states,  that  ^  he  found  by  the 
Wfitings  of  the  physicians  and  philosophers  of  these  times,  that  they  make 
the  menstruum^  as  they  call  it,  whereby  both  appetite  is  provoked,  and  food 
in  the  stomach  is  digested,  to  be  a  certain  juice  or  humour  in  the  stomach," 
&c.    Averrhoes  denies  that  this  menstruum  acts  by  its  acidity  alone. 


LXy.--*-ON  THE  CHARACTBR8  OF  THE  LUNOS. 

The  ancients  were  of  opinion,  that  the  lungs  are  an  accessory  organ,  made 
to  administer  to  the  heart.  ^  It  is  the  heart,"  says  Aretseus,  ^  which  imparts 
to  the  lungs  the  desire  of  drawing  in  cold  air.''  They,  of  course,  were  aware 
that  respiration  is  the  functional  office  performed  by  the  lungs ;  and,  respecting 
the  uses  of  this  vital  process,  they  were  pretty  much  agreed.  Aristotle,  in- 
deed, and  the  older  physiologists  taught,  that  refrigeration  is  the  purpose  of 
respiration ;  but  Gralen  explains,  that,  probably,  they  were  at  a  loss  for  a  pro- 
per term,  and  used  it  in  the  sense  of  ventilation.  Galen,  himself,  perpetually 
inculcates,  that,  by  respiration  the  vital  heat  is  regulated,  being  increased  or 
diminished  according  to  the  circumstances  of  the  animal.  Another  purpose, 
which  he,  Haly  Abbas,  and  other  ancient  physiologists  supposed  to  be  per- 
formed by  respiration,  is  the  evacuation  of  the  fuliginous  vapours  of  the 
blood.  Galen  was  awai'e  that  respiration  produces  the  same  efifect  upon  at- 
mospherical air  that  combustion  does,  and  that  it  is  equally  necessary  to  the 


COMMKIITART  ON  THK  PIEMT  BOOK.  91 

one  proceis  and  the  other.— See  the  treatises  of  Aristotle  and  Galen  on  re- 

SiratioDy  and  Haly  Abbas,  ThearUa,  lib.  iii.  The  following  extract  from 
aly  contains  the  summary  of  what  we  have  been  stating:-—*^  Respiration 
is  necessary,  for  the  sake  of  the  heart,  which  is  the  fountain,  and,  as  it  were, 
the  focus  of  vital  heat,  whence  it  is  diffused  over  the  rest  of  the  body.  It  re- 
quires some  aerial  substance  to  ventilate  the  heat  and  ebullition  of  the  heart, 
and  in  order  to  evacuate  the  fuliginous  vapours  which  are  found  in  it.*' 


LXVI.— ON  THB  TBMPBmAMBNTB  OF  THB  HBART. 


Im  the  ancient  system  of  physiolosy,  the  heart  was  considered  as  the  seat 
of  the  vital  powers,  its  office  being  die  preservation  of  the  innate  heat  of  die 
body.  The  philosopher,  Aristotle,  had  pointed  out  the  connexion  between 
Iieat  and  vitality,  and  had  taught  that  the  heart,  as  being  the  centre  of  heat, 
is  the  prime  organ  in  the  animal  frame.  Hence,  as  his  commentator,  Averr- 
boes,  remarks,  it  is  the  primum  movent  et  tUtimum  moriens,  Galen,  however, 
maintained  with  Hippocrates,  that  the  animal  frame  is  a  circle,  having  neither 
beginning  nor  end,  and  that,  consequently,  it  has  no  prime  organ.  He 
taught  that  the  brain  does  not,  properly  speaking,  derive  its  powers  from  the 
heurk,  nor  the  heart  from  the  brain ;  but  that  these  organs  are  mutually  de- 
pendent upon  one  another,  the  heart  being  indebted  to  the  brain  for  sup- 
plying the  parts  concerned  in  respiration  with  muscular  energy,  and  the  braiti 
being  indebted  to  the  heart  for  its  vital  heat,  without  which  it  could  not  con- 
tinue to  be  the  vehicle  of  sensibility  and  motion.  We  have  mentioned  in 
the  preceding  chapter,  that  the  ancient  physiologists  looked  upon  respiration 
as  being  a  process  similar  to  combustion.  Agreeably  to  this  idea,  they  com- 
pare the  hc«rt  itself  to  a  lamp, — its  vital  heat  to  the  flame  of  the  lamp,  and 
the  blood  to  the  oil  which  foeds  the  flame. — See  Galenus,  de  Utu  Respirathnit, 
Alexander  Aphrodisieus,  Probl.  i.  16. 

The  heart,  then,  was  supposed  to  convey  heat  to  all  parts' of  the  body,  by 
means  of  the  animal  spirits  incorporated  with  the  blood  in  the  arteries.    Re- 
specting the  contents  of  the  arteries,  two  hypotheses  divided  the  ancient 
schools  of  medicine.    The  first  was  that  of  the  celebrated  Erasistretus,  who 
maintained,  that  the  arteries  do  not  contain  a  fluid,  but  merely  certain  airs 
or  vapours.    This  hypothesis  was  revived  about  70  years  aeo,  by  Professor 
Rosa,  in  Italy;  and  lately  it  found  a  xealous  abettor  in  my  lamented  friend, 
Mr.  George  Kerr,  of  Aberdeen.    The  other  hypothesis  was  that  of  Galen, 
who  keenly  attacked  this,  as  he  did  most  of  the  tenets  of  Erasistratus,  and 
endeavoured  to  prove,  by  experiment,  observation,  and  reasoning,  that  the 
contents  of  the  arteries  is  blood,  mixed,  indeed,  with  a  certain  proportion  of 
heat  and  airs,  but  in  every  respect  a  fluid,  little  difierent  from  that  which  is 
contained  in  the  veins.    It  was  also  part  of  his  system,  that  the  right  cavity 
of  the  heart  attracts  blood  from  the  liver,  and  conveys  it  to  the  left,  from 
which  it  is  diflbsed  all  over  the  body  by  the  arteries.    He  taught  that,  at 
every  systole  of  the  arteries,  a  certain  portion  of  their  contents  is  discharged  at 
their  extremities,  namely,  by  the  exhalents  and  secretory  vessels ;  and  that  at 
every  diastole  a  corresponding  supply  is  attracted  flrom  the  heart.    He  de» 
cidedly  inculcates,  that  it  is  the  expansion  or  diastole  of  the  artery  which  oc- 
casions the  influx  of  the  blood,  and  not  the  influx  of  the  blood  which  occasions 
the  expansion  of  the  artery.    Though  he  demonstrated  the  anastamosis  of 
arteries  and  veins,  he  nowhere  hints  his  belief,  that  the  contents  of  the  former 
pass  into  the  litter,  to  be  conveyed  back  to  the  heart,  and  from  it  to  be  again 
diffused  over  the  body.    Of  the  greater  circulation  of  Harvey,  he  certainly 
had  no  idea.    In  a  word,  his  system  appears  to  have  been  nearly,  or  alto- 
gether, the  same  as  that  afterwards  taught  by  the  unfortunate  Servetus. 


92  COMMENTARY  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK« 

In  proof  of  the  opinioDs  which  I  have  attributed  to  Galen,  I  refer  the 
reader  to  An  Natura  Sariguinis  sit  in  Arteriis,  Administ,  Anatom,  vii.  15,  de 
Vsu  Partium,  lib.  vi.  and  lib.  vii.  7,  8,  9,  de  Placitis  Hippocr,  et  Plat.  i.  5. 

See  also  Averrhoes,  Colliget.  ii.  8.  ii.  9.  Collect.  §  i.  9.  In  Cant.  Avic. 
tr.  i.  p.  1. — Avicenna,  lib.  iii.  fen.  xi.  tr.  1. — Actuarius,  (/e  Spiritu  Animali^  p. 
i»  §  6.  c2e  Causis  Urinarumj  ii.  2. — Nemesius,  de  Natura  Hominis,  §  24. 

With  regard  to  the  passages  collected  by  the  ingenious  M.  Dutens,  fix>m 
the  works  of  Hippocrates,  Plato,  Nemesius,  Pollux,  and  Theodoret,  to  prove 
that  the  ancients  were  acquainted  with  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  as  taught 
by  Harvey,  I  shall  only  remark,  that,  after  having  attentively  considered  then), 
I  cannot  but  draw  the  conclusion,  that  some  of  these  authors  must  have  had, 
^t  least,  an  obscure  idea  of  this  doctrine,  although,  in  general,  these  passages 
paay  be  understood  to  refer  merely  to  the  lesser  circulation  and  the  move- 
meut  of  the  blood  from  the  centre  to  the  extremities,  as  maintained  by  Oalen. 
— See  Dutens,  Origine  des  Decouvertes  attributes  aux  ModemeSy  p.  157, — 
also  Drelincurtius,  de  Lienosis  Epimetris. 


LXVII. ON  THE  TEMPERAMENTS  OF  THE  LIVER. 

AccoRDiKG  to  the  views  of  the  ancient  Physiologists,  the  liver  is  the  seat 
of  the  natural  powers,  being  the  grand  organ  of  sanguification,  and  the  blood 
being  the  pabulum  which  nourishes  the  whole  body.  That  the  liver  per- 
forms an  important  part  in  the  fabrication  of  the  blood,  seems  probable  from 
all  the  veins  of  the  stomach  and  upper*  portion  of  the  intestines  passing 
to  th^  liver,  whereby  it  is  to  be  supposed,  that  a  considerable  proportion  of 
the  nutiitive  juices  will  be  conveyed  to  it ;  and  from  this  viscus  being  pro- 
portionally large  in  the  fcetus  when  it  is  much  required  to  form  blood,  and 
cannot  be  supposed  necessary  for  any  other  purpose.  In  fact,  the  late  ex- 
periments of  Professors  Tiedeman  and  Groelin  seem  to  prove,  that  the  liver 
IS  concerned  in  carrying  off  the  recrementitious  part  of  the  blood,  or,  to  use 
the  language  of  modem  chemistry,  in  decarbonising  it.  Recherches  Exper. 
sur  la  Digestion.  The  ancients  taught,  that  the  liver,  by  its  attractive  power, 
attracts  the  chyle  from  the  stomach ;  that,  by  its  retentive,  it  retains  the  same 
until  the  alterative  convert  it  into  blood ;  and  then  the  expulsive  separates 
the  superfluities  of  the  blood,  namely,  the  bile,  and  conveys  them  to  the  gall- 
bladder.— See  Galenus,  tom.  ii.  p.  285.  Ed,  Basil,  and  Avicenna^  lib.  iti. 
fen.  4.  tr.  1. 

Aristotle  held  that  the  spleen  is  part  of  the  hepatic  system,  de  Partibm 
Animal,  iii.  7.  His  commentator,  Averrhoes,  in  like  manner,  considers  the 
spleen  as  a  second  liver.  Collect,  i.  9.  Their  reasoning,  on  this  point,  ap- 
pears to  me  exceedingly  acute  and  conclusive. 


LXVIII. ON  THE  TEMPERAMENTS  OF  THB  TESTICLES; 

The  testicles  were  described  by  the  ancient  anatomists  as  being  bodies 
xomposed  of  white  glandular  flesh,  and  surrounded  by  coats  which  they 
Jcnew  to  be  processes  of  the  peritoneum.  The  semen  they  considered  as  a 
white  frothy  fluid,  elaborated  from  the  blood,  by  passing  through  the  convo- 
lutions of  tne  spermatic  vessels.  Aristotle  held  it  to  be  a  superfluity  collected 
from  all  parts  of  the  system.  His  theory  of  generation  is  similar  to  that  of 
Buffon.  For  the  hypothesis  of  the  Epicureans,  see  Lucretius,  de  R.  N.  lib. 
iv.  They  taught  that  the  foetus  is  the  joint-production  of  the  male  semen,  and 
something  analogous  secreted  by  the  ovaria  of  the  female. 


COMMSNTART  ON  THB  FIRST   BOOK.  93 


LXIX. — ON  THR  PARTS  WHICH  ARS  OMITTRD. 

On  these  consult  Galenus,  de  Temperameniis. — Haly  Abbas,  Tkeor.  iii.— 
Avicenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  1.  doct.  3.  We  may  mention  that,  generally  speaking, 
all  those  parts  which  possess  much  blood  were  supposed  to  be  of  a  not  tern*- 
peramenty  and  those  which  baTe  little  of  a  cold. 


LXX. ON  THR  CURR  OF  THR  HOT  INTRMPRRAMRNT8  OF  THR  BOOT* 

See  in  like  manner  Galeous,  de  Sanitate  Tuendoj  lib.  vi. — Oribasius,  Syn: 
V.  51. — Aetius,  iv.  95. — ^Actuarius,  de  DUBta,  c.  12.— *Of  the  Arabians,  Haly 
Abbas  is  the  author  who  has  delivered  the  treatment  of  the  temperaments  in 
the  fullest  manner,  Pract,  i.  15. 

It  is  ta  be  remarked,  that  the  condition  of  the  body  named  the  hot  intern^ 
perament  by  the  ancients  is  the  same  as  that  now  generally  called  a  bilious 
habit.  Accordingly,  Galen  directs  the  physician  to  attend  whether  any  pain 
or  sense  of  weight  be  felt  in  the  region  of  the  liver,  as,  in  that  case,  he  judges 
it  unsafe  to  take  the  bath  after  a  meal,  and  recommends  rather  to  give  deob* 
straents,  and  to  avoid  food  of  a  thick  viscid  nature.  He  particularly  recom- 
mends an  attenuant  diet,  and  medicines  of  the  same  description,  namely, 
wormwood,  anise,  bitter  almonds,  &c.  His  views  of  practice  in  this  case 
appear  to  bave  been  very  judicious. 


LXXI.— ON  THR  CURR  OF  THR  COLD  INTRMPRRAMRNT8. 

See  the  authorities  referred  to  in  the  preceding  chapter.    All,  in  a  wordj 
copy  from  Galen. 


LXXIl. OF  THR  CURR  OF  THR  DRY  INTRMPRRAMBNTS. 

Galen  supplies  all  the  matter  of  this  chapter. 

This  being  me  last  chapter  in  which  the  temperaments  are  treated  of,  it 
maybe  interesting,- before  concluding  with  them,  to  give  a  brief  exposition  of 
modem  opinions  on  this  subject.  We  shall  select  the  account  of  them  given 
by  Dr.  CuUen  in  his  work  on  the  Materia  Medica.  He  says,  ''The  ancients 
very  early  established  a  distinction  of  temperaments,  which  the  schools  of 
physic  have  almost  universally  adopted  ever  since,  and  appears  to  me  to  be 
founded  in  observation.*^  He  then  proceeds  to  describe  what  he  calls  the 
four  temperaments,  namely,  the  sanguine,  the  melancholic,  the  choleric,  and 
the  phlegmatic.  In  the  sanguine,  he  says,  the  hair  is  soft,  and  never  much 
nurled,  is  of  a  pale  colour,  and,  from  thence,  passing  through  the  different 
shades  to  red ;  the  skin  is  smooth  and  white ;  the  complexion  ruddy ;  the 
eyes  commonly  blue;  the  habit  of  the  body  soft  and  plump;  after  the  period 
of  manhood,  disposed  to  obesity,  and  at  all  times  readily  sweating  upon  ex-* 
ercise ;  the  strength  of  the  whole  body  moderate ;  and  the  mind  sensible, 
irritable,  cheerful,  and  unsteady.  This,  he  says,  is  the  tentperamentum  calidum 
et  humidum  of  the  ancients.  He  adds,  the  other  temperament  distinguished 
by  the  ancients,  which  I  can  characterise  most  distinctly,  and  explain  most 
clearly,  is,  that  which  has  been  very  constantly  named  the  melancholic.  The 
hair  is  hard,  black,  and  curled ;  die  skin  is  coarser,  and  of  a  dun  colour, 
with  a  corresponding  complexion ;  the  eyes  very  constantly  black ;  the  habit 
of  the  body  rather  hard  and  meagre ;  the  strength  considerable ;  the  mind 


94  COMMENTARY  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK« 

slow,  disposed  to  gravity,  caution,  and  timidity,  with  little  sensibility  or  irri- 
tability, but  tenacious  of  all  emotions  once  excited,  and,  therefore  of  a  great 
steadiness.  This,  he  says,  the  ancients  made  the  temperamentumfrigidum  et 
tkcum.  A  temperament  intermediate  between  the  sanguine  and  the  melan- 
cholic, is  the  one  which  the  ancients  meant  to  denote  by  the  title  of  choleric, 
which  has  more  strength  than  the  sanguine,  and  more  irritability  than  the 
melancholic.  In  the  phlegmatic,  there  are  less  sensibility  and  irritability, 
but  with  more  strength  and  steadiness  than  in  the  sanguine ;  and,  at  the 
same  time,  with  more  laxity  and  more  irritability  than  in  the  melancholic. 
Such  is  Dr.  Cullen's  description  of  the  temperaments,  which,  as  must  be  ob- 
vious to  the  reader,  contains  a  very  erroneous  account  of  the  ancient  doctrines 
on  this  subject. 

The  modern  ideas  respecting  the  temperaments,  appear  to  be  founded 
upon  the  descriptions  given  by  the  Arabians  of  the  symptoms,  which  charac- 
terise the  prevalence  of  the  four  humours,  as  they  were  called,  namely,  blood, 
yellow  bile,  black  bile,  and  phlegm,  in  the  body.  In  proof  of  this,  I  sub-, 
join  Rhases'  brief  description  of  them : — '^  De  complexione  autem  infirm! 
scias,  quod  si  fuerit  albi  coloris  admixti  rubedini,  et  si  fuerit  bone  camis, 
subtilis  cutis,  et  quando  locum  fricaveris,  rubescit  statim,  significatur  quod 
materia  est  sanguinea.  £t  si  corpus  fuerit  pingue,  et  albi  coloris  non  mixti 
rubedini,  et  corpus  nudum  pilis,  venb  strictis,  came  molli,  occultarum  juDC- 
turarum,  gracilium  ossinm,  et  generaliter  talis  dispositio  qualis  est  in  corpo* 
ribus  muUerum,  significatur  quod  materia  est  pnlegmatiea.  £t  si  fuerit 
macrum,  citrini  coloris,  pilosum,  et  cum  crassis  venis,  et  manifestis  junctu- 
ris,  ostendit  quod  materia  est  cholerica.  £t  si  fuerit  niger  color,  durities  cor- 
poris, pilositas,  asperitas  cutis,  significatur  quod  materia  est  melancholica." — 
Ve  Affect,  Junet,  c.  2. 

It  is  to  be  understood,  however,  that  Galen's  system  of  the  temperaments 
was  not  based,  as  has  been  often  erroneously  represented,  upon  any  hypo- 
thesis respecting  the  humours. 


LXXIII.-^ON  THB  PB0PBETIB8  OF  FOOD. 

The  ancient  writers  on  Dietetics  are,  Hippocrates,  de  Diata,  de  Affectioni- 
bui,  et  alibi. — Celsus,  lib.  ii. — Dioscorides,  Mater,  Med.  lib.  ii.—^alenus, 
de  Faeult,  Alim,  et,  de  Probis  Pravisgue  Aliment,  Sw,  Oribasius,  Med.  Col- 
lect, lib.  i.  et  seq. — ^Aetius,  lib.  iiw^-Simeon  Seth,  de  Alimentis, — Actuarius, 
de  Spiritu  Animaliy  p.  ii.— Rhases,  ad  Mamor,  lib.  iii.  Continent,  lib. 
xxxiii. — Avicenna,  Cantic,  p.  ii.  Averrhoes,  Comment,  de  Cantic. — Haly^ 
Abbas,  Theor,  v.  15. — ^Athenseus,  Deipnot.  panim,  Plutarchus,  de  Sanitate 
Tuenda,  Symposiacon, — Macrobius,  Satumal.  lib.  vii. — Cslius  Apiciusy  de 
Opsoniit, — Geoponicny  lib.  xii. 

The  ancient  philosophers  were  at  great  pains  to  explain  why  a  regular 
supply  of  food  IS  necessary  to  the  existence  of  animals.  On  this  su^ect, 
Timeus  Locrus,  Plato,  and  Aristotle,  have  philosophised  with  great  acute- 
ness  and  ingenuity.  No  one,  however,  has  given  a  plainer  account  of  the 
matter  than  the  Poet  Lucretius  in  the  following  verses : — 

**  lUnd  Hem  non  est  mirandum,  corporis  ipsa 
Quod  natura  cibum  quierit  quoifisqae  nni  mantis  \ 
Ctuippe  etenim  fluere,  atque  recedere  corpora  rebus 
Mnlta  modis  multis  docoi,  sed  plurima  debent 
Ez  animalibus  lis,  qus  sunt  exerdta  motu ; 
Multaqne  per  sudorem  ex  alto  pressa  fenmtur, 
Malta  por  os  e^dialantiir^  qaom  laagoida  anhelant : 
Hit  igitar  rebus  raresdt  corpus ;  etomnis 


OOMMBNTART  ON  TUB  FIRST  BOOK.  95 

Subrnitar  natnra  dolor  quam  consequitur  rem. 
Propterea  Cfq>itiir  dbufl,  ut  suifalceat  artas, 
£t  recreat  yins  interdatasi  atque  patentem 
Per  membra  ac  Tenas  vt  amorem  obtnret  edendi." 

De  Renm  Ntt,  W.  1.  866. 

The  explanation  given  by  one  of  Rbases's  authorities  is  to  the  same  effect. 
He  says — '^  Since  our  bodies  are  in  a  continual  state  of  waste  from  the  sur- 
rounding atmosphere,  and  the  innate  heat  which  is  within,  it  behoved  them  to 
have  nourishment  to  supply  the  part  which  is  melted  down ;  and,  as  all  the 
food  which  is  taken  is  not  assimilated,  it  was  necessary  that  there  should  be 
passages  for  the  discharge  of  the  superiSuities." 

Hippocrates,  Aristotle,  Galen,  and  Musonius  (ap.  Stobci  Sentent»  s.  18.) 
remark  that  the  stomach  is  to  animals  what  the  earth  is  to  vegetables. 

Our  author's  general  remarks  on  the  properties  of  food  are  condensed  from 
Galen's  work,  l)e  Prob.  p.  AL  tuc,  Horace  agrees  with  Galen  and  our 
author  in  condemning  the  mixture  of  various  articles  of  food,  Satir,  lib.  ii.  s.  2. 
The  arguments  for  and  against  this  practice  are  very  ingeniously  stated  by 
Macrobius,  Saturn,  vii.  5, 6.  It  appears  that  Asclepiades  maintained  the  opi- 
nion that  a  multifarious  diet  is  most  easily  digestea.  Celsus,  iii.  6. 

With  regard  to  the  ordinary  meals  of  the  ancients,  the  following  extract 
from  the  notes  of  Lambinius  on  Plautus  will  supply  the  necessary  informa- 
tion:— ^^Jentaculum  primus  erat  cibus  apud  Komanos  ut  apud  Gnecos 
oKpaTurfjui;  quem  sequebatur  PranJium  ;  deinde  Vesnerna;  postremo  Cana: 
apud  Graecos  dpurrov,  deinde  i<nr€purfjLaf  postremo  oeiirpovJ*  Truculent.  Ac. 
ii.  sc.  7.  I.  38.  See  also  Athenaeus,  Deipnos.  lib.  1.  and  Potter's  Archaohgia 
Graca^  lib.  iv.  16.  The  practice,  however,  of  taking  so  many  meab,  appears 
to  have  been  disapproved  of  by  the  physicians  and  savam :  mr  we  find  Actn- 
arius  discussing  the  question,  whether  it  be  proper  to  eat  twice,  or  only  once 
Id  the  day;  and  Galen  decidedly  recommends  not  to  take  food  in  general 
oftener  than  twice.  Cicero  even  forbids  to  take  two  fiill  meals  in  a  day.  (Tup- 
cuL  Quasi,  lib.  v.)  Haly  Abbas  enters  into  a  full  examination  of  the  question 
with  regard  to  the  numoer  of  meals.  Some,  he  says,  eat  only  once  in  the  day, 
some  twice,  and  others  three  times.  He  advises  those  persons  who  are  ac- 
tively employed  not  to  dine,  because,  if  obliged  to  take  exercise  immediately 
afterwards,  the  body  will  be  loaded  with  half  concocted  chyle.  Upon  the 
whole  he  prefers  supper  to  dinner.  Pract.  i.  13.  Alsaharavius  considers  one 
meal  in  the  day  not  sufficient  for  persons  of  a  gross  habit  of  body.  He  ad- 
vises not  to  change  even  a  bad  regimen  too  suddenly.  Rhases  remarks,  that 
to  take  another  supply  of  food  before  a  preceding  meal  is  digested,  will  provt 
highly  prejudicial  to  the  health. 

The  ancient  physicians  attached  extreme  importance  to  the  proper  regu- 
lation of  the  diet.  Galen  seriously  admonishes  his  readers  not  to  eat 
thoughtlessly,  like  brute  beasts,  but  to  consider  attentively  what  kinds  of  food 
and  drink  they  find  from  experience  to  be  prejudicial  to  them.  De  Sanitate 
Tuenduy  lib.  vi.  13. 

According  to  Athenaeus,  a  good  physician  ought  to  be  a  good  cook. — 
Deipnos.  lib.  vii. 


LXXrV. ON  POT'HBRBS. 

Athemjeus  remarks  that  the  use  of  pot-herbs  as  articles  of  food  appears  to 

have  been  very  ancient,  since  several  of  them  are  mentioned  by  Homer. 

Det/mo«.  i.  29.    Diphylus  says,  ''  that  all  pot4ierbs  in  general  contain  little 

nutriment,  are  attenuant,  engender  bad  juices,  swim  in  the  stomach,  and  are 

of  difficult  digestion."    Deipnos.  ii.  28.  Actuarius  states,  that  pot-herbs  in 


) 


96  COMUBNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

general  form  a  thin  and  watery  blood,  compared  with  that  from  thicker  arti- 
cles of  food. 

The  ancients  ate  their  pot-herbs  with  much  oil,  and  generally  a  liberal  al- 
lowance of  hot  spices.  See  Apicius,  lib.  iii.  A  sauce  from  pickled  fish, 
vinegar,  or  old  wine,  was  often  a^ded  to  the  preparation.  The  poet  Juvenal 
makes  mention  of  a  miser  who  ate  his  cabbage  with  the  oil  from  lamps. 
Sat,  V.  1.  87.  Celsus  remarks  of  such  things,  "  Quodcunque  ex  olio  garove 
estur  olus  alien um  stomacho  est.*' 

We  shall  now  select  from  the  dietetical  writers  a  few  remarks  on  some  of 
the  articles  of  this  class : 

Galen  strongly  commends  the  Lettuce  as  a  cooling,  moistening,  and 
soporific  herb.  He  relates  that  he  cured  himself  of  morbid  insomnolency, 
by  eating  liberally  of  lettuces.  The  soporific  property  of  lettuce  is  men- 
tioned by  Dioscorides,  Pliny,  Athensus,  Rhases,  Haly  Abbas,  Simeon  Seth, 
and  most  of  the  other  authorities.  It  is  even  said  by  Simeon  Seth,  and  Flo- 
rentmus  {Geopon.  xvii.  13.),  that  the  juice  of  it  when  rubbed  upon  the  fore- 
head induces  sleep.  1  need  scarcely  remark,  that  the  lettuce  was  lately  re- 
stored to  its  place  in  the  Meteria  Medica  as  a  soporific.  Martial  directs  to 
eat  lettuce  at  the  beginning  of  a  feast.    Lib.  xi.  £p.  .53. 

Athenseus  mentions  that  Mallows  are  praised  by  the  poet  Hesiod, 
{Op,  et  Dies.  lib.  i.)  He  adds,  *<  Diphilus  relates  that  mallows  have  good 
juices,  smooth  the  trachea,  are  easily  evacuated,  and  prove  moderately  nutri- 
tious.'' Damogeron  says  that,  when  eaten  with  nsh-sauce  and  oil,  they 
loosen  the  belly.  Geopon.  u.  s.  Galen  and  Aetius  state  that  they  lubricate 
the  intestines  more  than  lettuce,  but  are  not  so  refrigerant.  In  a  word, 
mallows  were  in  great  repute  with  the  ancients  as  being  inferior  to  none  of 
olera.  Horace  calls  them,  "  gravi  malvae  salubres  corpori,"  Epod.  ii.  The 
poet  Martial  mentions  them  as  being  laxative.    Lib.  x. 

Galen  states,  that  the  juice  of  the  Beet  is  thinner  and  more  detergent  than 
those  of  the  lettuce  and  mallows.  He  says  that,  when  twice  boiled,  it  be- 
comes astringent.  Apicius  recommends  to  eat  boiled  beet  with  mustard,  a 
moderate  proportion  of  oil,  and  vinegar.  Beet-root,  according  to  Actuarius 
and  Simeon  Seth,  is  difficult  to  digest,  flatulent,  and  laxative.  Dioscorides 
and  Diphilus,  however,  state,  that  beet  contains  better  juices,  and  is  more 
nutritious  than  cabbage.  Athen.  Deipn,  ix.  Galen  recommends  its  pickled 
roots  as  a  deobstruent  for  infarction  of  the  liver  and  spleen.  De  Alim.  Fa- 
cult,  lib.  ii. 

The  wild  Succory,  and  the  Endive  or  garden  Succory,  were  much  used  by 
the  ancients  as  pot-herbs.  Galen  briefly  states,  that  in  properties  they  re- 
semble lettuce,  but  are  less  delicious.  According  to  Simeon  Seth,  they  are 
slightly  cooling  and  moistening.  The  endive,  he  says,  when  boiled  with 
vinegar,  is  astringent.  Rhases  praises  it  as  a  deobstruent  in  aflections  of  the 
liver.  Apicius  directs  to  dress  them  with  fish-sauce  and  oil.  Its  boiled 
roots  were  also  prepared  as  a  pickle. 

The  Brassicae  or  Cabbages  were  great  fevourites  of  the  Elder  Cato.  De  He 
lUat,  Horace  states  correctly,  that  such  as  grow  in  the  country  are  better 
than  those  which  are  raised  about  towns.  Sat,  ii.  4.  According  to  Galen, 
their  juices  are  laxative,  but  their  solid  parts  astringent.  Brocoli,  says 
Rhases,  when  not  pickled,  are  not  heating,  and  being  flatulent  they  engender 
semen.  Those  that  are  pickled  are  more  heating,  occasion  thirst,  supply  bad 
nutriment,  and  inflame  the  blood.  Is  Brocoli  an  Italian  word,  or  an  Arabian, 
formed  from  caulis  with  a  prefix  ? 

The  Halimus,  according  to  Sprengel,  is  undoubtedly  ihe  Atriphx  Halimut 
L.  called  by  Miller  the  Sea  Purslane,  Dioscorides  says,  that  its  leaves  when 
boiled  are  used  for  food,  lib.  i.  120. 


COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  97 

Rhases  and  Haly  Abbas  state,  that  Spinage  is  laxative  and  wholesome. 
The  Greeks  and  Romans  appear  to  have  l>een  unacauainted  with  it. 

The  Atractylis  is  supposed  by  Sprengel  to  be  the  Carlina  Lanata  L.  Dios- 
corides  and  Pliny  recommend  it  as  an  antidote  against  poisons ;  but  it  seems 
to  have  been  little  used  as  a  pot-herb. 

The  Scandix,  or  Shepherd's  Needle,  was  in  little  repute  as  an  article  of 
food  ;  and  hence  Aristophanes  makes  it  a  subject  of  reproach  to  Euripides, 
.that  his  mother  sold  not  good  pot-herbs,  but  Scandix.     Achar,  act.  ii.  sc.  4. 
Plinius,  If.  N,  xxii.  38. 

Galen  says,  that  the  Gingidium  is  eaten  in  Syria,  like  the  Scandix  in  his 
country.  It  has  been  supposed  to  be  the  Chsrophyllum  or  Chervil ;  but,  ac- 
cording to  Ludovicus  Nonnius,  this  is  a  mistake. 

Galen,  Aetius,  and  Simeon  Seth,  speak  of  the  Artichoke  as  an  unwhole- 
some pot-herb.  It  may  be  eaten,  however,  Galen  says,  with  oil,  fish-sauce, 
and  wme  and  coriander.  Dioscorides  says,  that  the  Scolymus  is  eaten  Kke 
asparagus.    lib.  iii.  16. 

The  Hipposelinum  appears  to  have  been  the  Sm^mium  Olusatrum. — Sec 
Harduin's  note  on  Pliny,  If.  N,  xix.  48.  and  Sprengel,  ap,  Dioscor,  iii.  71 . 
Dioscorides  says,  it  is  used  as  a  pot-herb  like  parsley,  its  root  being  eaten 
boiled  or  raw,  and  its  stalk  and  leaves  boiled,  either  aloue  or  with  fish. 
It  is  not  to  be  coniounded  with  the  Smyniium  of  the  ancients.  Dioscorides 
says,  thai  the  latter,  when  pickled,  is  used  as  a  pot-herb,  and  is  astringent. 

Galen  says,  that  the  Blite  and  Orache  are  watery  pot-herbs,  and  almost  in- 
sipid. Seth,  and  the  other  authorities  who  notice  it,  agree,  that  the  latter  is 
coolii^  and  laxative.  The  Blite  is  still  much  used  as  a  pot-herb  in  Spain  and 
Italy, 

Xenophon  mentions,  that  the  ancient  Persians  lived  very  much  upon 
Cresses.  Cyroped,  i.  2.  According  to  Aetius  and  Simeon  Seth,  they  are  cale- 
iacient  and  desiccative.  Seth  calls  them  aphrodisiacal.  On  the  aphrodisia- 
calpoiiers  of  the  Cresses  and  Rocket,  see  Chapter  36th. 

Dioscorides  says,  that  the  root  of  the  Dracunculus,  or  Dragon  herb,  is  some- 
times eaten  as  a  pot-herb,  both  when  boiled  and  raw.  He  mentions,  that  the 
inhabitants  of  the  Balearian  Isles  mix  its  root  with  honey,  and  use  it  at  their 
banquets  in  place  of  cakes.  Lib.  ii.  16.  Simeon  Seth  notices  it  by  the  name 
of  Taichon,  being  a  corruption  from  Tarragona.  He  calls  it  flatulent  and  un- 
wholesome ;  and  says,  that  its  leaves  only  are  to  be  used  along  with  mint 
and  parsley.  Galen  and  Rhases  likewise  mention  it  as  an  article  of  food.  It 
is  still  used  on  the  Continent  for  salads,  and  an  excellent  pickle  from  it  is 
brought  to  this  country. 

Mustard,  as  Hippocrates  remarks,  is  of  a  hot  and  purgative  nature.  Seth 
says,  that  it  promotes  the  digestion  and  distribution  of  the  food.  Rhases  for- 
bids to  eat  it,  except  along  vrith  thick  articles  of  food. 

Pliny  mentions  the  Ocymum  or  Basil  in  very  unfavourable  terms. 

Cappers,  say  Aetius  and  Seth,  consist  of  different  qualities,  as  bitterness, 
whidi  renders  them  detergent,  purgative,  and  penetrative;  acrimony,  which 
makes  them  calefacient,  discutient,  and  attenuant ;  and  sourness,  which  ren- 
ders them  astringent.  Serapion  says  that,  when  pickled  with  vinegar,  they 
strengthen  the  stomach,  and  whet  the  appetite.  When  pickled  with  salt,  he 
says,  they  are  bad  for  the  stomach.  Galen  recommends  pickled  cappers  in 
ot)structioii  of  the  Liver  and  Spleen. 

The  Bouglossum,  or  Borage,  is  frequently  mentioned  as  a  herb,  which, 
when  eaten,  imparts  gladness  to  the  soul.  Ludovicus  Nonnius  informs  us, 
that  the  Belgians  still  fancy  that  it  possesses  this  property,  and  look  upon 
it  as  the  Homeric  Nepenthes. 

We  have  had  occasion  to  mention  in  another  place,  that  the  ancients  were 
fully  persuaded  of  the  aphrodisiacal  properties  of  the  Eruca,  or  Rocket. 

n 


98  COMUBNTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 


LXXV. ON  ASPARAGI,  OR  YOUNG  SHOOTS. 

<' Asparagus.  The  first  sprigs  of  Herbs  before  unfolded  unto  leaves,  and  the 
youngest  and  tenderest  branches  that  are  eatable,  are  called  Asparagus/' 
Miller's  Gardener*s  Dictionary, — See  also  Suidas  in  VocCy  Galenus  de  Alim. 
Facult.  Humelbergius,  ap.  Apul.  de  Med.  Hist.  c.  84.  Our  authofs  ac- 
count of  the  Asparagi  is  aoridged  from  Galen.  He  remarks,  that  the  young 
shoots  of  the  cabbage,  called  Cymae,  are  particularly  tender.  Apicius  di- 
rects to  prepare  them  with  cumin,  salt,  old  wine,  and  oil ;  to  which  pepper, 
borage,  and  the  like  may  be  added. 

On  the  Asparagi,  see  Athenseus,  Deipn,  lib.  ii. 

The  Plant  now  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  Asparagus  or  Sparrow- 
grass,  is  said  by  Simeon  Seth  to  be  so  nutritious,  that  it  deserves  to  hold  an 
intermediate  place  between  pot-herbs  and  flesh.  He  remarks,  that  it  is  diu- 
retic, and  imparts  its  smell  to  the  urine.  The  wild  Asparagus  is  called 
Corruda'by  Cato,  Columella,  and  Pliny. 


LXXVI. ON  HERBS  HAVING  ESCULENT  ROOTS. 

Galen  thus  delivers  the  general  character  of  these  substances:  "The 
roots  of  Pot-herbs  which  are  acrid,  such  as  those  of  onions,  leeks,  garlic, 
radish,  and  carrot,  contain  bad  juices ;  but  those  of  turnips,  rapes,  and  cara- 
ways, hold  an  intermediate  place  between  things  of  good  and  of  bad  juices.'* 

It  is  well  known,  that  the  Romans  had  two  kinds  of  Herbs  with  esculent 
roots  called  the  Napus  and  Rapum,  and  that  they  are  generally  admitted  to 
have  been  two  species  of  the  Turnip. — See  Columella,  ii.  10. — ^Pliny,  H.  N. 
Yviii.  13,  and  the  note  of  Harduin. — Dickson's  Husbandry  of  the  Ancients, 
c.  33. — Sprengel,  R.  H.  H  vol.  i.  The  term  Bunias  occurs  first  in  Nican- 
der;  and  that  it  was  synonymous  with  the  Gongylis,  is  declared  by  Galen 
and  our  author ;  and,  further,  that  it  was  the  Brassica  Napobrassicu  L,  is 
admitted  by  all  the  late  authorities  on  classical  botany,  with  the  exception  of 
Dierbach,  who  most  unaccountably  contends,  that  it  is  the  B.  Oleracea, 
Galen  says  that,  unless  well  boiled,  it  is~  indigestible,  flatulent,  and  bad  for 
the  stomach.  Seth  assigns  it  the  same  qualities  as  our  author.  All  account 
it  diuretic  and  aphrodisiacal.  Apicius  directs  to  eat  the  Rapa  or  Napi  with 
cumin,  rue,  vinegar,  oil,&c.  Lib.  iii.  c.fS. — It  appears  from  Athensus,  that 
the  ancients  frequently  ate  their  Turnips  roasted. 

It  is  not  well  ascertained  what  the  Esculent  Bulbi  of  the  ancients  were. 
Harduin  conjectures  that  they  were  a  delicious  kind  of  onions.  Matthiolus 
and  Nonnius  are  wholly  undecided.  Sprengel  inclines  with  Dalecampius 
and  Sibthorp  to  think  that  they  were  a  species  of  Muscari,  or  Musk  Hyacinth. 
The  account  of  them  given  by  Serapion,  who  calls  them  Cf/pa  sine  tunicis, 
agrees  better  with  the  conjecture  of  Harduin.  Eustathius  likewise  says,  that 
the  Bulbus  was  a  wild  onion.  Ap,  Iliad,  xiii.  589.  Columella  calls  them 
aphrodisiacal.    Lib.  x. 

The  Staphylinus  was  unquestionably  the  Carrot.  Apicius,  among  other 
methods  of  dressing  it,  directs  to  do  it  with  salt,  pure  oil,  and  vinegar. 

The  Carus  seems  indisputably  to  have  been  the  Carum  Carui  L.  Dios- 
corides  says,  that  its  boiled  root  may  be  eaten  like  the  Carrot.  Seth  praises 
it  as  being  carminative,  diuretic,  and  astringent.  Apicius  mentions  it  fre- 
quently along  with  spices  and  other  aromatics. 

The  characters  of  the  onion,  garlic,  and  leeks  are  taken  from  Galen.  Cel- 
sus  calls  them  calefacient,  and  ranks  them  with  things  having  unwholesome 
juices.     We  have  mentioned,  in  another  place,  that  the  Scotch  Highlander 


COUMBNTARY  ON  THB  F1&8T  BOOK.  99 

eats  ODioDS  to  enable  him  to  support  the  fatigues  of  a  journey.  Dr.  Paris 
considers  this  a  proof  that  they  are  very  nutritive,  but  I  am  disposed  to 
think,  with  the  ancient  authorities,  that  they  are  merely  hot  stimulants.  Ac- 
tuarius  prefers  the  leek  to  the  onion  and  garlic.  The  latter  is  warmly 
eulogised  by  Gralen  as  being  the  rustic's  Theriac.  Horace  had  not  so  much 
^voor  for  it.  Epod,  iii.  Galen  calls  the  Ampeloprason  the  same  as  the 
wild  LedL.  De  Fac,  Simp,  vi.  Dioscorides  descnbes  two  species  of  the 
Pormm,  namely  the  Capitatum  and  Sectivum. 

Galen  directs  to  eat  Kadish  before  dinner.  He  justly  expresses  his  sur- 
prise at  the  practice  of  certain  physicians,  and  other  persons  of  his  time, 
who  ate  Radish  after  dinner  to  promote  digestion.  The  wild  Radish  was 
called  Armoraciab^  the  Romans. 

LXXVII.— ON  MUBHROOMS  AND  TRUPFLB8. 

DiPHiLUs  says,  ^  that  Fungi  are  grateitil  to  the  stomach,  laxative,  and 
nutritious,  but  of  difficult  digestion  and  flatulent.''  Athen.  Deipnos.  ii.  19. 
Diphilus  says  ''  that  the  nature  of  Truffles  is,  that  they  are  difficult  to  digest, 
supply  goodjuices,  and  are  laxative  ;  but  that  some  of  them  like  the  Fungi 
occasion  suffocation."  Ibid.  c.  51.  Galen  says,  that  they  contain  cold, 
viscid,  and  thick  juices.  Serapion  says,  that  they  engender  gross  humours. 
According  to  Avicenna,  they  are  apt  to  superinduce  Apoplexy  and  Pa- 
ralysis. Simeon  Seth  says,  that  Truffles  occasion  cruae  and  depraved 
humours.  He  directs  to  allow  them  to  steep  in  water  for  some  hours  oefore 
boiling  them ;  and  to  prepare  them  with  pepper,  marjoram,  salt,  and  rue,  to 
collect  their  bad  properties.  Rhases,  in  like  manner,  recommends  to  eat 
Truffle  boiled  in  water  with  salt,  marjoram,  oil,  and  assafatida.  He  advises 
to  take  wine,  honied  water,  or  the  Theriac,  after  Mushrooms.  Apicius 
directs  to  eat  Fungi  with  pepper,  oil,  salt,  &c.  Horace  points  out  the  best 
Idnd  of  Fungi : 

^*  Pratensibiis  optima  fungia 
Natora  est :  alus  male  creditur.*' — SaL  ii.  4« 

The  poets  make  frequent  mention  of  Mushrooms  as  a  delicacy  at  the 
tables  of  Gourmands. — See  in  particular  Juvenal,  Sat,  v.  145. 

Apicius  directs  to  preserve  Truffles,  by  laying  them  in  a  vessel  along  with 
akemate  layers  of  saw-dust,  and  then  covering  up  the  mouth  of  the  vessel 
with  paicet.  On  the  mode  of  raising  them,  see  Geopon,  xii.  41.  In  the 
days  of  Juvenal,  the  Roman  Gourmands  appear  to  have  attached  more  im- 
portance to  the  Tribes  than  the  com  which  they  were  supplied  with  from 
Africa: 

''  TiU  habe  fromentom,  Alledius  iaqiiit, 
O  Lybie ;  diiyuiige  boves  dum  tubera  mittas.*' — Sat,  v.  v.  116. 

In  a  celebrated  modem  woric  the  Truffle  is  called :  <<  Un  tubercule  qu' 
en  ne  peut  mettre  dans  la  classe  des  legumes  ni  des  fruits." — Aim,  de$ 
GourmamdSf  vol.  viii.  p.  4. 

Ludovicus  Nonnius  confesses  himself  unable  to  determine  what  species  of 
Mushroom  the  Amanitas  of  our  author  were.  Seth  makes  no  distinction  be- 
tween them  and  the  Mycetse. 

LXXVIII. — ON  THB  FRUMENTACEA. 

On  the  Ceiealia  consult  in  particular  Theophrastus,  If.  P.  lib.  iii. 
Dioscorides,^  lib.  ii.  GalenHs,  de  Aliment^  lib.  i.  Plinius,  If.  N,  lib.  xviii. 
SerapioB,  de  Simpl,    Harduin,  Nota  in  Plin.  I.  c.    Paucton,  Metrologies 

h2 


100  COMMENTARY  ON  TH£  FIRST  BOOK. 

Dickson*s  Husb,  of  the  Ancients.    Sprengel,  R.  H,  H.  and  Nota  in  Dioscan 
I.  c.  and  Ludovicus  Nonnius,  de  Re  Cibaria,  lib.  i. 

AmoDg  the  Cerealia^  Wheat,  as  Galen  states,  deservedly  holds  the  first 
place,  as  being  in  most  general  use,  and  containing  the  most  nutriment 
within  a  small  bulk.  He  remarks,  that  it  is  the  most  glutinous  of  all  the 
articles  of  this  class.  And  here,  by  the  way,  I  must  beg  leave  to  dispute 
the  correctness  of  Dr.  Cullen*s  statement,  that  Beccaria  of  Bologna,  about 
the  year  1728,  first  discovered  that  Wheat  contains  a  glutinous  matter. 

Haly  Abbas  likewise  states,  that  Wheat  is  the  most  nutritious  of  all  arti- 
cles of  food.  Pliny  asserts  the  same  thing  of  it.  He  calls  the  Siligo  the 
delicia  tritici,  Galen  explains  the  Siligo  and  Similago  in  much  the  same 
terms  as  our  author.  The  third  species,  or  the  AutopyruSy  he  says,  consists 
of  all  the  parts  of  the  grain,  the  bran  not  being  excluded.  Actuarius,  on  the 
other  hand,  says  that  the  bran  only  is  rejected.  Is  not  the  text  of  the  latter 
corrupt  ?  Bran,  Galen  adds,  is  detergent  and  contains  little  nourishment. 
Tryphon,  in  Athenaeus*  Deipnosophista,  states,  tliat  this  thirjd  kind  of  Flour 
is  the  most  laxative. 

Theophrastus  mentions  that  the  lightest  Wheat  imported  to  Greece  in  his  time 
was  the  Pontic.  It  is  curious  to  remark,  that  Odessa  Wheat  still  retains  its 
ancient  character.  The  heaviest,  he  says,  was  the  Sicilian,  which,  however, 
was  lighter  than  the  Bsotian.  Pliny  says,  that  the  lightest  Wheat  brought 
to  the  Roman  market  was  the  Gallic,  and  then  that  imported  from  the  Cherso- 
nese. The  first  in  excellence,  he  adds,  are  the  Baeotiau,  the  Sicilian,  and 
next  to  these  the  African. 

Galen  gives  an  interesting  account  of  Bread.  The  best  kinds,  he  says, 
are  such  as  contain  plenty  of  yeast,  have  been  properly  pounded,  and  exposed 
to  a  moderate  heat  in  the  oven.  When  exposed  to  too  strong  a  heat,  be 
properly  remarks,  that  a  crust  is  burned  on  the  outside,  while  the  inside  is 
left  raw  or  improperly  concocted.  Unleavened  bread  he  wholly  condemns. 
Celsus  appears  to  have  had  a  better  opinion  of  it,  for  he  ranks  it  first  among, 
those  substances  which  do  not  spoil  on  the  stomach.  Of  bread  in  general, 
he  correctly  remarks,  ^'  Siquidem  plus  alimenti  est  in  pane  quam  in  ullo 
alio.*'  Pliny  and  Galen  describe  a  soft  spongy  kind  of  bread,  which  would 
seem  to  have  resembled  that  which  the  common  people  in  Scotland  call 
Bunns.  Pliny  adds,  that  some  nations  prepare  their  bread  with  butter.  He 
mentions  a  sort  of  bread  called  Artolagani,  which,  according  to  Dr.  Arbuth- 
not,  answered  to  our  Cakes.  Seth  gives  an  interesting  account  of  bread; 
but  it  is  mostly  extracted  from  Galen.  Haly  Abbas  says,  that  the  best  kind 
of  bread  is  that  which  is  made  from  wheaten  flour  and  salt,  and  is  fermented^ 
and  heated  in  an  oven  to  such  a  degree  as  not  to  burn  the  outer-crust.  Rhasea 
disapproves  entirely  of  unleavened  bread.  Serapion  states  that  old  bread 
is  astringent.  Avenzoar  properly  prefers  newly-made  bread,  provided  it  has 
been  cooled.  According  to  Actuarius,  the  lightest  kinds  of  Wheat  form  the 
best  bread  for  indolent  persons,  but  persons  actively  employed  require  the 
weightiest  kinds.  Unleavened  bread,  he  says,  is  very  indigestible.  Breads 
prepared  with  oil,  he  adds,  is  very  nutritious,  but  requires  a  strong  stomach 
to  digest  it.  See  an  interesting  account  of  the  various  kinds  of  bread  in 
Athenaeus,  Deipnos,  lib.  ii. 

The  Zea,  Typha,  and  Olyra  of  the  Greeks,  and  the  Far  and  Adoreum  of 
the  Romans,  were  all  varieties  of  Spelt,  a  species  of  grain  bearing  some  re- 
semblance to  wheat.  Actuarius  calls  it  a  lignt,  and  not  very  nutritious  grain. 
The  Chondrus  was  prepared  from  Spelt,  by  first  separating  the  husk,  and 
then  breaking  it  down  into  granules.  The  Alica  was  the  same  as  the  Chon- 
drus^ with  only  the  addition  of  a  small  quantity  of  chalk ;  and,  indeed,  al- 
most all  the  writers  on  Dietetics,  except  our  author,  use  them  as  synonymous 
terms.    A  more  complicated  method  of  preparing  them  is  described  by  Pliny, 


COMMENTARY  ON  TUE  FIRST    BOOK.  101 

N 

and  in  tlie  Geoponics,  lib.  iii.7.  Sprengel  says  that  Chondrus  is  called  Perl* 
graupen  by  the  Germans.  Galen,  like  our  author,  explains  that  a  gruel,  or  de- 
coction from  it,  is  unwholesome,  as  it  thickens  before  it  is  properly  concocted. 

Starch,  according  to  Galen  and  Oribasius,  is  lubricant,  and  not  calefacient 
like  bread.  They  say  that  it  is  not  very  nutritious.  Serapion  gives  the  same 
account  of  it. 

Galen,  Hhases,  Haly  Abbas,  and,  in  fact,  1  believe,  all  the  authorities,  agree 
that  Barley  is  of  a  colder  nature,  and  less  nutritions  than  wheat.  Polenta  was 
prepared,  by  first  steeping  the  grain  in  water,  and  afterwards  drying  it  at  the 
fire,  and  grinding  it  down  to  meal.  It  was  therefore  a  sort  of  malt.  Galen, 
like  our  author,  remarks  that  Barley-meal  sprinkled  on  wine  and  water,  or 
water  alone,  makes  an  excellent  beverage.  Actuarius  recommends  Barley 
water  as  a  diluent  drink  in  Fevers.  Ptisan  of  barley  was  thus  prepared : — 
Barley  was  boiled  until  it  swelled;  it  was  then  dried  in  the  sun,  and  af- 
terwards pounded,  and  freed  of  its  husk,  and  again  pounded,  but  not  ground. 
This  Flour  was  boiled  with  fifteen  parts  of  water,  to  which  a  small  quantity 
of  oil,  and,  when  it  swelled,  some  vinegar  were  added.  Salt  also  was  often 
added  to  it.  See  Galen*s  treatise  de  Ptisana.  A  long-lived  race  of  people  in 
Chaldea  are  said  to  have  subsisted  principally  upon  Barley  bread.  V.  Lu- 
ciani  Macrohii, 

GaleD  says  of  Oats  that  they  are  the  food  of  horses  and  not  of  men.  One 
would  almost  fancy  that  Dr.  Johnson  bad  stolen  his  definition  of  Oats  from 
him !     Aetlus  and  Simeon  Seth  call  them  refrigerant. 

Galen,  Dioscorides,  Simeon  Seth,  and  Serapion,  agree  that  Rice  is  astrin- 
gent, and  recommend  it  for  ulcers  of  the  Intestines.  Simeon  Seth  calls  it 
nutritioos. 

Galen  and  Serapion  say  that  Millet  and  Panic,  being  devoid  of  oily  matter, 
are  desiccative,  and  therefore  useful  in  defluxions  of  the  belly.  Simeon  Seth 
says  that  the  Millet  is  of  dilficnlt  digestion,  and  not  nutritious.  Rhases  di- 
rects to  eat  Panic  with  fresh  milk,  butter,  and  sugar.  Pliny  mentions  a  sweet 
species  of  Bread  prepared  from  Millet.  Galen  says  that  it  is  not  possessed 
of  much  nourishment. 

The  Maza,  as  Zeunius  explains  it,  consisted  of  the  flour  of  toasted  barley 
ponnded  with  some  liquor,  such  as  water,  oil,  milk,  oxycrate,  oxymel,  or 
honied  water.  Galen  calls  it  flatulent  and  unwholesome  food.  Hesiod  re- 
commends the  Maza,  or  Cake  prepared  with  milk,  as  an  article  of  food  during 
the  beat  of  the  Dog-days.    Opera  et  Dki,  1.  588. 

The  Bellaria,  called  also  Placentte,  Liba,  and  Crustulae,  by  the  Romans, 
and  by  the  Greeks  irffifmra  and  Irpia,  were  Cakes  of  various  kinds,  prepared 
with  flour,  water,  oil,  honey,  and  sometimes  fruits.  See  Athenseus,  Deipnos. 
xiv.  The  ObcUu$  panis,  mentioned  by  him  in  the  3d  Book,  is  supposed  by 
Ludovicus  Nonnius  to  have  been  a  species  of  Pastry. 

The  Bticellatum  mentioned  by  Ammianus  Marcellinus,  and  ^lius  Sparti- 
anus,  was  a  species  of  Bread  used  by  the  Roman  soldiers,  anfi  appears  to 
have  resembled  our  Ship-Biscuit.  V.  Not.  Oronovii  ap.  Amm.  Marcell. 
xvii,  8. 


LXXIX. ON  THE  LBGUMINA,  OR  PULSE. 

Rhases,  and  other  of  the  ancient  authors  remark,  that  Pulse  in  general 
are  nutritious.  All  held  that  they  are  flatulent,  excrementitious,  and 
aphrodisiacal.  According  to  Plutarch,  it  was  on  account  of  their  aphro- 
disiacal  qualities  that  the  Egyptian  priests  forbade  the  use  of  them.  Some 
assign  this  as  the  reason  why  Pythagoras — "  ventri  indulsit  non  omne  legu- 
men."    Apollonius  Dyscolus  says  that  he  did  so  because  they  are  flatulenf, 


102  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

difficult  to  digest,  and  occasion  disturbed  dreams.  Hist.  Mir(^,  c.  46.  Thi9 
seems  the  most  likely  reason ;  but  Plutarch,  Jamblichus,  and  Porphyry,  think 
they  see  more  recondite  meanings  in  the  Pythagorean  interdiction.  Actuarius 
remarks  that  all  kinds  of  Pulse  are  to  be  eaten  in  their  green  juicy  state. 

Galen  speaks  of  Lentils  in  much  the  same  terms  as  Paulus.  He  particu- 
larly disapproves  of  the  practice,  which  he  says  was  common  in  his  time,  of 
eating  them  with  sodden  wine.  Rhases  says  that  they  are  of  a  cold,  desiccaf> 
five,  and  excrementitious  nature.  Actuarius  calls  them  the  worst  of  the  Le- 
gumina.  Athenaeus  mentions  that  the  Egyptians  lived  much  upon  Lentils. 
Lib.  iv. 

All  the  commentators  are  puzzled  to  determine  what  the  ancient  Faba  was. 
L  am  inclined  to  think,  with  Dickson,  that  Theophrasius's  description  of  it 
applies  best  to  our  small  bean.  The  Egyptian  Bean,  according  to  Sprengel, 
was  the  Nelumbium  Speciosum,  Galen  mentions  that  Beans  were  much  used 
by  the  Gladiators  for  giving  them  Flesh,  but  adds  that  it  was  not  firm  or 
compact.  Dr.  Cullen,  by  the  way,  notices  the  nutritious  qualities  of  these 
tilings,  but  omits  to  mention  that  the  Flesh  which  they  form  is  deficient 
in  firmness.  Actuarius  states  that  they  are  nutritious,  but  dissuaides  from 
using  them  freely^  because  of  theif  flatulence.  Acconling  to  Celsus,  both 
Beans  and  Lentils  are  stronger  food  than  Pease.  Seth  agrees  with  Galen^ 
that  the  Flesh  formed  from  them  is  flabby  and  soft.  Galen  directs  to  fry 
Beans,  or  boil  them  with  onions,  whereby  they  will  be  rendered  less  flatulent. 
De  Alim.  Facult.  lib.  i. 

All  the  authorities  give  Pease  much  the  same  characters  as  I^uilus  does. 
Galeft  mentions  the  method  of  steeping  Chiches  in  water,  and  getting  them 
to  germinate  before  using  them  for  food.  Are  the  bons  vivans  of  the  piesent 
day  acquainted  with  this  method  of  making  Pease  tender  and  soft?  The  an* 
cients  were  also  in  the  practice  of  prepaiing  these  seeds  for  sowing  in  much 
the  same  manner.  Geopon.  ii.  36.  See  also  Pliny,  xviii;  c.  13.  I  am  in- 
clined to  think  that  Virgil  alludes  to  this  practice,  Georg.  i.  193 ;  but  Dr. 
Hunter  has  put  a  different  interpretation  on  this  passage.  It  would  appear 
that  the  modern  Egyptians  eat  Beans  in  the  sprouting  state,  that  is  to  s^^. 
when  beginning  to  germinate.    See  Assalini  on  the  Plague,  p.  106. 

Khases  properly  remarks  that  Lupines,  being  bitter,  are  not  properly  arti- 
cles of  food,  but  medicines.  They  possess^  he  adds,  little  nutriment.  Galen 
says  that  they  are  indigestible,  sma  therefore  apt  to  engender  crude  humours. 
When  eaten,  he  directs  to  have  them  well  sweetened. 

Galen  mentions  that  some  took  Fenugreek,  with  Fish-sauce,  to  open  the 
belly.  He  says  it  may  be  eaten  with  vinegar,  wine^  fish-sauce,  or  oil.  Some^ 
he  adds,  use  them  as  a  condiment  to  bread.  Rhases  gives  similar  directions 
for  using  Fenugreek. 

It  is  probable  that  the  Faseolus  was  the  Kidney-bean.  Harduincalte  it 
Feverole  in  French.  Rhases  says  that  Fasils  are  flatulent,  and  fiuten  the 
body.  Pliny  remarks  that  they  are  eaten  with  their  husks*  He  idludes^  I 
suppose,  to  the  variety  of  them  called  Dolichi.  Galen  says  that  they  are 
more  laxative  and  nutritious,  but  not  so  flatulent  as  Pease.  Oribasins  says 
that  they  hold  an  intermediate  place  between  those  substances  which  give 
much  and  those  which  afford  little  nourishment.  Tares,  as  Cralen  and  Ori- 
basius  mention,  were  sometimes  used  for  food  during  a  famine. 

Galen,  likewise,  makes  mention  of  the  Lathyrus  and  Aracus,  two  varieties 
of  the  Chichling  Vetch.     He  says  they  resemble  in  properties  the  Fasils. 

In  an  ancient  Proverb,  preserved  by  Athenaus,  it  is  said  that  "Figs  are  to 
be  eaten  after  fish,  and  Pulse  after  flesh." 


COMMBNTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  103 


LXXX. ON  THE  FRUCTUS  HORAI,    OR  SUMMER  FRUITS. 

Galen  explains  that  the  Fructus  Honei  are  those  fruits  which  grow  up 
ahoQt  the  middle  of  the  Dog-days.  He  says  that  they  all  contain  unwhol^ 
some  jaices,  which,  if  they  spoil  in  the  belly,  are  apt  to  become  deleterious 
poisons.  Mnesitheus  says  that  all  these  fruits  supply  little  nourishment,  but 
that  what  they  ^ive  is  of  a  humid  nature,  and  does  not  disagree  with  the  body. 
Athenseus,  l5etp,  lib.  i'i.  Dr.  Cullen  describes  them  by  the  name  of  Acido' 
dulcts  Frficitu,  Modem  authorities  agree  with  the  ancient,  that  they  are  cool- 
ing but  indigestible. 

The  Gourd  {koKokvvBtj),  according  to  Galen,  is  the  most  innocent  of  this 
class  of  limits ;  and  yet,  when  it  spoils  in  the  stomach,  it  engenders  bad 
juices.  Diphilus,  as  quoted  by  Athenseus,  says  of  it  that  it  supplies  little 
nourishment,  is  apt  to  spoil,  dilutes  the  system,  is  readily  discharged,  con- 
tains good  juices,  and  is  more  savoury  when  taken  with  water  and  vinegar, 
but  more  wholesome  when  pickled.  Apicius  gives  many  receipts  for  cook- 
ing Gourds.  By  one  of  these  we  are  directed  to  eat  them  boiled,  with  pickle, 
oil,  and  wine.  Most  of  the  other  receipts  contain  a  liberal  allowance  of 
spioes  and  aromatics.  Simeon  Seth  calls  them  digestible  and  wholesome, 
but  not  nutritious. 

The  Pompion  (ir«r»v),  according  to  Galen,  is  juicy,  detergent,  diuretic, 
and  laxative.  Seth  recommends  persons  of  a  pituitous  habit  of  body  to  drink 
old  wine  with  it,  but  such  as  are  bilious  to  eat  acid  food.  He  remarks  that 
it  is  apt  to  excite  nausea.  Actuarius  says  that,  when  digested,  Pompions  form 
a  thin  watery  blood.  Apicius  directs  to  eat  them  and  melons  with  pepper, 
penny-royal,  honey,  or  raisin  wine,  pickle,  and  vinegar ;  to  which  assafietida 
may  be  shaded.    Hippocrates  calls  them  laxative  and  diuretic,  but  flatulent. 

Galen  says  of  the  Melopepon,  or  Squash,  that  its  juices  are  not  so  unwhole- 
some, nor  so  diuretic,  nor  so  laxative,  as  those  of  the  Pompion.  He  adds 
that,  although  far  from  delicious,  it  is  not  so  nauseous  as  the  Pompion.  On 
the  Melopepon,  see  Harduins's  note  on  Pliny,  H.  N,  xviii.  5.  Perhaps  some 
of  the  authorities  may  have  meant  the  Melon  by  the  Melopepon.  Ludovicus 
Nonnius  mentions  that  the  Melopepones  were  a  superior  species  of  the 
Pepones. 

Galen  says  that  some  persons,  from  idiosyncrasy,  readily  digest  the  cucum- 
ber ((rf«n;of)  ;  but  he  insists  that  it  is  impossible  that  good  blood  can  be  formed 
from  it,  and  therefore  he  warns  against  the  frequent  use  of  all  such  fruits. 
Actuarius  says  that  it  forms  a  crude  chyme,  and  is  of  a  cold,  humid,  and  in* 
digsstible  nature.  Celsus  says  that  its  nutritive  powers  are  feeble.  Avicenna 
says  that  its  juices  are  bad,  and  prone  to  putrefaction. 

Melcms  are  said  by  Averrhoes  to  be  of  a  cold  nature,  juicy,  detergent,  and 
diuretic. 

Owing  to  the  lax  signification  in  which  the  word  Cucumis  is  often  taken  by 

the  Roman,  and  o-iicuo^  by  the  Greek  writers,  I  have  felt  considerable  difficulty 

in  distinguishing  the  articles  treated  of  in  this  chapter.   I  have  been  obliged  for 

once  to  abandon  the  guidance  of  Sprengel,  but  have  done  so  with  the  greatest 

hesitation,  and  not  until  I  had  compared  the  descriptions  of  all  the  Greek, 

Latin,  and  Ajabian  authorities.  Schneider  points  out  the  confusion  about  the 

use  of  these  terms,  but  does  not  sufficiently  clear  it  up.  Index  to  Theophras- 

ftts.    Ludovicus  Nonnius  may  likewise  be  consulted  with  advantage.    He 

supposes  that  the  Pepones  of  the  ancients  were  our  Melons;  and,  as  we  have 

slated  above,  he  is  also  inclined  to  believe  that  the  Melopepon  was  a  species  of 

the  same.  De  Re  Cibaria,  lib.  i.  c.l6.     For  want  of  a  oetter  term,  1  have 

ventured  to  translate  it  the  Squash,  although  I  am  uncertain  whether  the  Greeks 

^ere  acquainted  with  this  fruit,  now  so  common  in  the  East  and  in  America. 


104  COMMUNTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  fiOOK< 


LXXXI. — ON  THE  FRUIT  OP  TREES. 

It  may  be  proper,  in  the  first  place,  to  discuss  briefly  the  question  re- 
specting the  proper  time  for  eating  fruit.  Galen,  Rhases,  and  Simeon  Seth, 
direct  to  eat  fruit  at  the  beginning  of  a  regular  meal.  It  appears,  however, 
to  have  been  customary  with  the  ancients,  as  it  is  in  Britain  at  the  present 
day,  to  eat  all  manner  of  fruits  at  the  mensa  secunda,  or  Dessert,  as  we  leara 
fr(mi  Athenxus  and  Macrobius.  Horace  was  fond  of  concluding  his  banquets 
with  fruit.  He  speaks  of  finishing  a  frugal  repast  with  hung  grapes,  nuts,- 
and  figs.  Sat.  ii.  2;  and  in  another  place  he  says — 

"  llle  salubres 
iEstates  peraget,  qtii  nigris  prandia  moris 
Fmiet  ante  gravem  quae  legerit  arbore  solem.'* — Sai,  ii.  4. 

1  may  mention,  by  the  way,  that  Galen,  on  the  other  hand,  positively  forbids 
to  eat  mulberries  after  other  food.  But  what  Celsus  says  i-especting  tlie 
proper  time  for  eating  fruit  is  very  much  to  the  purpose : — "  Secunda 
mensa  bono  stomacho  nihil  nocet,  in  imbecillo  coascescit.  Si  quis  itaque 
hocparuni  valet,  palmulas  pomaque  et  similia  primo  cibo  assumit."  Lib.  i.  2. 
Modern  authorities  are  as  much  divided  in  opinion  upon  this  point  as  tlie  an- 
cient were.  Dr.  Cullen  maintained  that  the  proper  time  for  eating  fruit  is  at 
the  conclusion  of  Dinner.  Mr.  Abernethy,  on  the  other  hand,  when  laying 
down  directions  about  the  Diet  of  Dyspeptics,  recommends  to  take  fruit  ra- 
ther before  than  after  dinner.  Van  Swieten,  in  like  manner,  when  treating 
of  the  Fructus  Hora^ i,  forbids  to  eat  them  after  dinner.  Dr.  Paris  inclines  to 
the  same  opinion.  He  says  that  **  the  proper  seasons  for  taking  fruit  are  the 
morning  and  evening.  On  some  occasions  it  may  be  taken  with  advantage 
at  breakfast,  or  three  hours  before  dinner ;  and  it  affords  a  light  and  agreeable 
repast  if  taken  an  hour  before  bed-time.*'  My  own  sentiments  on  this  sub- 
ject accord  pretty  nearly  with  the  opinion  of  Celsus.  I  would  say  thai  much 
fruit  ought  not  to  be  taken  at  the  conclusion  of  dinner,  especially  by  persons 
having  weak  stomachs,  but  that  the  practice  of  eating  a  small  quantity  at  the 
Dessert  does  no  harm  in  general.  Ludovicus  Nonnius  recommends  to  eat 
the  summer  fruits,  and  Cherries,  Strawberries,  Plums,  Peaches,  and  the  like, 
at  the  beginning ;  but  Apples,  Pears,  Nuts,  Chesnuts,  and  the  like,  at  the' 
conclusion  of  a  meal,  that  is  to  say,  at  the  Dessert. 

Tlie  Fig  was  a  great  favourite  with  the  ancients.  Galen  states  that  it  is 
decidedly  nutritious,  but  that  the  flesh  formed  from  it  is  not  firm  and  com- 
pact like  that  from  pork  and  bread,  but  soft  and  spongy  like  that  from  Beans. 
Ue  says  that  Figs  increase  the  urinary  and  alvine  discharges.  Averrboes  says 
that  they  are  of  a  hot  and  humid  temperament,  and  that  they  loosen  the  belly 
and  strengthen  the  stomach.  See,  m  particular,  Athenseus,  Deip.  lib.  iii. 
Macrobius,  Satur.  iii.  20.  and  Haly  Abbas.  Haly  says  that  the  Fig  is  the 
most  digestible,  nutritious,  and  wholesome  fruit  of  this  class.  Galen  speaks 
doubtfully  of  dried  Figs. 

My  limits  will  scarcely  admit  of  my  touching  upon  the  culture  of  the  Grape 
and  its  properties,  as  a  medicine  and  article  of  food.  Pliny  devotes  a  whole 
book  to  the  consideration  of  the  Grape  and  its  productions.  Galen  says 
that,  like  Figs,  Grapes  are  nutritious,  but  that  the  flesh  formed  from  them  is 
deficient  in  firmness  and  durability.  He  remarks  that  their  stones  pass 
through  the  bowels  wholly  unchanged.  Simeon  Seth  states  that  the  Grape 
<onsists  of  four  different  substances,  namely,  the  membrane  which  surrounds 
it,  the  fleshy  part,  the  juice,  and  the  stones.  Of  these,  he  says,  the  outer  coat 
and  the  stones  ought  lobe  rejected,  because  they  are  indigestible.  Plutarch 
and  Macrobius  exert  their  ingenuity  to  explain  how  it  happens  that  must,  or 


COMMENTART  ON  TUB  F1E8T  BOOK. 


105 


the  fresh  juice  of  the  Grape,  does  not  intoxicate  like  wine.  *'Tlie  Pensilis 
uva,"  or  hung  Grape,  is  mentioned  by  Horace  as  an  article  of  the  Dessert. 
Lib.  ii.  Sat.  2. 

Galen  gives  Mulberries  the  same  character  as  our  author  does.  Aetius 
^ys  that  the  proper  occasion  for  them  is  when  the  stomach  is  hot  and  dry» 
According  to  Athensus,  the  Siphnian  Diphilus  said  that  they  possess  mode- 
rately wholesome  juices,  and  that  they  afford  little  nourisliment,  but  are  sa- 
voury, and  of  easy  evacuation.  Haly  Abbas  recommends  them  cooled  in 
snow  for  heat  of  the  stomach. 

According  to  Pliny,  Cherries  were  first  imported  to  Italy  from  Pontus,  by 
the  famous  Luculius.  This  story,  however,  is  not  very  probable,  as  they  had 
been  described  more  than  a  century  before  by  Theophrastus.  Athenseus 
mentions  further  that  they  bad  been  noticed,  long  before  LucuUus,  by  the 
Siphnian  Diphilus.  Simeon  Seth  says  that  they  are  of  a  cold  and  humid 
nature,  and  open  the  bowels.  They  are  useful,  he  adds,  when  the  stomach 
and  constitution  are  hot  and  dry. 

Galen  states  that  the  fruit  of  the  Pine  contains  thick  and  wholesome  juices, 
but  that  tliey  are  not  easily  digested.  The  Siphnian  Diphilus,  as  quoted  by 
Atbenseus,  says  that  the  Strobili  are  very  nutritious,  smooth  asperities  of  the 
Trachea,  and  purge  the  breast.  MnesiUieus,  as  quoted  by  the  same  author, 
says  that  they  fatten  the  body,  and  do  not  impair  the  digestion.  Deipn.  lib. 
ii.    Celsus  holds  them  to  be  stomachic. 

Our  author's  remarks  on  the  Persica  are  taken  from  Galen.  Seth  calls 
them  Rhodacina.  He  says  that  they  are  cooling,  diluent,  and  laxative,  but 
difficult  to  digest.  If  not  the  same  as  the  modem  Peach  (which  the  com- 
mentators suspect),  the  Persica  was  evidently  a  fruit  nearly  allied  to  it. 

It  is  highly  probable,  but  not  quite  certain,  that  the  Prsecocia,  Duracina, 
and  Armeniaca  were  varieties  of  the  Apricot.  Galen  does  not  use  the 
second  of  these  terms,  and  mentions,  that  many  held  the  first  and  the  last  to 
be  exactly  the  same  fruit ;  and  he,  himself,  in  another  place,  forgets  the  dis- 
tinction which  be  had  endeavoured  to  establish  between  them.  Simeon  Seth 
describes  them  by  the  name  of  fitpiKOKKo,  which  appears  to  be  a  corruption  of 
the  Latin  Praecocia. — (See  Geopon.  x.  73,  and  the  note  of  Needham — Har- 
doin's  note  on  Pliny — Ludovicus  Nonnius,  u.  s,  and  Sprengel,  Dio$cor.  i.  165.) 
Seth  says  that  they  are  firuits  which  soon  spoil,  and  form  bad  blood. 

Idala  was  used  by  the  ancients  as  a  generic  term,  comprehending  many 
species  of  firuit.  See  an  interesting  account  of  them  in  Pliny,  xxiii.  5.  Ma- 
crobius,  Saturn,  iii.  19.  and  Athensus,  Deipn.  lib.  iii.  Diphilus  thus 
states  their  general  characters  as  articles  of  food :  **  Green  and  unripe 
Apples  are  unwholesome  and  unsavoury,  swim  in  the  stomach,  form  bile, 
and  occasion  diseases.  Of  the  ripe,  such  as  are  sweet  are  more  wholesome 
and  more  laxative  from  having  no  astringency :  the  acid  are  more  unwhole- 
some and  constipating,  but  such  as  have  also  a  certain  degree  of  sweetness, 
become  more  delicious,  and  are  at  the  s^me  time  stomachic  from  having 
some  astringency/'  The  ancients  appear  to  have  been  well  acquainted  with 
ihe  methods  of  making  Cider,  Perry,  and  the  like.  See  Macrobius,  Sat,  vii. 
6.  and  Plin.  H,  N,  xiv.  19.  The  Arabian  authors  in  general  speak  rather 
unfavourably  of  Apples. 

The  Cydonia  or  Quinces  were  in  great  repute,  not  only  as  articles  of  food, 
but  as  medicines.  When  unripe  they  are  very  astringent  and  contain  much 
acid,  and  hence  they  were  used  in  such  cases  as  those  in  which  the  mineral 
acids  are  now  generally  administered.  Plinius,  H,  N.  xxxiii.  6.  They  ap- 
pear to  be  the  *^  cana  maW  of  Virgil.  Columella  and  Pliny  describe  three 
species,  namely  the  Chrysoroala,  Struthea,  and  Mustea. 

iPears,  according  to  Simeon  Seth,  are  of  a  cold  and  desiccative  nature. 
They  are  compounded,  he  says,  of  astringency,  sweetness,  and  sometimes  of 


106  COMMENTART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

acidity;  and  some  have  a  moderate  degree  of  heating  and  desiccaiive  pro- 
perties. Averrhoes  gives  exactly  the  same  account  of  them.  Of  Pomegra- 
nates, he  says,  that  some  are  sweet  and  some  are  acid :  that  all  of  them 
moisten,  but  that  the  sweet  are  of  a  more  hot  and  humid  nature.  Homer 
enumerates  Pomegranates  among  the  fruits  which  were  suspended  over  the 
head  of  Tantalus  to  tempt  his  appetite.  Dioscoddes  says,  that  the  sweet 
Pomegranates  are  stomactiic;  but  are  prejudicial  when  there  is  fever. 

Galen,  who  gives  Medlars  and  Services  much  the  same  characters  as  our 
author,  recommends  to  take  them  only  in  very  small  quantities.  Aetius  and 
Seth  say  that  ripe  Medlars  are  somewhat  heating,  but  that  the  unripe  are 
cold,  astringent,  and  constipating.  Actuarius  calls  them  excellent  astringent 
medicines,  but  bad  articles  of  food.  Dioscorides  describes  two  species  of 
Medlars,  the  Aronia,  and  Setanium.  The  first  species  is  called  AzaroUo  by 
the  Italians;  the  oAer  is  the  common  species  of  Medlar. 

See  an  interesting  account  of  Dates,  or  the  fruit  of  the  Palm-tree,  in  the 
Hierobotanicon  of  Olaus  Celsius.  The  Date,  according  to  Galen,  is  a  frait 
possessing  a  variety  of  characters,  but  having  always  a  certain  degree  of 
sweetness  and  astringency.  He  says,  it  is  indigestible  and  apt  to  occasion 
headachs.  Simeon  Seth  says  that  Dates  form  an  impure  blooa ;  and  Rufius, 
as  quoted  by  him,  affirms  that  they  prove  injurious  to  the  bladder.  Serapion, 
Rhases,  and  Mesne  agree  that  tibe  Date  is  a  cold  astringent  fruit.  Hero- 
dotus, Xenophon,  and  Athensus  make  mention  of  a  wine  prepared  from 
Dates.  Erotian  s^s,  that  a  species  of  bread  is  made  from  Dates,  flour,  and 
water.     Lexicon  Hippocratis. 

The  Olive,  as  Pliny  remarks,  consists  of  four  parts,  the  kernel,  the  oil,  the 
flesh,  and  the  lees.  The  Drupse,  mentioned  by  our  author,  were  the  Olives 
quite  ripe  and  ready  to  fidl  from  the  tree.  The  Colymbades  and  Halmades 
were  Olives  pickled  with  salt,  &c.  See  Harduin,  ap,  Plin,  H,  N.  xv.  3. 
The  Siphnian  Diphilus,  as  quoted  by  Atheneeus,  says  of  them  that  they 
supply  little  nourishment,  occasion  headachs ;  that  the  black  injure  the  sto- 
macn,  and  bring  on  heaviness  of  the  head ;  and  that  the  pickled  prove  more 
stomachic  and  astringent  of  the  belly.  Galen  mentions,  that  Olives  were 
often  eaten  with  bread  before  dinner  in  order  to  open  the  belly.  Simeon 
Seth  says  that  ripe  Olives  are  moderately  hot,  but  tnat  the  unripe  are  cold^ 
desiccative,  and  astringent.  Serapion,  in  like  manner,  says  that  unripe 
Olives  are  astringent.  Plutarch  mentions  a  pickled  Olive  as  a  whetter  of 
the  appetite.     Synop.  lib.  vi. 

The  Siphnian  Diphilus,  as  quoted  by  Athenseus,  states,  that  Walnuts  oc- 
casion headach,  and  swim  on  the  stomach ;  but  such  as  are  tender  and  white 
contain  better  juices,  and  are  more  wholesome ;  and  that  such  as  have  been 
toasted  in  a  furnace  aflbrd  little  nourishment.  Deipn.  lib.  ii.  It  appears 
from  Macrobius,  whose  account  of  them  is  very  interesting,  that  they  were 
eaten  at  the  dessert.  He  states  decidedly  that,  the  Rojral  Nut  of  the  Greeks 
was  the  Juglans  or  Walnut.  Sat,  iii.  18.  Simeon  Seth  says  that,  when  taken 
before  other  food,  they  are  apt  to  prove  laxative  or  emetic.  Averrhoes  says 
the  like  of  them.  He  adds,  that  Filberts  are  not  so  apt  to  produce  this 
efiect.  According  to  Rhases,  they  are  apt  to  prove  injurious  to  the  stomach 
and  liver. 

The  Siphnian  Diphilus  says,  that  Almonds  are  attenuant,  diuretic,  purga- 
tive, and  afibrd  little  nourishment ;  that  the  green  contain  bad  juices,  and 
are  possessed  of  stronger  medicinal  properties ;  but  that  the  drieo  are  more 
flatulent,  and  apter  to  swim  on  the  stomach.  He  adds,  that  such  as  are 
tender,  flill,  and  are  whitened,  contain  milky  juices  which  are  more  whole- 
some. Simeon  Seth  says,  that  bitter  Almonds  are  hotter,  more  attenuant, 
and  more  incisive  than  the  ripe.  He  adds,  that  Filberts  are  the  most  nutri- 
tious of  the  puts  but  difficult  to  digest. 


COMMXNTART  ON  TUX  FIRST  BOOK.  107 

The  Pistachio  nut  is  very  celebrated  in  ihe  East  and  in  Sicily.  See  Ol. 
Celsii.  Hierobotanicony  and  Brydone*s  Tour  through  Sicily.  Galen  says, 
that  it  possesses  a  certain  degree  of  bitterness  and  astringency,  and  that  it 
proves  useful  in  obstructions  of  the  liver,  but  that  it  affords  little  nourish- 
ment. He  adds,  that  it  is  neither  beneficial  nor  injurious  to  the  stomach. 
Simeon  Setli  remarks,  that  the  modems  looked  upon  Pistacs  as  stomachic. 
Averrhoet  speaks  highly  of  them.  Rhases  says  they  are  of  a  hotter  na- 
ture than  Almonds.  Theophrastus  describes  the  Pistachio  tree  as  a  species 
of  Turpentine,  and  it  is  now  acknowledged  as  such. 

Galen  states  that  the  best  Damescenes  are  such  as  are  large,  spongy,  and 
astringent.  He  adds,  that  taken  with  sweet  wine  they  tend  to  open  the 
bowels.  Oribasius  says  that  they  afford  little  nourishment,  but  may  be 
useful  for  moistening  and  cooling  the  stomach.  Martial  calls  them  laxative. 
It  appears  certain  from  Isidorus,  that  the  Coccimela  and  Myz»  were  the 
same  as  the  Pruna  or  Plums. 

Galen  says  of  Jujubes,  that  they  suit  best  with  the  intemperaments  of 
women  and  children.  Haly  Abbas  states  that  they  are  cold  and  humid,  of 
slow  digestion^  and  apt  to  form  phlegm. 

Abu'l-fedli,  as  quoted  by  Glaus  Celsius,  says,  of  the  Siliquie  or  Carobs, 
that  they  are  sweet  astringent  fruit  Horace  speaks  of  them  as  being  an  inie* 
nor  kind  of  fruit.  *'  Vivit  siliquis  et  pane  secundo,''  Ep.  ii.  1 .  And  so, 
also^  Juvenal,  Sat.  xi.  59.  and  Persius,  iii.  55.  Galen  says  of  them,  that 
they  are  woody  and  consequently  indigestible.  Aetius  says,  that  they  are  of 
a  dry  and  very  desiccative  nature,  but  possess  some  sweetness.  Pliny  men- 
tions that  a  sort  of  wine  was  prepared  from  Carobs. 

Ckilen  says  that  the  SycanK>res  hold  an  intermediate  place  between  Mul- 
berries and  Figs.  He  says,  further,  that  they  are  sweetish,  and  of  a  diluent 
and  cooling  nature.  Dioscorides  and  Serapion  speak  unfavourably  of  them 
as  hemg  articles  ofiood  which  are  only  used  in  times  of  famine. 

The  Citron^  or  *'  Felix  Malum"  of  Virgil,  was  greatly  esteemed  by  the  an- 
cients. Galen  calls  it  fragrant,  aromatic,  and  pleasant  to  the  taste  as  well  as 
the  smell.  From  Theophrastus  downwards,  it  is  much  celebrated  as  an  anti- 
dote to  poisons.  See  some  curious  information  respecting  it  in  Athomus, 
De^jm*  lib.  iii.  and  Macrobius,  Sat.  iii.  19.  Simeon  Seth  says,  that  if 
taken  in  moderation  it  is  beneficial  to  the  stomach,  but  that  in  large  quantity 
it  proves  indigestible.  Serapion  recommends  after  eating  Citrons  to  take  of 
anise,  mastich,  and  wine. 

Gaden  says,  in  general,  of  the  wild  kinds  of  fruit,  that  they  supply  little 
nourishment,  and  that  they  are  injurious  to  the  stomach.  The  Acorns,  ht 
says  further,  are  the  best  of  this  class,  being  no  less  nutritious  than  the  Ce- 
lealia ;  lie  adds,  that  in  ancient  times  men  lived  upon  Acorns ;  and 
that  the  Arcadians  continued  this  practice,  after  the  Cerealia  were  used  in  all 
the  other  parts  of  Greece.  Simeon  Seth  says  that,  although  nutritious,  they 
aie  difficiut  to  digest  and  form  crude  humours :  and  hence  he  recommends  to 
abstain  from  them. 

Galen's  opinion  of  Chesnuts  agrees  with  the  account  given  by  our  author 
of  them.  Simeon  Seth  says,  that  they  are  very  nutritious,  but  are  hard  to 
digest  and  evacuate  from  the  body ;  and  that  they  are  flatulent  and  astrin- 
gent Haly  Abbas  describes  them  as  a  proper  article  of  food.  At  the  pre- 
sent day,  whole  nations  of  mankind  live  upon  Chesnuts.  The  opinion  of 
Mnisitheus  regarding  them,  as  quoted  by  Athenaeus,  appears  to  be  very  judi- 
cious; he  says,  they  are  difficult  to  digest  and  flatulent,  but  sufficiently 
nutritious  if  digested. 

The  Strawberries,  or  Fraga,  are  mentioned  by  Virgil,  (  Eel.  iii.)  and  Ovid. 
(Metam.  i.)  but  they  are  wholly  unnoticed  by  the  Greek  writers. 


108  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 


LXXXII. ON  ANIMALS,  AND«  FIRST,  OF  FOWLS. 

Hippocrates  states,  that  Fowls  in  general  are  drier  than  quadrupeds. 
The  driest,  he  adds,  are,  first,  the  Wood-pigeon,  then  the  common  Pigeon, 
and,  thirdly,  the  Partridge,  Cock,  and  Turtle.  The  most  humid  or  juicy,  he 
says,  are  Geese.  Those  which  live  on  seeds  are  drier  than  the  others.  The 
flesh  of  Ducks,  and  of  all  Fowls  which  live  in  marshes,  or  in  water,  is  of  a 
more  humid  nature.  De  DiatUy  ii.  17.  In  another  place,  he  calls  the  flesh 
or  Fowls  one  of  the  lightest  kinds  of  food.     De  Affectianibus,  c.  46. 

Their  general  characters  are  thus  stated  by  Celsus  :  **  £x  iis  avibus,  quie 
in  media  specie  sunt,  valentiores  eee,  quse  pedibus,  quam  qus  volatu  magis 
nituntur :  et  ex  iis,  quse  volatu  fidunt,  firmiores  qus  grandiores  aves,  quam 
quae  minutse  sunt ;  ut  ficedula  et  turdus.  Atque  e%  quoque  qus  in  aqua  degunt 
leviorem  cibum  prsstant,  quam  qus  natandi  scientiam'non  habent.''  The  cha- 
racter here  given  of  Water  Fowls  has  drawn  upon  the  author  the  animadversions 
of  Dr.  Cullen.  But  rather  than  suspect  Celsus  of  such  a  mistake,  I  am  inclined 
to  believe  that  the  text  must  be  corrupt,  and  that  we  ought  to  read  graviorem 
instead  of  leviorem.  I  am  confirmed  in  this  conjecture  from  all  the  other  au- 
thorities, as  for  example,  Hippocrates,  Galen,  Aetius,  Rhases,  and  Ualy 
Abbas,  having  stated  that  the  flesh  of  Water  Fowls  is  more  ezcrementitious 
than  that  of  Land  Fowls.  If  this  be  reckoned  too  bold  an  alteration,  might 
we  not  substitute  leniorem  ? 

Our  author  takes  his  account  of  Fowls  from  Galen,  or  perhaps  direct  from 
Oribasius.  Actuarius  states,  that  Fowls  are  much  lighter,  but  not  so  nutri- 
tious as  quadrupeds ;  that  they  are  drier,  more  fibrous,  and  form  thinner 
blood ;  and  that  Water  Fowls  are  the  more  juicy  and  fleshy. 

Having  thus  stated  the  general  characters  of  Fowls  as  articles  of  iood,  we 
shall  now  briefly  notice  a  few  of  those  which  were  in  most  esteem  with  the 
tons  vivans  of  antiquity. 

The  Partridge  was  accounted  a  rare  delicacy  at  the  tables  of  luxurious 
Romans.  See  Martial,  Xenia^  Ixi.  Simeon  Seth  says  that  it  is  easily  digested, 
hxki  ought  not  to  be  eaten  the  day  it  is  killed.  According  to  Rhases,  it  con- 
tains thick  juices,  is  astringent,  but  very  nutritious.  Apicius  directs  to  dress 
it  with  pepper,  lovage,  mint,  the  seed  of  rue,  pickle,  wine,  and  oil. 

Galen  ranks  the  Pigeon  next  to  the  Partridge  in  excellence.  The  Arabians^ 
however,  and,  in  imitation  of  them,  Simeon  Seth,  call  the  flesh  of  the  Pigeon 
heating  and  excrementitious. 

The  Attagen  lonicus  has  been  celebrated  by  the  muses  of  Horace  and 
Martial.  Porphyrion,  one  of  the  ancient  commentators  on  Horace,  calls  it 
'*  avis  Asiatica  inter  nobilissimas  habita.^  Harduin,  who  is  deservedly 
reckoned  a  high  authority  in  these  matters,  supposes  it  to  have  been  the 
Gelinotte  du  hois,  or  Wood-hen,  Atheneus  quotes  Aristophanes  as  calling 
it  a  most  delicious  bird.  Galen,  Aetius,  and  Oribasius  speak  of  it  in  the 
same  terms  as  Paulus.    Apicius  directs  to  dress  it  like  the  Partridge. 

Persius  speaks  of  the  Thrush  as  being  a  much-esteemed  delicacy.  Sat,  vi. 
Horace  also  says,  that  there  is  nothing  better  than  a  fat  Thrush.  Kpi$U  i.  1 5. 
See  Aristoph.  Nubes,  Athensus,  Deipn,  lib.  ii.  It  is  worthy  of  remark^ 
that,  although  the  Thrush  be  by  no  means  a  delicate  morsel  in  the  North 
of  Europe,  it  is  very  delicious  in  Italy  and  Spain.  It  feeds  on  juniper  ber^ 
ries,  grapes,  and  the  like.  The  Receipts  of  Apicius  for  dressing  Thrushes, 
and  other  small  birds,  contain  spices,  aromatics,  honey,  wine,  pickle,  and 
oil.  Averrhoes  says  that  their  flesh  is  drier,  more  aromatic,  but  gi-osser  than 
that  of  Pigeons.  The  Romans  bestowed  great  pains  upon  feeding  Thrushes, 
as  we  can  learn  from  \^arro  and  Columella.  They  also  ate  Blackbirds  and 
Larks. 


COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  109 

Martial  intimates  that,  wlien  he  could  get  a  fat  Turtle  to  dine  upon,  he  was 
indifferent  about  other  delicacies.  According  to  Averrlioes,  it  is  of  a  hot 
nature,  and  has  a  wonderful  effect  in  sharpening  the  understanding.  Apicius 
directs  to  dress  it  like  the  Partridge.  Galen  states,  that  the  Turtle,  Partridge, 
and  all  fowls  which  are  of  a  dry  nature,  should  be  suspended  for  a  day  before 
they  are  eaten. 

Galen  mentions  that  the  flesh  of  Pheasants  resembles  that  of  domestic  hens, 
but  is  more  nutritious  and  savoury.  Simeon  Seth  says  that  it  is  wholesome, 
easily  digested,  and  forms  good  blood.  The  Tetrao,  which  is  mentioned  by 
Pliny  and  Athensus,  is  generally  supposed  to  be  the  Bustard  ;  but  Bellonius 
and  Ladovicus  Nonnius  take  it  for  the  Fasiano  net^ro  of  the  Italians,  or  tlie 
Wood  Pheasant. 

Galen  and  oar  author  have  omitted  to  take  notice  of  Quails.  Simeon  Seth 
says,  that  their  flesh  is  heating,  coarse,  indigestible,  and  unwholesome. 
RbaseSy  however,  says  of  the  Quail,  that  in  lightness  it  is  second  only  to 
the  Starling;  that  it  is  not  very  excrementitious,  nor  accounted  very  heating. 
Averrfaoes  says,  that  it  is  of  a  moderate  temperament,  but  somewhat  heating; 
that  it  is  delicate,  forms  good  chyme,  and  is  excellent  food  for  persons  in  good 
health  and  for  convalescents.  Lucretius  and  Galen  mention  that  the  Quail 
can  live  upon  Hellebore. 

Q.  Ilortensius  is  ^  damned  to  everlasting  fame*'  for  having  first  presented 
the  Peacock  at  his  table.  Varro,  de  AgricuU,  lib.  iii.  Macrobius,  Saiur. 
iii.  13.  Plinius,  H,  N.  x.  20.  iElianus,  U.  A.  v.  25.  Tertullianus,  de  Pallio. 
It  came  afterwajrds  to  be  thought  an  exquisite  delicacy,  although  Horace  had 
declared  of  it  that,  were  it  not  for  its  price,  it  would  not  be  thought  superior 
to  the  common  domestic  fowl.  Sat.  ii.  2.  Simeon  Seth,  like  Galen  and  our 
author,  says  that  its  flesh  is  indigestible  and  excrementitious.  Apicius  di- 
rects to  dress  it  like  the  Thrush.  The  poet,  Juvenal,  asserts  that  sudden 
deaths  are  occasioned  by  the  indigestion  arising  from  eating  Peacocks.  Sat,  1. 

The  Ostrich  is  often  mentioned  by  the  ancient  authors  as  an  article  of  food, 
although,  as  Galen  says,  it  be  excrementitious  and  indigestible.  The  ^  Afra 
avis,"  mentioned  by  llorace,  is  said  by  his  commentator,  Acron,  to  have  been 
the  Ostrich.  Porphyrion,  however,  rather  supposes  it  to  be  the  Gallina  Nu- 
medica,  or  Guinea  Hen,  Apicius  directs  to  dress  it  with  pepper,  lovage, 
thyme  or  savoury,  honey,  mustard,  vinegar,  pickle,  and  oil.  Khases  says 
that  its  flesh  is  very  coarse. 

Schneider  makes  the  Otis  to  be  the  Tarda,  or  Bustard.  Xenophon,  who 
^ves  a  most  graphic  description  of  the  mode  of  hunting  it  in  Persia,  says 
that  its  flesh  is  most  delicious.  Galen  and  Simeon  Seth  say  that  its  flesh  is 
intermediate  between  the  Goose  and  the  Crane.  Apicius  gives  very  compli- 
cated  receipts  for  dressing  it. 

The  flesh  of  the  domestic  fowls,  says  Simeon  Seth,  is  of  easy  digestion, 
^od  contains  good  juices,  especially  the  flesh  of  those  which  are  beginning  to 
lay  eggs.  Chickens,  he  adds,  are  of  easy  digestion,  and  form  blood  of  mo- 
derate consistence,  neither  very  thin  nor  too  thick :  they  are  excellent  fqod 
for  persons  who  do  not  take  strong  exercise.  It  appears,  from  Martial,  that 
the  Homans  were  fond  of  Capons.  Lib.  xiii. 

The  Gailinago  minor  is  held  by  Ludovicus  Nonnius  to  be  the  Snipe.    The 

Callinago  major,  or  2Ko\wir<i^  of  Aristotle,  he  supposes  to  be  the  Beccasa  or 

^Vood•cock.    It  is  well  described  in  a  fragment  of  the  poet  Nemesianus. 
The  Ficedula,  called  avicakis  by  Aristotle,  was  much  sought  afler  by  the 

B^maos.     Ludovicus  Nonnius  supposes  it  to  be  the  Beccafigo  of  the  modem 

Italians,  who  are  still  very  fond  of  it.    Its  flesh  being  lat,  it  was  dressed 

with  much  pepper,  as  we  learn  from  Martial  and  Petronius  Arbiter. 
Galen  and  Simeon  Seth  agree  that  the  flesh  of  Geese  is  indigestible  and 

^icrementttious,  ^nd  therefore  nearly  allied  to  the  Ostrich. 


110  COMMKNTART  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK. 

According  to  Martial,  the  breast  and  neck  are  the  only  parts  of  tiie  Duck 
which  are  fit  to  be  eaten. 

Athenaeus  mentions  that  the  Swan  was  sometimes  brought  to  the  table. — 
Deipnos,  lib.  ix.    Its  flesh  is  very  hard. 

LXXXIII. — ON  BOGS. 

Our  author,  Ohbasius,  and  Aetius,  copy  their  account  of  Eggs  from 
Galen. 

Hippocrates  says  that  they  are  nutritious,  strengthening,  and  flatulent. — 
See  also  Celsus,  ii.  18. 

See  a  curious  account  of  the  medicinal  properties  of  Eggs  in  Plinii  H. 
N,  xxix.  3. 

Rhases  recommends  to  eat  Eggs  in  a  soft  state  with  pepper  and  marjoram. 
Cont.  xxxiii.  He  says  that  the  best  Eggs  are  those  of  the  hen  and  partridge, 
and  next  to  them  those  of  the  duck.  Those  of  geese,  he  says,  should  not  be 
eaten.    Ad,  Maruor.  iii.  13. 

The  ancients  preserved  their  eggs  in  the  flour  of  beans,  chaff,  or  bran. — 
Plinius,  H,  N,x,  61.  Columella,  viii.  6.  Varro,  de  Re  Biutkoy  iii.  9. 
Pliny  mentions  that,  if  an  Egg  be  macerated  in  vinegar,  it  will  become  so 
soft  Uiat  it  may  be  drawn  through  a  ring  without  breaking.  Harduin  says, 
that  he  had  verified  the  truth  of  this  &ict  by  experiment. 

Horace  affirms  that  Eggs  of  an  oblong  shape  are  the  best : 

**  Longa  <]pibus  fades  ovis  erit,  ilia  memento 
Ut  succi  melioris  et  ut  magis  alma  rotundis 
Ponere."    Sat.  lib.  ii.  4. 

I  have  here  adopted  the  emendation  of  Dr.  Bentley.  The  commentator, 
Acron,  however,  read  alba,  but  took  it  in  the  same  sense  as  alma. 

The  ancients  used  to  begin  their  banquets  with  Eggs,  and  hence  the  ex- 
pression ''  ab  ovo  ad  malum,''  that  is  to  say,  from  beginning  to  end  of  a 
Danquet. 

Galen  and  Simeon  Seth  agree  that  Eggs  which  are  boiled  hard,  or  which 
have  been  roasted  in  ashes  until  thev  are  hard,  become  indigestible,  and 
supply  heavy  nourishment  to  the  body ;  but  such  as  have  been  fried  they 
more  especially  condemn.  When  boiled  to  such  a  consistence  as  that  the 
white  was  just  beginning  to  coagulate,  they  were  called  Tremula.  When 
so  soft  that  the  albumen  was  not  at  all  coagulated,  they  were  called  Sorbilia. 
In  both  these  states,  they  are  much  approved  of  by  Galen,  Seth,  and  all  the 
authorities. 


LXXXIV. — ON  BBASTS. 

Athemjeus  remarks  that  the  flesh  of  beasts,  especially  Oxen,  fonned  the 
principal  part  of  men's  food  in  the  heroic  ages,  as  appears  from  Hom«r. 
rrom  one  passage  in  the  Iliad,  (lib.  xxiv.  1. 263.)  and  another  in  the  Odyssey, 
(lib.  ix.  220.)  it  may  be  reasonably  conjectured  that  they  also  lived  upon 
bmbs  and  kids,  Deipn.  i.  19.  I  may  add,  that  Sophocles  represents  Phi- 
loctetes  as  living,  while  in  Lemnus,  upon  the  birds  which  he  killed  with  his 
fatal  bow.  It  is  generally  supposed  that  Pythagoras  interdicted  his  disciples 
entirely  from  the  flesh  of  animals;  but  the  truth  of  the  matter  seems  to  be, 
that  he  recommended  a  spare  use  of  it,  and  allowed  to  eat  such  animab  only 
as  were  used  for  sacrifices.  See  lamblichus  and  Porphyrins,  de  Vita  Fy^ 
thagora.    Plutarch,  in  two  treatises,  discusses  the  propriety  of  eating  fleah. 


COMMBNTART  ON  TUB  FIRST  BOOK.  HI 

Hippocrates  states  the  particular  characters  of  the  diflere ut  kinds  of  flesh 
very  correctly.  He  remarks^  that  the  flesh  of  wild  animals  is  lighter  than 
that  of  domesticated. 

The  general  remarks  of  Celsus  may  best  be  given  in  his  own  words : — 
"  Quadrupes  omne  animal,  si  lactens  est,  minus  alimenti  prsstat.  Omne 
etiam  ferum  animal  domestico  levius ;  et  quodcunque  humido  coelo,  quam 
quod  sicco  natum  est.  Delude  eadem  omnia  pinguia,  quam  macra ;  recentia 
quam  salsa ;  nova  quam  vetusta,  plus  alimenti  habent.  Turn  res  eadem 
magis  alit  jurulenta,  quam  assa;  magis  assa,  quam  elixa.'' 

Galen  remarks,  that  the  fleshy  parts  of  quadrupeds  form  the  best  blood. 
When  boiled,  he  says,  it  supplies  the  body  with  more  juicy,  and  when 
roasted,  with  drier  food.  The  temperament  of  domesticated  animals,  he 
adds,  is  more  humid  or  juicy  than  that  of  wild,  owing  to  the  dampness  of 
the  atmosphere  in  which  they  live,  and  their  inactivity.  For,  wild  animals 
among  the  mountains,  being  exposed  to  privations  and  fatigue,  their  flesh  is 
drier,  contains  no  ia^  and  is  less  disposed  to  putre&ction  than  the  flesh  of 
domesticated  animals.  He  states,  that  of  all  animals,  whether  fowls  or  beasts, 
the  flesh  of  such  as  are  growing  is  better  than  those  which  are  past  their  ut- 
most gprowth ;  that  such  as  are  at  their  growth  hold  an  intermediate  charac- 
ter;  but  that  the  flesh  of  such  as  are  very  young  or  old  is  bad,  because,  in  the 
latter  case,  it  is  hard,  dry,  and  fibrous,  whence  it  is  difficult  to  digest,  and 
not  nutritious ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  bodies  of  very  young  animals, 
being  mucous  (gelatinous?)  watery,  and  therefore  excrementitious,  readily 
pass  through  the  bowels  undigested. 

Actuarius  states,  that  animals  which  lead  an  indolent  life  are  more  humid 
and  excrementitious;  whereas  such  as  are  much  exercised  are  drier  and 
lighter.  Upon  the  whole,  he  adds,  the  more  the  colour  of  flesh  declines  firom 
white,  the  farther  is  it  removed  from  wholesomeness.  It  is  also  to  be  known, 
that  wild  animals  are  hotter  and  drier  than  domesticated. 

Haly  Abbas  says,  that  the  flesh  of  all  animals  is  heating  and  humid,  forms 
much  blood,  and  is  nutritious.  Avicenna  remarks,  that  flesh  strengthens  the 
body,  and  is  readily  converted  into  blood.  According  to  Rhases,  flesh  is 
the  most  nutritious  of  all  aliments,  and  disposes  most  to  plethora;  hence, 
those  who  live  much  upon  it,  require  frequent  venesection,  especially  if  at 
the  same  time  given  to  drinking  wine. 

It  may  now  be  interesting  to  compare  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Cullen  with  those 
of  the  ancients  on  this  subject.  He  lays  it  down  as  an  ascertained  rule, 
Aat  quadrupeds  give,  in  the  same  proportion  taken,  more  nourishment  than 
any  vegetable  aliments  whatever.  The  latter,  he  says,  are  not  like  the  former, 
entirely  convertible  in  tuccum  et  sanguinem.  At  the  same  time,  he  thinks 
that  animal  food  is  less  perspirable. 

Of  all  idnds  of  animal  food,  Pork  was  almost  universally  esteemed  by  the  an- 

eieats  as  the  best.  Hippocrates  repeatedly  speaks  of  it  as  being  most  wholesome 

and  nutritious,  and  Galen  says  the  same  of  it  in  the  strongest  language.    He 

states  that  the  athletae,  if  for  one  day  presented  with  the  same  bulk  of  any 

other  article  of  food,  immediately  experienced  a  diminution  of  strength ;  and 

if  the  change  of  diet  was  persisted  in  for  several  successive  days,  that  they 

fell  off  in  flesh.    He  adds,  that  he  had  been  credibly  informed  by  persons 

^0  had  been  compelled,  under  extraordinary  circumstances,  to  taste  human 

flesh,  that  pork  bears  a  near  resemblance  to  it.    Celsus  praises  it  for  its 

lightness : ''  Inter  domesticas  vero  quadrupedes,  levissima  suilla  est."  Aetius, 

Oribasius,  and,  in  a  word,  all  the  Greek  authorities  subsequent  to  Gralen, 

deliver  exactly  the  same  character  of  it  as  he.    See,  in  particular,  Simeon 

Sedi.    He  says,  that  the  flesh  of  swine  a  year  old  is  the  best,  and  that  very 

yoongpigs  are  not  to  be  eaten,  as  being  too  humid  and  excrementitious.   He 

adds,  tnat  the  flesh  of  wild  boars  furnish  the  best  food,  being  neither  so  ex- 


112  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

crementitious  nor  so  viscid  as  that  of  tame  swine.  The  Arabian  authors, 
liowever,  display  some  oriental  prejudices  against  the  flesh  of  swine.  Avi- 
cenna  merely  remarks  of  it  that  the  Christians,  and  those  who  imitate  them, 
say  that  the  flesh  of  the  wild  boar  is  the  best  of  all.  Averrhoes  refers  to  the 
opinion  of  Avicenna.  Rhases,  who  has  treated  of  Dietetics  in  three  distinct 
works,  has  nowhere,  so  far  as  I  can  discover,  recommended  pork  as  an 
article  of  food.  Haly  Abbas,  however,  speaks  favourably  of  it.  He,  I  be- 
lieve, was  a  Christian.  Various  receipts  for  dressing  pork  are  ^ven  by 
Apicius.  As  a  sauce  for  the  flesh  of  the  wild  boar,  he  recommends  a  compo- 
sition  of  honey,  pickle,  sodden  wine,  and  raisin  wine.  Cato,  the  censor,gives 
▼ery  sensible  directions  for  the  preparation  of  Ham.  De  Re  Rustica.  c.  162. 
It  will  be  perceived  that  our  author  states  that  pork  is  imperspirable.  Sane- 
torius  confirms  the  truth  of  this  statement.  Both  Cicero  and  Porphyry  quote 
the  saying  of  Chrysippus,  that  a  sovl  or  living  principle  was  given  to  swine, 
as  a  sort  of  salt,  to  preserve  their  flesh  from  putrefaction  for  the  use  of  man. 

Mutton  was  no  great  favourite  with  the  ancients.  Galen,  Aetius,  Oribasius, 
and  Simeon  Seth,  agree  with  our  author,  that  it  is  inferior  to  pork,  as  being 
more  excrementitious,  and  containing  worse  juices.  Averrhoes,  however,  ac- 
cuses Galen  of  being  prejudiced  against  the  flesh  of  wethers  and  lambs, 
which,  he  afiirms,  are  inferior  only  to  kids  in  excellence.  Rhases,  in  like 
manner,  ranks  mutton  as  second  only  to  kid.  Sedi  savs,  that  the  best  rout- 
ton  is  that  of  a  sheep  a  year  old.  Apicius  gives  full  directions  for  cooking 
mutton  and  lamb.  Lib.  viii.  It  appears  that,  even  at  the  present  day,  mut- 
ton is  by  no  means  in  so  much  request  in  Italy  as  it  is  in  Britain,  France, 
and  Germany.  The  Americans  also  are  less  fond  of  it  than  we  in  Britain 
are. 

All  the  ancient  authorities  speak  of  Goats'  flesh  in  much  the  same  terms  as 
our  author;  namely,  as  being  acrid,  and  containing  unwholesome  juices. 
That  of  buck-goats  is  said  by  Galen  to  be  particularly  bad ;  and,  next  to  it, 
those  of  rams  and  of  bulls.  Of  kid,  he  speaks  favourably,  as  being  next  in 
excellence  to  pork ;  then  he  ranks  veal.  But  lamb,  he  says,  is  humid,  gela- 
tinous and  mucous.  Rhases  and  Averrhoes  rank  kid  first,  and  then  lamb. 
The  poet  Hesiod  recommends  kid  as  a  delicious  article  of  food  during  the 
heat  of  Summer.     Op.  et  Dies^  I.  590. 

The  Arabians  mention  Uie  Gazelle  (Dorcas)  as  being  nearly  allied  to,  but 
superior  to  the  goat.  Simeon  Seth  says,  that  the  flesh  of  the  Dorcas  is  better 
than  that  of  any  other  wild  animal,  and  that  it  is  allied  to  the  human  body. 

Hippocrates  calls  Beef  a  strong,  astringent,  and  indigestible  article  of  food. 
Celsus  ranks  it  among  the  articles  which  are  not  apt  to  spoil  in  the  stomach. 
Oribasius  says,  that  it  is  more  than  moderately  nutritious,  but  imperspirable, 
and  forms  thick  blood.  Like  Galen  and  our  author,  he  savs,  that  it  proves 
injurious  to  those  who  are  subject  to  collections  of  black  bile.  Seth  sajrs, 
that  it  is  difiicult  of  digestion  and  distribution,  but  when  digested,  sufficiently 
nutritious.  Rhases  says,  that  it  supplies  much  nourishment  of  a  gross  nature, 
and  forms  thick  blood.  Averrhoes  says,  that  the  flesh'of  heifers  is  good,  not 
being  so  viscid,  cold,  and  dry  as  the  flesh  of  oxen.  The  sauces  recommended 
by  Apicius  for  the  flesh  of  oxen  and  heifers  contain  various  spices,  and 
aromatics  with  vinegar,  pickle,  and  oil. 

The  Glis  or  Dormouse  is  mentioned  as  a  favourite  delicacy  of  the  Romans 
by  Varro,  Pliny,  Martial,  Galen,  and  Ammianus  Marcellinus. 

All  the  authorities  agree  that  the  flesh  of  the  Stag  or  Roe  is  difficult  to 
digest.  Hence  Rhases  forbids  to  eat  it,  except  after  hard  exercise.  Simeon 
Seth  adds,  that,  as  in  Summer,  stags  frequently  eat  poisonous  serpents,  it 
may  be  dangerous  to  take  of  their  flesh  at  that  season.  Celsus  appears  to 
have  had  a  more  favourable  opinion  of  venison  than  most  of  the  ancient  au- 
tliorities,  for  he  ranks  ^'  omnis  venatio''  among  the  things  which  agree  best 


COMMINTAET  ON  THK  f lEST  BOOK.  1  IS 

with  the  stomach.  Seth  lays^  that  Hare  is  sufficiently  nutritious,  if  properly 
digested,  but  that  it  disagrees  with  persons  of  a  dry  temperament,  and  is  apt 
to  form  melancholic  humours.  Apicius  gives  many  complicated  receipts 
for  dressing  Hares.  Pliny  remarks,  that  there  never  is  any  fat  on  Hares. 
H.  N.  xi.  85.  Hippocrates  says,  that  their  flesh  is  dry  and  astringent. 
Horace  freqnenthr  praises  the  shoulder  of  the  Hare.  In  our  days,  the  loins 
are  preferred.  The  Cnniculus,  or  Rabbit,  was  greatly  esteemed  in  Spain,  bm 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  much  used  by  the  Greeks  or  Romans. 

From  the  experiments  of  Sir  Astley  Cooper,  it  is  ascertained,  that  the 
solnbilit^  of  animal  food  is  in  the  order  of  pork,  mutton,  veal,  and  beef.  This 
account  is  little  different  from  the  ancient  ctiaracters  of  them. 


LXXXV.— ON  TBB  PARTS  OF  ANIMALS. 

Since  our  author  has  stated  very  distinctly  the  characters  of  the  parts  of  ani- 
mals (haying  abridged  the  fuller  account  of  Galen),  it  will  serve  no  purpose 
for  me  to  enlarge  upon  evenr  one  of  these  articles ;  and,  therefore,  I  shall 
be  content  with  makinff  a  few  cursory  remarks.  For  further  information, 
see  Galenas,  de  AUm.  Factdt,  and  de  Euchym, — Oribasius,  Med,  Coll.  lib. 
v.^Aetins,  lib.  ii. — Rhases,  ad  Mamor.  iii.  11. — Ilaly  Ablms,  Theor.  v.  22. 
—Serapion,  de  Simnl,  ex  AnimaL 

Galen  remarks,  mat,  as  some  rendered  the  liver  of  Swine  sweet,  by  feeding 
fliem  upon  dried  figs,  so  he  knew  sonie  persons  who  were  in  the  practice  of 
preparing  the  livers  of  Geese  in  like  manner,  by  feeding  them  upon  milk,  by 
which  means  they  were  rendered  not  only  delicious,  but  also  very  nutritious, 
wholesome,  digestible,  and  not  difficult  to  evacuate.  Oribasius  and  Haly 
Abbes  8p€»k  of  it  in  much  the  same  terms;  but  Haly  adds,  that  much 
of  it  ought  not  to  be  eaten  at  once,  as  it  is  slowly  digested .  Athenaeus  speaks 
of  it  as  a  delicacy  in  great  request  at  Rome.  Deipn,  lib.  viii.  The  liver  of 
a  white  goose  red  upon  fotty  figs  is  one  of  the  delicacies  mentioned  by 
Horace  as  having  been  presented  at  the  supper  of  Nasiedenus.  Sat.  lib.  ii. 
8.  8. — See  also  JuTenat,  v.  114.  and  Persius,  vi.  7.  If  we  may  believe 
Martial,  tbe  liver,  in  these  cases,  sometimes  grew  to  such  a  size,  as  to  surpass 
the  bod?  of  the  animal.  Epigr^  xiii.  58.  We  are  informed  by  Pliny,  that 
it  was  dispnted  to  whom  die  Culinary  art  was  indebted  for  the  discovery  of 
thu  exquisite  delicacy.  H,N,x.2\.  Dr.  Kitchiner,  the  modem  Apicius, 
says  of  It,  "  Although  the  liver  is  rather  too  luscious  for  the  lingual  nerves  of 
tbe  good  folks  of  Great  Britain,  the  livers  of  poultry  are  considered  a  very 
high  rdish  by  our  Continental  neighbours." — took's  Oracle,  p.  181. 

Galen  states,  that  all  fat  and  suet  are  of  an  oily  nature,  and  that  they  ought 
nAier  to  be  used  as  condiments  than  as  articles  of  food.  Serapion  gives  the 
Biost  circumstantial  account  of  the  qualities  of  these  animal  oils. 

The  Vulva  or  Womb  of  a  Sow,  was  esteemed  an  exquisite  delicacy  by  the 
Romans.  There  were  three  kinds  of  it — that  is  to  say,  it  was  taken  in  three 
different  states  of  the  animal.  The  first,  called  Ejectitia,  was  procured  by 
forcing  the  animal  to  part  vrith  its  young.  The  second,  or  Porcaria,  was  the 
womb  of  the  animal,  taken  after  it  had  littered.  The  third,  called  Sterilis, 
ivas  the  womb  of  a  sow  that  had  never  been  with  young.  This  last  is  ranked 
^  C^us  among  those  things  which  are  useful  to  the  stomach. — See  Plut- 
aichus,  de  Etu  Camiitm.  Plinius,  H.  N.  xi.  37.  Simeon  Seth,  however, 
<ioiidem8  it  as  indigestible.     V,  Not.  Bogdani, 


]  14  COMMBNTART  ON  THB  FIRST  ROOK. 


LXXXVI. — ON  MILK. 

It  appears  from  Homer,  that  the  milk  of  various  animals  was  used  for 
food  in  the  heroic  ages  of  Greece.  His  commentator,  Eustathius^  remarks, 
that  it  is  very  nutritious,  and,  in  proof  of  this,  relates  the  case  of  one  Phi- 
linus,  who  used  no  other  food  or  drink. — Ap.  Iliad,  xiii.  6. 

Hippocrates,  who  often  makes  mention  of  milk  as  a  medicine,  and  as  an 
article  of  food,  states,  that  it  sometimes  occasions  the  formation  of  stones  in 
the  bladder  (de  AeribuSy  Loci$,  et  Aqui$,  c.  24);  and  this  opinion  was 
adopted  by  all  the  ancient  authorities  on  medicine;  but,  whether  tnere  be  any 
foundation  for  it  or  not,  I  cannot  take  upon  myself  to  determine.  Certain 
it  is,  however,  that  children  and  young  persons,  who  live  mostly  upon  milk, 
are  very  subject  to  Calculus ;  and  in  the  country,  where  milk  is  a  common 
article  of  food,  the  complaint  is  of  frequent  occurrence,  whereas  there  is  sel- 
dom an  instance  of  it  at  sea,  where  the  diet  must  necessarily  be  very  different. 

According  to  Galen,  the  thickest  milk  of  all,  and  the  fattest,  is  that  of  Cows ; 
the  most  liquid  and  least  fat,  is  that  of  the  Camel ;  and  after  it  that  of  the 
Mare,  and  then  of  the  Ass ;  the  milk  of  Goats  is  of  a  middle  consistenoey 
and  that  of  Sheep  thicker  than  it.  It  is  clear,  he  adds,  that  thick  milk  coa- 
tains  more  cheese,  and  liquid  more  whey.  Liquid  milk,  therefore,  is  more 
laxative  than  thick ;  and,  on  the  contrary,  thick  milk  is  more  natritious  than 
liquid.  He  mentions,  that  whey,  either  alone  or  with  a  certain  mixture  of 
salt,  may  often  be  used  as  an  excellent  laxative  medicine.  He  states,  that,  if  a 
Goat  or  any  other  animal  eat  of  scammony  or  spurge,  her  milk  will  be  ren- 
dered purgative.  He  says,  that  milk  is  most  beneficial  in  complaints  of  the 
chest,  but  most  injurious  in  diseases  of  the  head  and  hypochoodrium.  Ht, 
and  all  the  ancient  authorities  after  him ,  state,  that  milk  is  apt  to  hurt  the  teeth. 

Celsus  calls  milk  a  wholesome  and  nutritious  article  of  food ;  but  says,  that 
it  is  apt  to  disagree  with  the  stomach,  and  to  prove  flatulent.  The  learned 
Varro  says  of  milk :  '*  Est  omnium  rerum  quas  cibi  caus&  capimus  liquen- 
tium  maxim^  alibile,  et  id  ovillum,  inde  caprinum."    De  R.  R.  ii.  11. 

Aristotle  arranges  the  milk  of  the  Camel,  the  Mare,  and  the  Ass,  in  the 
same  order  with  respect  to  consistence  as  Galen.  H.  A.  iv.  20.  Pliny,  evi- 
dently having  in  view  this  passage  of  Aristotle,  says,  that  the  milk  of  Camels 
is  the  thinnest,  then  that  of  the  Mare,  and  that  the  milk  of  A^es  is  the 
thickest.  This  is  going  further  than  he  was  justified  by  his  authority.  He 
remarks,  that  the  milk  of  Cows  gives  the  most  cheese.     H,  N.  xi.  41. 

Dioscorides  calls  milk  nutritious,  laxative,  and  flatulent.  His  account  of 
its  properties  is  interesting.    Lib.  ii.  74. 

All  the  Greek  authorities  subsequent  to  Galen  evidently  copy  from  him. 
Seth  says,  that  the  longer  milk  is  kept  the  worse  it  becomes.  When  pro- 
perly digested,  he  adds,  it  moistens  the  body,  induces  soundness  thefeQf,and 
is  useful  in  complaints  of  the  chest. 

According  toHaly  Abbas,  the  milk  of  cows  is  the  thickest  of  all,  and  the 
most  nutritious ;  that  of  camels  the  thinnest,  and  the  least  nutritions ;  goats* 
milk  is  intermediate  between  them ;  the  milk  of  sheep,  intermediate  betweeii 
that  of  cows  and  of  goats ;  and  the  milk  of  asses,  between  that  of  goats  and  of 
camels.  Thtor.  v.  26.  Rhases  enumerates  them  in  a  considerably  difiereat 
order ;  he  says  that  the  milk  of  cows  is  the  thickest,  and  that  of  asses  the 
thinnest ;  while  that  of  goats  is  intermediate.  Ad  Mantor.  iii.  15.  Averrhoes 
calls  the  milk  of  asses  and  of  goats  the  best.  See  also  Serapioo,  ex  AnimalU 
husy  c.  457 ;  and  Avicenna,  lib.  ii.  tr.  2.  c.  434. 

The  following  remarks  of  Macrobius  seem  to  me  very  acute  and  pertinent; 
and,  if  well  founded,  they  ought  to  operate  as  a  powerful  consideration  to 


COMVSNTAET  ON  THB  FIRST  BOOK.  115 

erery  healthy  mother  to  suckle  her  own  offspring.  **  Quamohrem  noo  frus- 
tra  creditum  est,  sicut  valeat  ad  finsendas  corporis  et  aDimi  sirailitadines  vis 
et  natura  semiDis,  non  secus  ad  eandem  rem  lactis  quoqiie  iDgenia  et  proprie- 
tates  valere.  Neque  in  hominibus  id  solum,  sed  in  pecudibus  quoque  animad- 
versum.  Nam  si  ovium  lacte  h«di,  aut  caprarum  agni  forsitan  alantur :  constat 
ferme  in  his  lanam  duriorem,  in  illis  pilum  gigni  tenehorem."  Saturn,  v.  11. 

TheOalactophagi,  a  Scythian  nation  who  lived  principally  ujpon  mare*8  milk, 
are  made  mention  of  by  Homer,  lUad,  liii.  and  by  Stobaeus,  Semio  v.  Eusta- 
thius  says  that  they  made  much  use  of  a  preparation  from  milk,  called  Ory- 
gala.  Ap. Iliad.  U.S. 

Aristotle  calls  Butter  the  fat  of  milk,  which  has  concreted  to  the  consistence 
of  oil.  Hist.  Animal.  Hecatflms,  in  Athenaeus'  Work,  calls  it  the  oil  of  milk. 
De^noi,  lib.  x  Dioscoridet  says  that  it  is  used  for  condiments  instead  of 
oil,  and  in  confectionary  instead  of  suet. 

LXXXVII.»-ON  THB  DRINKING  OF  MILK. 


This  Recount  of  the  process  of  administering  milk  is  taken  from  Oribasius, 
who^  in  his  turn,  is  indebted  to  Rufiiis.  Avicenna,  in  like  manner,  copies 
from  Ruffns.  There  is  not  in  any  other  ancient  author  so  full  a  description 
of  the  process  of  boiling  milk.  On  the  ancient  modes  of  preparing  milk  for 
various  purposes,  and  their  uses,  see  Oeapon.  lib.  xviii.  and  Plinius,  H.  N. 
nviii.  38.  Pliny  mentions  that  some  cure  gout  in  the  hands  and  feet  by 
imlk.  This  seems  a  vciy  plausible  practice ;  for  Dr.  Cullen  observes  that  he 
never  knew  a  person  Wbo  lived  upon  milk  and  vegetables  who  was  subject 
to  goot.  Mat.  Med.  Simeon  Seth  joins  our  author,  or  rather  Ruffus,  in  re- 
commending boiled  milk  in  Dysentery.  He  likewise  praises  its  effects  in 
Phthisis  and  dry  Coughs. 

.  Tbil  method  of  preparing  milk  for  use,  by  putting  heated  stones  into  it,  is 
mentioned  by  Dioscorides,  Pliny,  and  others.  Serapion  recommends  heated 
iran.  See  the  following  chapter.  Gkden  was  aware  that  milk  coagulates  in 
the  Stomach  before  it  is  d^^csted.  De  AL  Fac.  in.  15. 


LXXXVin. ON  THB  BCHI8T0N,    OR  MILK  8BPARATBD  INTO  PARTS. 

Tbb  method  of  preparing  the  Schiston  is  thus  described  by  Pliny : — "  Me- 
dici speciem  unam  addidere  lactis  generibus,  quod  schiston  appellavere.  Id 
fit  hoe  iBodo :  fictili  novo  fervet  caprinum  maxime,  ramisque  ficulneis  recen- 
tflHis  miscetur,  additis  totidem  cyaUiis  mulsi,  quot  sint  hemine  lactis.  Cum 
iurveti  ne  drcumfundatur,  prsstat  cyathus  argenteus  cum  frigid  a  aquademis- 
ses  ita  ne  quid  infundat:  ablatum  deinde  igni  refrigeratione  dividitur  et  dis- 
oedit  serum  a  lacte."  H.  N.  xxviii.  33.  The  same  process  is  briefly  described 
bv  Dioscorides,  lib.  ii.  77.  Pliny  recommends  the  whey  thus  prepared  for 
Ailepsy,  Melancholy,  Paralysis,  Leprosy,  Elephantiasis,  and  Arthritis. 
This  prepars^on  of  milk  is  often  noticed  by  the  ancient  authors  on  medicine. 
It  evideiitly  consisted  of  the  whey  of  the  milk,  separated  from  the  cheese  by 
a  fedo^iar  process. 

The  Mdca  was  a  preparation  from  Milk,  and  is  mentioned  by  our  author 
IB  another  place,  (lib.  iv.  c.  27.)  It  appears  to  have  been  a  sort  of  curds 
aod  whey,  or  du  lait  cailU  of  the  French,  prepared  by  pouring  hot  vinegar 
vpoB  milk.    The  process  is  minutely  describea  in  the  Geoponics,  lib.  xviii. 

The  Ozygal,  or  Lac  Acidum,  consisted  of  the  caseous  part  of  the  milk,  se- 
parated from  the  whey  by  a  very  complicated  process,  which  is  fully  described 
by  Columella.  Lib.  xii.  c.  8.  It  is  said  by  Galen  to  posssess  very  refrigerant 
piopertics. 

i2 


116  COMMBNTART  ON  TBM  FIRST  ROOK. 

The  Aphiogala,  or  Spuma  LactU,  appears  to  have  been  Milk  reduced  to 
a  state  ot  foam  by  violent  agitation. 


LXXXIX. — ON  CHBBSB. 

Hippocrates  calls  cheese  flatulent  and  indigestible.  Celsus  also  calls  it 
flatulent,  and  ranks  old  cheese  among  the  unwholesome  articles  of  food.  He 
speaks  &vourably,  however,  of  soft  new-made  cheese.  Dioscorides,  in  like 
manner,  says  that  new-made  cheese  without  salt  is  nutritious,  good  for  the 
stomach,  of  easy  distribution,  forms  flesh,  and  is  moderately  laxative.  Old 
cheese,  he  adds,  is  constipating.  Pliny  describes  the  kinds  in  most  repute 
wheal  he  lived.  H.  N,  xi.  97.  He  says  that  salted  cheese  wastes  the  body, 
but  that  soft  is  nutritious.  Lib.  xxviii.  34.  Varro,  in  like  manner,  says  that 
soft  and  recent  cheese  is  nourishing,  and  not  astringent,  but  that  the  old  and 
dry  is  the  contrary.  De  R,  R,  ii.  11. 

Galen's  account  of  the  nature  and  properties  of  Cheese  is  so  ample  that  my 
limits  will  not  admit  of  my  doing  justice  to  it  in  my  brief  abstract  He  re- 
marks that  milk,  when  it  is  converted  into  cheese,  loses  its  watery  part,  and 
acquires  heating  properties,  whence  it  becomes  more  apt  to  excite  thirst,  more 
inoigestible,  and  unwholesome.  He  speaks  most  favourably  of  new-made 
cheese,  and  mentions  that  there  was  a  kind  much  used  by  rich  Romans,  called 
Vatusicus,  which  was  peculiarly  excellent.  As  to  consistence,  the  best 
cheese,  he  remarks,  should  be  intermediate  between  the  glutinous  and  the 
friable,  and  it  ought  to  possess  no  distinct  quality  as  to  taste,  unless  pnerhaps 
a  certain  degree  of  sweetness.  Aetius,  Oriluisius,  and  Simeon  Seth,  evidently 
adopt  the  views  of  Galen.  Seth  says  that  new  cheese  is  laxative,  and  old 
astringent. 

The  Arabians  deliver  the  same  characters  of  Cheese  as  their  Grecian  mas- 
ters. Avicenna,  Averrhoes,  and  Haly  Abbas,  speak  favourably  of  new  cheese, 
as  being  of  a  cold  and  humid  nature. 

Hippocrates  and  Pliny  mention  a  species  of  Cheese  prepared  by  the  Scy- 
thians;  from  mares'  milk,  and  called  by  them  Hippace. 


XC. — ON    FISHBS. 

Ancient  authors  make  mention  of  whole  nations  of  mankind  that  subsisted 
entirely  upon  Fish.  For  an  account  of  the  Ichthyophagi,  see  Herodotus, 
lib.  iii.c.20. — Plinius,  lib.xi. — Strabo,  Geogr.  lib.  xv. — Diodorus  Siculus,lib. 
c.  15. — Ptolemaeus  Geogr,  lib.  iv. — Arrianus,  inlndicis. — Solinus,  Po/yAtstor, 
lib,  Ixv. — Philostratus,  in  Vita  Apolloniiy  lib.  iii.  The  description  given  of 
them  by  Diodorus  is  the  most  circumstantial  and  interesting.  He  says  that 
the  simplicity  of  their  diet  preserved  them  free  from  diseases,  but  that  they 
were  short-lived.  Pliuy  states  that  Fish  were  used  by  his  countrjrmen  as 
food  from  the  building  of  the  city.  H.  A\  xxxii.  10.  Eustathius  says  that,  in 
the  Heroic  ages,  they  were  seldom  used  but  in  cases  of  want.  Ap.  Iliad.  ▼.  487. 

Hippocrates  thus  details  the  Dietetical  qualities  of  fish.  Speaking  gene- 
rally, then,  he  says  Fishes  are  light  food,  both  when  boiled  and  roasted,  by 
themselves  or  witij  other  things.  They  differ  from  one  another  as  follows : — 
Those  which  live  in  lakes,  the  fat,  and  river  fishes,  are  heavier;  of  sea  fish, 
such  as  are  found  near  the  shore  are  lighter,  and  those  which  are  well  boiled 
are  lighter  than  such  as  are  roasted.  The  stronger  kind,  therefore,  are  to  be 
given  when  our  object  is  to  recruit,  but  the  lighter  when  we  wish  to  attenuate 
or  reduce.  De  Affect,  cap.  46. 

Celsus  ranks  Fish  among  those  things  which  hold  an  intermediate  place 
between  articles  of  a  strong  and  of  a  weak  nature.     He  thus  distinguishes 


COMMBNTART  ON  ^HB  FIRST  BOOK.  117 

thefn  from  one  another : — ^  Levior  piscis  inter  saxaeditu8,quam  in  arenii,  le- 
vior  in  aren^  quam  in  limo :  quo  fit  ut  ex  stagno,  vel  lacu,  vel  flumine  eadem 
genera  graviora  sint:  leviorque,  qui  in  alto,  quam  qui  in  vado  vixit.'' 

Plutarch  states  that  Fish  is  much  more  easily  digested  than  Flesh.  Sympos. 
lib.  iv. 

For  a  fully  interesting,  and  judicious  account  of  the  qualities  of  Fishes  as 
articles  of  food,  see  Athenseus,  Deipnos,  lib.  viii.  14.  I  canouly  afford  room 
to  mention  his  opinion  of  their  more  general  properties.  He  says,  then,  upon 
the  authority  of  the  Siphnian  Diphilus,  that  of  sea  fishes  those  that  live 
among  rocks  are  of  easy  digestion,  contain  good  juices,  are  detergent,  light, 
and  alford  little  nourishment;  and  that  those  which  inhabit  the  depths  of  the 
sea  are  difficult  to  digest,  very  nutritious,  and  of  difficult  assimilation. 

Galen  states  that  Fishes  which  live  in  marshes,  lakes,  and  muddy  rivers^ 
are  the  worst  as  articles  of  food,  because  they  are  little  exercised  in  swim- 
ming, and  have  impure  food.  Such  fish  as  live  in  the  depths  of  the  sea,  he 
saysy  are  almost  firee  from  fault  as  aliment,  for  they  are  more  wholesome  and 
delicious  than  any  of  the  others.  He  mentions,  as  the  characteristics  of  good 
fish,  that  they  have  no  offensive  taste  or  smell,  have  little  fat,  and  can  be  kept 
for  a  considerable  time  without  becoming  putrid,  especially  if  put  in  ice.  He 
says  that  Fish  are  the  best  possible  food  to  persons  of  indolent  habits,  old 
men,  and  invalids,  but  that  they  do  not  answer  so  well  with  persons  who  take 
strong  exercise. 

Of  Fishes,  as  aliments,  there  is  an  excellent  account  in  a  Fragment  of 
Xenocrates,  lately  published,  with  interesting  Notes,  by  the  learned  Dr. 
Coray  of  Paris.  He  says  that  roasted  fish  are  most  nutritious,  but  are  of  dif- 
ficult evacuation ;  that  the  boiled  are  less  nutritious,  but  are  readily  evacuated; 
that  sea  fish  are  savoury,  agree  with  the  stomach,  are  of  easy  distribution, 
form  proper  blood,  impart  a  good  colour,  and  clear  the  belly.  Such  as  live  in 
rivers  and  lakes,  he  adds,  are  bad  for  the  stomach,  form  thick  juices,  and  are 
of  difficult  evacuation.  The  characters  of  the  different  Fishes  are  afterwards 
stated  by  him  very  fully.  He  says  that  the  parts  next  to  the  tail,  as  being 
most  exercised,  are  most  wholesome. 

Oribasius's  account  of  Fishes  is  mostly  taken  from  Xenocrates.  Aetius  is 
full  and  correct  on  this  subject.  He  says  that  the  best  fish  are  those  which 
live  in  a  sea  of  pure  water,  especially  if  it  be  agitated  by  winds,  and  if  its 
shores  be  sandy  and  not  clayey. 

Actuarius  says,  that  of  Fishes  which  live  at  the  sea-shore,  and  among  rocks, 
the  larger  supply  much  nourishment,  of  a  thick  nature ;  and  the  smaller,  lit- 
tle nourishment,  of  a  pure  nature.  He  says,  further,  that  sea  fish  in  genera), 
being  preferable  to  those  which  live  in  fresh  waters,  differ  however  from  one 
another  in  several  respects ;  that  such  as  live  in  the  open  sea  are  more  exer- 
cised, and  enjoy  purer  food,  than  the  others,  and  hence  their  fiesh  is  firmer 
and  purer,  and  they  are  more  nutritious,  and  form  thick  blood ;  that  such  as 
live  in  canals  and  marshes  are  bad  and  unwholesome ;  and  that  those  which 
live  among  rocks  in  pure  waters  have  better  flesh,  and,  being  light  and  di- 
gestible, form  thin  and  pure  blood. 

Simeon  copies  freely  from  Galen  and  our  author.  Upon  the  whole,  he 
says,  the  blood  which  Fish  form  is  thinner  than  that  from  land  animals. 
Fish,  he  says,  is  the  most  proper  food  of  invalids  and  convalescents. 

Rhases  states  that  Sea  and  River  fishes  are  the  best,  especially  such  as 
have  rough  scales,  are  not  mucilaginous,  and  are  naturally  of  a  white  colour. 
Those,  he  adds,  which  are  of  a  black  or  red  colour  should  be  abstained  from. 
He  saya  that  all  fish  remain  long  in  the  stomach  undigested.  It  is  now  ge- 
nerally admitted  that  they  are  less  digestible  than  the  tender  flesh  of  quad- 
rupeds. 

Avicenna  delivers  the  general  characters  of  Fishes  in  the  same  terms  as 
Galen.    He  says  that  the  best  are  those  the  flesh  of  which  is  neither  too  hard 


116  COMlfSMTART  ON  THS  FIRST  BOOK. 

and  dry,  nor,  od  the  other  hand,  too  macilaginous^-^nd  which  are  nei- 
ther very  large  nor  very  small.  Averrhoes  repeats  this  accoant  of  then. 
Ilaly  Abbas,  in  like  manner,  abridges  Galen.  He  says  that  fresh  fish  are  of 
a  cold  and  humid  nature,  and  engender  phlegm. 

The  ancients  ate  their  Fish  either  roasted,  boiled,  fried,  or  in  soups.  In- 
valids were  recommended  to  take  them  boiled.  The  fried  were  believed  to 
suit  only  with  persons  of  a  strong  constitution.  On  the  Soups,  see  Z«»/mk  in 
lib.  vii. 

We  shall  now  offer  a  few  remarks  upon  some  of  the  Fishes  which  were  in 
most  request  at  the  tables  of  the  ancients. 

The  Laibrax,  or  Lupus,  is  generally  supposed  to  have  been  the  Pike.  But 
Aristotle,  Oppian,  and  Ousiodorus  describe  it  as  being  a  cunning  iisb,  which 
does  not  accord  with  the  character  of  the  Pike.  Bochart  concludes,  that  it 
is  the  fish  called  XuvpaiUy  by  the  modem  Greeks ;  Varoloy  by  the  Italians ; 
and  Bar,  by  the  French.  It  was  probably,  then,  the  Barb.  locsins,  as 
quoted  by  Athensus,  says  of  it,  that  it  contains  good  juices,  but  is  not  very 
nutritious,  nor  readily  evacuated,  but  is  the  most  delicious  of  all  fishes.  Ar- 
chestratus  calls  it  *^  the  ofispring  of  the  gods."  Lupi  caught  in  the  Tyber 
were  esteemed  the  best.  See  Horace,  iS^^.  lib.  ii.  s.  2,  and  Macrobios,  Sa- 
turn,  iii.  16.  There  were  two  species,  the  Lanatus  and  the  Varins,  of  which 
the  former  was  in  most  esteem.  Ausonius  says,  tliat  it  is  the  only  fish  which 
age  improves. 

The  Rhombus  was  esteemed  a  remarkable  delicacy.  The  classical  reader 
will  recollect  the  ludicrous  importance  attached  to  the  capture  of  one  by  the 
flatterers  of  Domitian,  as  described  in  the  4th  Satire  of  Juvenal.  It  is  fi«- 
quently  made  honourable  mention  of  by  Horace  and  Martial.  According  to 
liarduin  and  Nonnius  it  was  the  Turbot.  Athensus  calls  it  sweet  and  nu- 
tritious. Celsus  ranks  it  among  ^^  res  boni  succi.''  According  to  Atheneus, 
it  is  the  same  as  the  ^Inftra  of  Aristotle.  It  is  called  '^uno¥  by  Seth.  V. 
Not  a  Bogdani. 

The  Cephalus  w:is  a  species  of  the  Mullet,  as  is  stated  by  Harduin,  ap. 
Plinii,  H.  N.  ix.  26,  Schneider,  ap.  ^liani.  Nat.  Anim,  i.  12,  and  Lu- 
dovicus  Nonnius.  Oppian  describes  the  fishing  of  it  in  the  most  striking 
manner.  Galen  remarks,  that  the  flesh  of  it  differs  much  in  quality  accofd- 
ing  to  the  nature  of  the  place  in  which  it  is  found.  Athenvus  ranks  it  among 
the  fishes  which  are  sweet  and  nutritious.  Simeon  Seth  and  Aetius  say,  that 
the  River  Mullet  is  bad  for  the  stomach,  indigestible,  and  apt  to  form 
phlegm.  It  appears  from  Anaxilas,  as  quoted  by  Athensus,  that  its  head 
was  in  most  repute.    Archestratus  says  that  it  is  best  in  the  winter  season. 

The  Trigla,  or  Mullus,  as  Nonnius,  Harduin,  Schneider,  and  Coray  state, 
was  the  Surmullet.  It  is  mentioned  as  a  rare  delicacy  of  grant  price  by 
Horace,  Sat.  ii.  2,  Juvenal,  Sat.  iv.  15,  Martial,  Xenia.  c.  74,  and  Macro- 
bius,  S/ttumal.  iii.  16.  Athensus  says  of  it,  ^  Diodes  writes  that  the  flesh 
of  the  Mullus  is  hard.''  Lib.  vii.  21.  Its  liver  prepared  with  oil  and  wine  is 
said  by  Galen  to  have  been  esteemed  as  a  peculiar  delicacy. 

I  need  not  say  how  much  the  Murene  was  sought  after  by  all  the  lovers 
of  good  eating  in  ancient  Rome.  Pliny,  Martial,  and  Macrobius  inform  us, 
Uiat  those  from  Sicily  were  in  most  esteem ;  and  Brydone  takes  notice  of 
the  peculiar  excellence  of  the  Sicilian  Murenes  at  the  present  time,  or,  I 
should  rather  say,  when  he  performed  his  tour  through  that  Island.  According 
to  Icesius,  it  is  as  nutritious  as  the  Eel.  Athen.  Deip,  lib.  vii.  Apicius  gives 
various  receipts  for  the  dressing  of  it.  Pepper,  wine,  vinegar,  and  oil  are  ingre- 
dients in  almost  every  one  of  them.  The  Murene  which  was  served  up  at 
the  supper  of  Nasiedenus  had  a  sauce  or  soup  formed  of  such  things.  Hora- 
tius,  Sat.  ii.  8.  It  is  related  of  Vedius  Pollio,  that  he  fed  his  Murenes  with  the 
bodies  of  condemned  slaves.    Plinius,  H,  N,  ix.  23,  and  TertuUian,  dc 


COMMBNTAKT  ON  THB  flMT  BOOK*  119 

FaUio,    L.  CiaMuiy  the  oralDr,  put  on  mouniiog  clothes  for  the  death  of  a 
Mureoe.    Macrobiosy  Sat,  iii.  15. 

It  is  supposed,  by  most  of  the  classical  commentators,  that  the  Acipenser 
was  the  Sturgeon,  but  this  is  not  certain.  Its  popularity  appears  to  have 
been  great  in  the  days  of  Horace,  but  it  had  fallen  mto  disrepute  in  the  time 
of  Pliny.  It  seems,  however,  to  have  retrieved  its  character  afterwards;  for 
one  of  the  authorities  quoted  by  Atheneeus,  says  that  it  was  presented  at  the 
Roman  banquets,  crowned  with  garlands,  and  accompanied  with  the  playing 
of  pipes.  See  also  Macrobius,  Sat,  iii.  16.  Martial  speaks  of  it  as  a  much- 
esteemed  delicacy  at  the  Imperial  table.  The  Elops  and  the  Galeus  Rho- 
dhis  were  fishes  nearly  allied  to  the  Acipenser.    See  Pliny  and  Athensus. 

Martial  mentions  the  Gobius,  or  Gudgeon,  as  being  the  first  of  the  Viands 
presented  at  the  banquets  of  the  Venetians.  Xenia,  £p.  83.  Juvenal  speaks 
of  it  as  being  a  fish  of  little  value,  or,  at  least,  low  priced.  Sat,  xi.  37.  It 
is  in  feet,  as  Galen  states,  a  very  small  fish ;  but  he  represents  it  as  being  de- 
licious, digestible,  and  wholesome,  especially  when  caught  on  a  stony  or 
rocky  shore.  Seth  gives  the  same  account  of  it.  Diphilus,  as  quoted  by 
Athensus,  says,  that  when  its  flesh  is  white  the  Gudgeon  is  tender,  whole- 
some, and  digestible.  The  Perch,  according  to  the  same  authority,  bears 
a  close  resemblance  to  the  Gudgeon.  Ausonius  calls  it  the  delicia  mentO' 
rum,  Galen  calls  it  a  delicious  fish,  which  is  not  only  of  easy  digestion 
but  most  wholesome.  He  adds,  that  it,  and  other  fishes  of  the  same  descrip- 
tion^  fbna  blood  of  a  middling  consistence,  that  is  to  say,  neither  very 
watery  nor  too  thick.  And  here,  by  the  way,  I  would  notice  the  opinion  of 
Dr.  Cullen,  who  denies  that  fish  afibrd  weaker  nourishment  than  fiesh  does. 
Dr.  Paris,  however,  agrees  with  the  ancients,  that  fish  do  not  afibrd  the  same 
strength  and  stimulus  to  the  body  as  the  flesh  of  certain  land  animals. 

The  Aaguilla,  or  common  £el,  and  the  Congrus,  or  Conger-£ef,  were  de- 
spised by  the  Roman  gounnands,  but  were  greatly  esteemed  by  the  Greeks. 
Icesios  says  that  £els  are  the  best  of  fishes. 

On  the  Salmon  the  Greek  authors  are  entirely  silent.  It  is  briefly  noticed  by 
Plioyy  H,  N,  ix.  32 ;  but  the  first  and  only  satisfactory  account  of  it  which  is 
to  be  found  in  any  Latin  classic,  is  contained  in  the  Mosella  of  Ausonius.  As 
the  Salmon  is  the  most  esteemed  of  all  fishes  in  the  part  of  the  country  where  I 
leside  (^  Abredonia  Salmonum  piscatu  nobilis,''  Buchanani  Hist,  Scotia:\ 
I  am  induced  to  give  an  extract  from  the  lines  in  which  it  is  first  correctly 
described: 

'*  Teqne  inter  species  gemhias,  neatromque  et  ntrumqoe, 
Qui  neodom  Salmo,  nee  jam  Salar,  amUgmuqae 
Amborom  medio  Fario  interoepte  sub  sevo.'* 

Here  we  find  marked  distinctly  the  three  progressive  stages  in  the  growth 
of  the  fish.  The  Salar  is  evidently  the  Sea  Trout,  the  Fario  is  what  in  the 
with  of  Scotland  is  called  the  G(ifse,  and  the  Salmo  is  the  full-grown  Sal- 
mon.   Of  the  Salmo  he  says : 

''  Ta  lorieato  sqnamosus  pectore,  frontem 
Lnbiicusy  et  dubue  factums  fercula  cense, 
Tempera  longamm  fers  incorrupte  morarum, 
Pnesignis  macnUs  capitis :  cui  prodiga  nutat 
AlvQS,  opimatoque  fluens  abdomine  venter." 

The  Sea  Trout  is  well  described  in  the  following  line : 

**  Porporeisqae  Salar  stellatus  tergora  gattis.'' 

Ladovicus  Nonnius  conectly  remarks  that,  although  the  head  of  a  Salmon, 
^  being  the  fattest  part,  be  in  most  esteem  with  gourmands^  it  is  not  the  most 


120  COMMBNTABT  ON  THX  FIMT  BCM)K« 

wholesome.  The  whole  fish,  he  says,  is  of  difficult  digestioD,  and  forms 
thick  chyle.  He  considers  it  to  be  the  Aruhordgo  oi  Oasiodonu.  De  Etu 
Piscium^  c.  31. 

Ludovicus  Nonnius  confesses  his  inability  to  determine  what  the  Scani» 
was.  Xenocrates  praises  it  as  being  savoury  and  of  easy  digestion,  but  of 
difficult  distribution  and  evacuation.  For  a  curious  account  of  it,  see  Ma- 
crobius,  Sat.  iii.  16. 

The  Aurata,  called  by  Nonnius  in  French  Brame  de  mer,  and  by  AinswortH 
and  Artedi  Gilt-head  in  English,  is  said  by  Celsus,  and  Mnesitheus  as  quot- 
ed by  Athenseus,  to  be  a  fish  of  difficult  digestion  but  very  nutritious.  Xeno-> 
crates  says,  that  its  flesh  is  firm,  white,  of  easy  distribution,  and  nutritioas. 

The  Passer,  called  Platessa  by  Ausonius,  is  supposed  by  Artedi  and  Non- 
nius to  have  been  the  Plaise.  It  is  mentioned  by  Horace  among  the  deH- 
cacies  at  the  sujpper  of  Nasiedenus.  The  Solea  or  Sole,  called  Lingualaca 
by  Festus  and  Varro,  was  nearly  allied  to  it.  Diphilus  says,  that  both  are 
very  savoury  and  nuti*itious. 

The  Lampetra,  or  Lamprey,  according  to  Nonnius,  is  the  Mustellaof  Auso- 
nius,  the  Exormiston  of  Cassiodorus,  the  ydka^ias  of  Galen,  the  *x^prfi9  of 
Oppian,  and  the  ^Xka  of  Strabo.    It  was  reckoned  unwholesome. 

The  Capros,  or  Carp,  is  called  by  Archestratus  "  The  Flower  of  Nectar/" 
Athen.  Deipnos.  lib.  vii. 


XCL — ON  THE  TESTACBA  AND  CBU8TACBA, 

Dr.  CoRAY  correctly  states  in  his  Note*  on  the  Fragment  of  Xenocrates^ 
that,  in  the  ancient  classification  of  Animals,  the  oarpeucfaSff  or  oarpaKobtpfiOy, 
were  subdivided  into  the  o-ickrjpxHrTpaKci^  or  Testacea,  comprehending 
Oysters,  Muscles,  &e. ;  and  the  fiakoKoarpaiea,  or  Crustacea,  compr^ending 
the  Crabs,  Paguri,  &c.  But,  as  he  remarks  afterwards,  the  fniaipwrrpoKa 
were  often  called  by  the  generic  term,  o<rrp€ueob*pfia.  The  following  are  his 
words :  *^  0<r¥paKta  icaXct  a  Koivortpov  oarpcucolitppa'KeYtTat*  Taora  dc  dccii'*. 
pfLTM  €is  r€  ra  o-KkrfpoirrpaKa  ra  km  r^  ytvuctj^  r&v  oarpoKo^ppMV  otfopan 
&g  cifi  TO  iroXv  K/dkovpfvcL,  Kai  ra  paKoKoarpcuca  otoi  €uriv  aoTOKOiy  Kapafitu^ 
Kopidcff,  irayovpoiJ*  The  ancient  division  of  the  lower  classes  of  animals  is 
derived  from  Aristotle's  History  of  Animals,  lib.  iv.  and  with  some  sttgfat 
modifications  it  is  the  same  as  the  classification  lately  adopted  by  Baron 
Cuvier.  Pliny  thus  distinguishes  the  Mollusca,  Crustacea,  and  Testacea : 
**  Piscium  quidam  sanguine  carent,  de  quibus  dicemus.  Sunt  autem  tria 
genera:  in  primis  quee  mollia  appellantur  (^3io//ttsca?J:  deinde  contecta 
crustis  tenuibus  (Crustacea  f) :  postremo  testis  conclusa  duris  ( Testacea  1). 
Mollia  sunt,  loligo,  sepia,  polypus,  et  cetera  ejus  generis,'^  &c.  In  another 
place,  however,  he  introduces  confusion  by  applying  the  term  Mollia  to  the 
Crustacea.  This  mistake  probably  originajted  in  the  resemblance  between 
the  Greek  terms  /xoXoxta  and  pciKcucoa-rpaKa.   H.  N,  lib.  ix. 

I  may  mention  further,  that,  in  Oppian's  delightful  Poem  on  Fishing,  the 
Crustacea  are  described  at  book  i.  1.  259,  the  Testacea  at  1.  283,  and  the 
Mullusca  at  1.  638.  On  the  terms  used  by  ^lian,  see  de  Nat.  Animal,  ix.  6. 
Ed.  Schneider.  Athenaus  gives  a  long  disquisition  on  these  animals  in  the 
third  book  of  the  Deipnosophista. 

We  shall  now  briefly  notice  the  ancient  opinions  on  their  Dietetical  qua^ 
lities.  From  Atheneus,  I  can  only  find  room  for  the  following  extract: 
^*  Regarding  the  Testacea  (o(rrf>ajcod€pfia)  the  Siphnian  Diphilus  writes  thus: 
*  Of  the  Testacea,  the  Squilla,  Astacus,  Locusta  Aquatica,  Cancer,  and  Leo 
Marinus,  are  of  the  same  genus,  but  differ  from  one  another :  the  Leo  is 
larger  than  the  Astacus,  the  Locusta  is  more  fjeshy  than  the  Cancer,  and  the 


COMMSMTAET  ON  tMM  fIBftT  BOOK.  121 

Cancer,  or  Crab,  is  heavy  and  indigestible.'  Mnesitbeus,  the  Athenian,  in  his 
work  on  Dietetics,  says,  that  the  I^custa,  Cancer,  Squilla,  and  the  like,  are 
all  of  difficult  digestion,  and  yet  they  are  much  easier  digested  than  other 
fishes." 

GraleQ*s  accoont  of  them  is  interesting;  but  our  author's  is  abridged  from 
it.  In  general,  he  remarks,  those  which  have  hard  flesh  are  most  nutritious, 
but  indigestible.  They  all  contain  saltish  juices  whidi  are  of  a  laxative  na- 
ture. He  says  of  the  Crustacea  that  they  have  all  firm  flesh,  and  are,  there- 
fore, difficult  to  digest,  but  nutritions.  Aetius  and  Oribasius  copy  from  him 
without  the  slightest  alteration  of  any  consequence. 

According  to  Dioscorides  and  Alexander,  the  Echinus  is  stomachic  and 
diuietic.  j£lian,  in  like  manner,  calls  it  a  restorative  to  a  weak  stomach. 
H.  N,  lib.  xiii. 

Actuarius  sajTS,  that  the  Crustacea  hold  an  intermediate  place  between  the 
FUhes  and  MoUasca;  that  they  are,  therefore,  not  so  indigestible  as  the 
Mollusca,  and  form  purer  and  thinner  blood ;  that  the  Testacea,  as  they  get 
no  exercise,  are  less  proper;  and  that  all  form  a  thin  and  vratery  blood. 

I  need  scarcely  remark,  that  the  Romans  esteemed  the  Cochlea,  t.  e,  li- 
macon,  or  White  Snail,  as  an  exquisite  delicacy. 

Simeon  Seth's  accouqt  is  entirely  borrowed  nom  Galen. 

The  receipts  of  Apicius  for  dressing  the  Ixxiusta  and  Carabus  contain 
pepper,  cumin,  rue,  mint,  vinegar,  wine,  and  oil. 

It  appears  from  Uie  following  lines  of  Juvenal,  that  British  Oysters  were 
greatly  esteemed  by  the  Roman  gourmands : — 

**  C^Tcma  nata  forent,  an 
Lucrinum  ad  saxnm,  Rutapinove  edita  fdndo 
Ostrea  caUebat,  prime  dqprendere  morsn.'* — Sai,  iv. 

Rochester  is  supposed  to  be  the  ancient  Rutapinum.  Seneca  represents 
tbem  as  wfaetters  and  not  food.  **  Ostrea  non  cibi,  sed  oblectamenta  sunt, 
ad  edendum  saturos  cogentia."  The  Poet  Matron,  as  quoted  by  Athenaeus, 
calls  them  **  the  Truffles  of  the  sea."  Athenseus  says,  that  Oysters  caught  in 
the  sea  adjacent  to  a  lake  or  river  are  the  best.  Xenocrates  remarks,  that  sea 
Oysters  are  small  and  saltish. 


XCII. — ON  THK  MOLLUBCA,  OR  MOLLIA. 

Galen  remarks,  that  the  Mollusca,  or  Mollia,  have  no  scales,  nor  any 
rough  Testaceous  sdcin,  but  a  soft  one  like  that  of  men.  Their  flesh,  he  says, 
is  hard,  indigestible,  and  contains  a  small  proportion  of  saltish  juices;  but, 
if  digested,  it  aflbrds  no  little  nourishment  to  the  body.  The  Sepia,  or  Cut- 
tle-fish, was  anciently,  and  is  at  present,  much  used  in  Rome  as  an  article  of 
food.  Pliny  states,  that  it  is  laxative.  He  adds,  that  it  is  taken  in  food, 
boiled  with  oil,  salt,  and  barley-meal.  Simeon  Seth  says  of  it,  that  it  is  dif- 
ficalt  to  digest,  but  that,  if  digested,  it  aflbrds  considerable  nourishment  to 
the  body,  and  engenders  crude  humours ;  on  which  account,  it  ought  to  be 
taken  with  acrid  condiments,  and  an  old  thin  wine  drunk  afterwards. 
Maesitheus,  as  quoted  by  Athensus,  says,  that  the  flesh  of  the  Mollusca  is 
indigestible  and  aphrodisiacal. 

Apicius  directs  to  dress  them  in  much  the  same  way  as  recommended  by 

Seth,  that  is  to  say,  he  recommends  to  add  to  them  spices,  hot  aromatics, 

^iae,  vinegar,  and  the  like. 


122  COMMJKNTAAT  OV  THX  FIBST  BOOK. 


XCIII.^^ON  THB  CABTILAOIMOUS  FIgHBB. 

For  an  account  of  the  ctKaxt,  or  Cartilaginea,  see  Aristoteles^  H.  A. 
lib.  V. — Plinius,  H,  N,  ix.  40- — Oppianus,  Haiieut,  lib.  i. — ^^lianns,  N.  A. 
xi.  37. 

Galen  says,  that  tiiey  are  called  irtkax'i  ^m  o-cXar  fX'w,  because  their  flesh 
has  a  shining  appearance  at  night.  He  states,  that  they  are  moderately  nu- 
tritious. He  remarks,  that  the  parts  abont  the  tails  of  such  fishes  are  more 
fleshy  than  the  middle. 

According  to  Athenaeuny  the  Cartilaginous  Fishes  in  general  are  flatulent, 
fleshy,  of  difficult  digestion,  and,  if  eaten  in  great  quantity,  blunt  the  sight. — 
Deipnos.  lib.  viii. 

Dr.  Coray  says,  that  the  Frendi  call  the  Punj  Ange  or  Angelot,  the  Baros 
Raie  bouclee  or  Cavellade,  the  Atioparog  Raie  miralet,  the  f^apicrj  Torpille 
or  Raie  torpille,  and  the  Tpuy^v  Pastinaque.  Harduin  gives  them  nearly 
the  same  French  names. 


XCIV.*— ON  THB  CBTACBA. 

Galen  states,  that  the  flesh  of  all  the  Cetacea  in  its  recent  state  is  excre* 
mentitious,  but  when  pickled  becomes  more  attenuate  and  easier  converted 
into  blood.  He  gives  them,  in  short,  the  same  characters  as  our  author  does. 

For  a  full  account  of  the  pickled  fishes  of  the  ancients,  I  refer  to  the  Frag- 
ment of  Xenocrates,  and  the  third  book  of  Atheneeus.  I  shall  give  the  general 
character  of  them  as  delivered  by  the  latter,  upon  the  authority  of  the  Sipb- 
nian  Diphilus.  He  says,  that  the  pickles  prepared  from  sea,  lake,  and  river 
fishes,  aSOford  little  nourishment,  contain  few  juices,  are  of  a  heating  rmtaare^ 
are  good  for  the  belly,  and  whet  the  appetite.  The  old,  he  adds,  are  better 
and  more  acrid.  See  also  Galenus,  de  Alim,  Facult,  iii.  41.—- Hippocrates 
saysy  that  they  are  desiccant,  attenuant,  and  for  the  most  part  laxative.  De 
DuBta, — Diphilus  says,  that  they  are  whetters  and  laxatives;  and  henee 
Galen  directs  to  take  them  at  the  commencement  of  a  meal,  and  partioilarly 
recommends  them  for  old  men.    Rhases  speaks  more  un&vourably  of  them. 

It  may  be  proper  in  this  place  to  give  some  account  of  the  Ist^to,  or  IskiOy 
of  the  ancients.  With  regard  to  the  etymology  of  th^  word,  then,  it  is  de* 
rived  by  Macrobius,  ab  insectione.  They  consisted  of  minced  meat,  either 
flesh  or  fish,  boiled  or  roasted,  and  seasoned  with  pepper,  cnmin,  lovage,  and 
the  like.  Apicius  gives  receipts  for  preparing  several  dishes  of  this  kind, 
from  the  Loligo,  Sepia,  Locusta,  and  Swines  Liver.  The  last-mentioiied 
was  inclosed  in  the  omentum,  or  cowl,  and  must  therefore  have  resembled 
the  dish  now  called  a  Haggis.  Lampridius  says,  that  the  Emperor  Hdio« 
gabalus  was  the  first  who  prepared  Isicia  from  fishes.  Oysters,  Lobsten, 
Squills,  and  the  like.  If  this  statement  be  true,  the  works  of  Apidus,  which 
we  possess,  cannot  be  genuine.  On  the  Isicia^  see  further  Ladovicus  Non- 
nius,  de  Piscium  Em,  c.  xxxviii.  and  Lambecius,  op,  Apk, 


XCV.— ON  THB  FROPBRTIBS  Of  WINB, 

The  opinions  of  the  ancients  on  this  interesting  subject  may  be  best  learned 
by  consulting  Hippocrates,  de  Diatd,  lib.  ii.  22,  et  alibi — Census,  lib.  ii.— 
Plinius,  H,  ff,  lib.  xiv.  and  xxxiii.  22-26 — Dioscorides,  lib.  v.---Giden!», 
de  Sanit,  Tuend,  lib.  v.  5.  and  de^Alim,  Facult,  lib.  iii.— Oribasius,  Med,  Col. 
lib.  V.  and  Euporist.  u  12. — ^Aetius,  lib.  i. — ^Athenaeus,  Deipnos,  lib.  i. — 


OOMMBlfTAET  OM  TBB  rUMT  BOOK*  128 

Macrobiufl)  Saiurnal, — ^Actuarius,  de  DktUy  c.  8 — Simeon  Seth^  de  AUmen- 
/is— Senpioiiy  ib  SimpHciinu^  ifc, — Haly  AblNts,  Tkeor,  v.  30^  and  Pract. 
i.  8 — ^ATioenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  3.  doct.  2 — Rhases,  ad  Mamor,  iii.  5,  and  Con- 
tinent, lib.  xxxvii. — AlsabaraTius,  Theor,  xiii.  2w— Stolraens  gives  an  interest- 
ing collection  of  the  opinions  of  the  Philosophers  and  Poets,  Sermo  xviii. 

For  an  ample  account  of  the  ancient  and  modem  wines,  the  reader  is 
particularly  referred  to  the  late  ingenious  and  classicai  publication  of  Dr. 
Henderson.  See  also  Barry  on  Andeni  FFtnes,  and  Canonherius,  de  Admi- 
randis  Vini  Virtutibui. 

From  the  works  of  Moses  and  Homer,  we  learn,  that  the  art  of  coDverting 
the  innocent  juice  of  the  Gfape  into  wine  must  have  been  a  very  early  in- 
vention. Eostathius  informs  us,  that,  in  very  ancient  times,  the  wines  were 
all  of  a  dark-colour ;  and  hence  Homer  applies  to  the  Sea  the  epithet  of 
wime^oiouredijiufom  worrov).  Comment,  in  Iliad*  I,  However,  in  the  time 
of  Hippocrates,  they  had  wines  of  all  colours,  as  well  as  characters.  He 
ihus  oMcribeB  their  general  properties.  Black  and  austere  wines  are  of  a 
drying  nature,  and  are  not  laxative,  nor  diuretic,  nor  sialogogue.  It  is  their 
hax  that  renders  them  desiccative,  by  consuming  the  humidity  of  the  body. 
The  soft  dark  vrines  are  of  a  more  diluent  nature,  and  are  more  flatulent  and 
laxative.  The  sweet  dark  wines  are  of  a  men  mmstening  nature,  but  they 
are  heating  and  flatulent  by  imparting  humidity.  The  white  austere  wines 
are  heatiiig,  but  are  rather  diuretic  than  laxative.  The  new  are  more  laxa- 
tive than  the  old,  as  being  a  nearer  approach  to  Uie  fresh  juice  of  the  grape, 
and  they  are  nutiitious ;  and  the  fragrant  wines  than  those  of  the  same  age 
whicb  luive  no  bouquet,  because  they  are  better  concocted ;  and  the  thick  than 
the  tkin.  Bot  thin  sweet  wines  are  more  diuretic,  laxative,  and  diluent,  and 
form  weak  blood. 

Celsiis  ranks  the  ^  vinnm  dulce  vel  lene''  among  the  ^  res  boni  succi.'^ 
Sharp  awMtere  wine  he  places  among  the  things  which  are  most  suitable  for 
the  stomach. 

Dioecorides  deUvera  very  judiciously  the  different  characters  of  wines. 
He  concludes  with  leniarking,  that,  although  habitual  intoxication  be  preju- 
dicial to  the  bcahb,  a  moderate  indulgence  in  wine  for  some  days,  especially 
ifter  drinking  water,  is  beneficial,  by  proving  an  alterative  to  the  sjrstem, 
pargiiig  the  secretions,  and  promoting  the  insensible  perspiration. 

From  Pliny's  excellent  detail  of  the  Medicinal  and  Dietetical  properties  of 
Wine,  I  select  the  following  remarks : — ^*  Vino  aluntur  vires,  sanguis  color- 
^ae  hominum.  Vino  modico  nervi  juvantur,  copiosiore  laeduntur,  sic  et 
4)cttli.  SComadius  recreatur;  appetentia  ciborum  invitatur;  tristitia  et  cura 
liebetatur;  urina  et  algor  expellitur;  somnus  conciliatur.  Preterea  vomi- 
tees  siatit.  Vetus  coposiore  aqua  miscetur,  magisque  urinam  expellit; 
Hiims  siti  resistiL  Dulce  minus  inebriat  sed  stomacho  innatat;  austerum 
4etli«is  concoquitur.  Stomacho  minus  utile  est  pingue,  nigrum,  sed  corpoca 
nagis  alit.    Tenue  et  austerum  minus  alit,  magis  stomachum  nutrit." 

The  information  supplied  by  Galen  on  this  subject  is  most  ample,  but  in 
(oo  diffuse  a -shape  to  suit  my  narrow  limits.    Upon  the  whole,  he  states, 
tbin  wines  are  diuretic,  but  supply  little  nounshnient,  whereas  the  thick 
lie  proportionally  nutritious.    He  says,  that  the  Falemian,  especially  the 
sweeter  kind,  is  one  of  the  most  wholesome  wines.    Athensus  gives  an  in- 
teresting account  of  the  Falemian,  upon  the  authority  of  Galen.    He  says, 
it  is  fit  to  be  drank  af^er  it  is  ten  years  old,  and  from  fifteen  to  twenty ;  but 
that,  when  older,  it  occasions  headach  and  affects  the  nerves.    He  describes 
two  kinds  of  it,  the  sweet  and  the  austere.    The  latter,  he  adds,  is  off  a 
yellowish  colour,  that  is  to  say,  a  colour  intermediate  between  the  white  and 
l>lack.    Dr.  Henderson  concludes,  that  the  modem  Madeira  is  a  near  ad- 
pioach  to  the  ancient  Falemian.    Galen  gives  very  minute  directions  for 


124  COMMENT  ART  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK. 

forcing  this  wine,  or  giving  it  premature  age  by  heat.  De  Antid.  lib.  i. 
Athensus  says,  that  wine  digests  the  food,  and,  being  of  a  subtle  nature,  pro- 
motes the  distribution  of  it.  Although  wine  does  not  promote  the  digestion 
of  food  chemically,  it  may  rouse  the  vital  energies  of  the  stomach  to  perform 
its  functional  office. 

According  to  Actuarius,  the  thick  wines  are  most  nourishing  and  form  the 
thickest  blood,  but  are  apt  to  occasion  visceral  obstructfons;  while,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  thin  wines  are  more  stomachic  and  less  nourishing.  The 
sweet  are  the  contrary ;  but  the  white  are  less  hot  than  the  others ;  the  gold- 
coloured  are  more  hot;  and  then  the  red. 

Wine,  says  Simeon  Seth,  is  not  only  nutritious,  but  promotes  in  a  great 
degree  the  distribution  of  the  food  over  the  body,  rousmg,  and  at  the  same 
time  increasing  the  vital  heat,  and  with  it  the  urinary  and  other  secretions. 
It  suits  best,  he  says,  with  persons  of  a  cold  and  dry  temperament ;  and, 
therefore,  it  is  most  proper  for  old  men.  He  adds,  that  the  immoderate  use 
of  wine  dissolves  the  vital  tone,  depresses  the  natural  heat,  and  occasions 
apoplexy,  epilepsy,  and  tumors  of  the  body.  Macrobius  attempts  to  trace  a 
resemblance  between  the  effects  of  habitual  intoxication  and  those  resulting 
from  exposure  to  extreme  cold.  **  Quscunque  nimium  algentibus,  eadem 
contingunt  ebriis.  Fiunt  enim  tremuli,  pallidi,  graves ;  et  saltu  tumultu- 
antis  spiritus  artus  suos  et  membra  quatiuntur.  Idem  corporis  torpor  am- 
bobus,  eadem  linguse  titubatio.  Multis  etiam  morbus  ille  quem  vapaKva-of 
Grsci  vocant  sic  nimio  vino,  ut  multo  algore  contingit.''  Id  like  manner,  ft 
modem  writer,  Andreas  Baccius,  maintains  that  some  wines  are  of  a  cold 
nature. 

Haly  Abbas  gives  nearly  the  same  characters  of  wine  as  Seth.  His  ac- 
count of  all  the  wines,  natural  and  artificial,  used  in  his  time,  is  most  ample. 

Alsaharavius  forbids  to  take  wine  when  the  stomach  is  quite  empty,  or 
after  a  full  meal.  When  taken  seasonably,  he  says,  it  improves  the  appetite, 
increases  the  vital  heat,  nourishes  the  body,  and  clears  the  senses. 

Avicenna,  with  his  usual  judgment  and  industry,  collects  all  the  infinma- 
tion  of  preceding  authors,  to  which  he  adds  his  own  opinions.  He  remarks, 
that  the  immoderate  use  of  wine  induces  disease  of  the  liver  and  brain,  ana 
debilitates  the  nerves. 

Wine,  says  Rhases,  warms  the  stomach  and  liver,  and  dispels  flatulence, 
promotes  digestion,  provokes  the  urinary  and  alvine  discharges,  and  glad- 
dens the  mind. 

Serapion  copies  mostly  from  Galen  in  delivering  the  general  characters  of 
wine.  He  disapproves  of  wine  made  with  salt  water.  For  an  account  of 
it,  see  Pliny  and  Athenseus,  u.  s. 

The  ancients  were  scarcely  more  agreed  respecting  the  intoxicating  pro- 
perties of  Wine  than  they  were  as  to  the  powers  of  the  Cabbage  in  counter- 
acting them.  Old  Cato  the  Censor,  who  was  in  the  practice  ''  of  warming 
his  virtue  with  wine,''  describes  the  following  method  of  cooling  it : — ^  Si 
voles  in  convivio  multum  bibere  csnareque,  ante  ceenam  esto  crudam  brassi- 
cam  quantum  voles  ex  aceto,  et  item  ubi  csmaveris  comesto  aliqua  V  folia, 
reddent  te  quasi  nihil  ederis,  biberisque,  bibesque  quantum  voles.''  De 
R.  R,  c.  156.— See  a  long  dissertation  on  this  property  of  the  Cabbi^e  in 
Athensus,  Deipnos,  lib.  i.  ap,  finem  ;  also  Plinius,  if.  'N,  xx.  34. — Pseudo 
Dioscorides,  Euporist,  i.  24. — Nonnus,  c.  14. — Simeon  Seth,  in  voce  BragsicUy 
Geopon,  xii.  17.  Avicenna,  Rhases,  and  Serapion,  give  the  same  character 
of  it.  Traces  of  this  opinion  may  be  found  in  the  works  of  Amaldus  Villa- 
novanus,  Canonherius,  Baptista  Porta,  Culpepper,  and  other  modem 
writers.  I  have  been  told,  that  the  more  intelligent  votaries  of  Bacd^us  at 
the  present  day  sometimes  have  recourse  to  this  simple  method  of  pacifying 


COMMBNTART  ON  TBS  FIRST   BOOK.  125 

his  DiTinity  I — Plutarch  afiBrms,  that  Almonds  also  are  a  presenrative  from 
intoxication.    Quast.  wi. 

Before  quitting  this  subject,  I  must  notice  certain  peculiar  modes  of  pre- 
paring Wine.  The  Mustum  was  Wine  newly  made,  or  the  fresh  juice  of  the 
grape.  The  Protropum  was  the  juice  which  runs  from  grapes  without 
pressing.  The  Mulntm  was  a  preparation  of  Wine  and  Honey.  Dioico- 
rides  recommends  two  parts  of  Wine  to  one  of  Honey ;  but  there  does  not 
appear  to  haye  been  any  fixed  proportion.  The  Sapa,  called  by  the  Greeks 
Mq^sema  and  Siraum^  according  to  Pliny  is  Must,  boiled  to  a  third ;  and  the 
DefnUum  the  same  reduced  to  a  half.  They  are  now  called  Robs.  Tha 
Carenum,  according  to  Isidorus,  is  Must  reduced  to  two-thirds.  The  Possum 
was  a  sweet  Wine  prepared  from  grapes  which  had  been  much  dried  in  the 
son.  The  Possum  Creticum,  which  is  much  praised  by  Pliny  and  Atheneus, 
and  is  often  mentioned  by  our  author,  the  learned  Andreas  Baccius  and 
Nonnius  beliere  to  have  much  resembled  the  modem  Malmsey.  The 
ancients  prepared  a  peculiar  species  of  Wine  with  salt  water. — See  Plinius, 
jff.  N.  Ub.  xlv. 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  for  me  to  remark,  that  the  ancients  generally  drank 
their  Wines  duuted  either  with  hot  or  cold  water.  Hence  the  poet  Juvenal 
says : — **  Quando  ^ocatus  adest  calida  gelidaeque  minister.*'  According  to 
Puny,  Staphylus  first  introduced  this  practice,  K.  N,  viii.  56;  but  Atheneus 
refers  it  to  Melampus,  lib.  ii.  It  would  appear,  however,  from  some  pas- 
sages in  the  Ecctesiazusa  of  Aristophanes,  and  from  Eustathius's  Com- 
mentary on  Homer,  Iliad,  ix.  203,  that  the  ancients  often  drank  their  wines 
undiluted. 


XCVI. ON  HONBT,  AND  MEAD,  OR  HONIBD  WATBR. 

HoKET,  says  Hippocrates,  when  eaten  with  other  food,  is  nutritious,  and 
improves  the  colour ;  but,  when  taken  alone,  it  rather  attenuates  than  recruits. 
Actuarius  says,  that  scummed  honey,  when  taken  with  other  food,  is  nutri- 
tious and  laxative.  Democritus  said,  that  health  viras  best  promoted  by  lu- 
bricating the  inside  with  honey,  and  the  outside  with  oil.  Honey  and  bread 
formed  the  fa?ourite  food  of  the  Pythagoreans.  Athensus,  Deipnos,  ii.  7. — 
See  also  Oribasius,  Stfnops,  iv.  38 — Haly  Abbas,  v.  27---Simeon  Seth,  in 
voce  Mel. 

Galen  gives  the  following  account  of  the  phenomenon  of  a  Honey^shower : — 
"  I  have  sometimes  known  in  the  season  of  Summer  a  great  quantity  of 
honey  to  be  found  upon  the  leaves  of  trees,  shrubs,  and  certain  herbs,  so  that 
the  country  people  said,  jesting,  *  Jupiter  has  rained  Honey.'  A  cold  night, 
as  for  Summer,  had  preceded  (for  it  happened  in  Summer) ;  but  the  tem- 
perature of  the  former  day  had  been  hot  and  dry.  It  was  thought,  there- 
lore,  by  those  who  were  skilled  in  Nature,  that  an  exhalation  from  the  earth 
a&d  waters,  finely  attenuated  and  concocted  by  the  heat  of  the  sun,  had  been 
condensed  and  collected  by  the  cold  of  the  succeeding  night.  This  phe- 
nomenon occurs  rarely  with  us ;  but  it  takes  place  frequently  in  Mount 
Lebanon  every  Summer.''  De  Alim.  Faadt. — See  also  Fragmentum  Theo- 
phrasti  de  Melle  ed.  Heinsius.  Emestus  Faber  states,  that  die  Honey  here 
described  is  the  Manna  of  Cedars.     De  Manna  Ebraorum,  c.  12. 

Our  author  has  given  one  method  of  preparing  the  Hydromel,  or  Honied 
Water.  Different  modes  are  described  by  other  authors.  Thus,  Mesne  re- 
commends to  use  seven  parts  of  water  to  one  of  honey.  It  appears  from 
Hippocrates,  however,  that  it  was  taken  more  or  less  diluted.  Pliny  and 
Bioscorides  make  mention  of  Hydromel  prepared  by  mixing  two  parts  of 

water  with  one  of  honey.    This  seems  to  have  been  the  strongest  Hydro- 


126  COMMENTAET  ON  THE  FIEST  BOOK. 

mel.  A  species  of  Hydromel  carefully  prepared,  and  kept  ibr  a  considerable 
time,  was  esteemed  a  delicious  beverage.  Ludovicus  Nonnius  compares  it 
to  the  Mead  used  by  certain  nations  of  the  North.  They  prepare  it  with 
hops  and  yeast,  so  tliat  it  it  made  to  emulate  the  nature  of  wine. 


XOVIL— ON  SLEEP. 

The  philosophy  of  sleep  is  ingeniously  treated  of  by  Hippocrates,  de  In- 
iornniUy  and  by  Aristotle  in  his  treatise  de  Somno  et  Vtgilia,  Aristotle 
states,  that  digestion  goes  on  best  during  sleep.  Plinjr's  definition  of  sleep 
seems  to  be  taken  from  Hippocrates : — **  Est  autem  Somnus  nihil  aliod  quam 
animi  in  medium  sese  recessus.'*  H.N.  x.  97.  Alexander  Aphrodissus^  in 
like  manner,  says : — '*  Know,  that  during  the  day,  the  natural  principle  is 
less  occupied  with  its  own  peculiar  operations,  I  mean  the  digestion  of  the 
food,  the  changes  of  the  chyle,  sanguification,  distribution,  assimilation,  and 
the  like,  the  mind  being  engaged  in  its  other  energies,  namely,  the  five 
senses,  phantasy,  reasoning,  and  memory ;  but,  during  nisht,  on  the  other 
lumd.  Nature  operates  more,  and  the  mind  less.'' — FrohUm  'u  1 18. — See 
also  particularly  Oribasius,  Med.  Collect,  ▼i.4. — Actuarius,  de  Diata  c.  11.-^ 
Aficenna,  lib.  i.  fen.  3.  doct.  3/— Rhases,  ad  Mansor.  iv.  3.^— Haly  Abbas, 
Tkeor.  T.  35. — Alsaharavius,  Theor.  xi.  3. — Averrhoes,  CoUect.  §-  i.  21.— 
Aferrhoes  defines  sleep  to  be  the  recession  of  the  sensorial  powers  from  their 
organs  to  the  internal  parts;  and  hence,  he  remarks,  those  who  sleep  with 
their  eyes  open  do  not  perceive  the  objects  nearest  to  them.  The  vital  heat 
being  then  collected  internally,  he  adds,  the  powers  of  the  digestive  faculty 
are  increased.  Rhases  agrees  with  Galen,  that  moderate  sleep  forms  good 
blood ;  but  that  too  much  corrupts  the  juices,  that  is  to  say,  impairs  diges- 
tion. Haly  Abbas  remarks,  that,  during  sleep,  the  animal  powers  are  sus- 
pended, while  the  vital  and  natural  continue  unaflfected ;  and,  therefore^  ihe 
mind  or  principle  of  life  being  then  disengaged,  as  it  were,  from  one  of  its 
offices,  is  the  abler  to  perform  the  others  aright.  Hence,  he  adds,  digastion 
ia  best  performed  during  sleep.  Alsaharavius  approves  of  taking  rest  after 
a  meal,  but  recommends  to  allow  an  hour  to  elapse  before  going  to  sleep. 

Although  foreign  from  my  purpose  to  indulge  in  frequent  quotations  from 
authors  not  strictly  medical,  it  may  not  be  thought  much  out  of  place  hoe 
to  set  down  the  following  encomiums  on  sleep  by  three  of  the  greatest  poets 
of  antiquity:—- 

**  'Ym^  olfvpat  iiarfS,  *Ynvi  ^  Sky^mfy 

EvaM»v,  hfoiuitv  Svet^f 
Of/LiuMtrt  l!^carrl(rxois  rM  d^Xvr,  a  rerartu  rav^." — Sophocles,  Philoc, 

**  Q  (f>iKov  viTPov  BfKyrjrpop,  eirucovpov  votroVy 
'Qg  ^du  fioi  irpoarjkoes  iv  htovri  ye. 
Q  frorvla  \rj0rf  rav  kok&v,  ms  ci  (ro^y 
Km  ToifTi  bvarruxoKriv  ivicrala  ^eor.**— -Euripides,  Orestes. 

**  Somne  quies  remm,  placidissime  Somne  Deorum, 

Fax  animi,  quern  cura  rogit ;  qui  corda  ditumis 

Fessa  ministeriis  mtdces,  repaivsqae  labori." — Onn.  Metam,  xi. 

The  reader  will  find  in  StentzeVs  little  treatise,  entitled  AurrpiPrf  wept  rov 
trrvovy  an  interesting  exposition  of  the  opinions  of  the  ancient  philosophers 
and  physicians  on  this  subject. 


COMMENTARY  ON  THE  FIRST  BOOK.  127 


XCVIII.— ON  WATCHrULNB88. 

We  have  mentioned  in  the  74th  chapter,  that  Galen  cured  himself  of  watch- 
fulness by  eating  freely  of  Lettuces.  See  further  Oribasius,  Med.  Colled, 
lib.  vi. — ^Averrhoes,  Collectan,  ii.  5. — Alsaharavius,  Theor,  xi.  3. — Rhases, 
Continens.  lib.  xxxi. 

Rhases  recommends  lettuces,  the  tepid  bath,  the  effusion  of  tepid  water 
on  the  heady  and  diluted  wine.  He  also  recommends  mandragora  and  opium, 
which,  he  says,  Galen  states  will  produce  soporific  effects,  not  only  when 
taken  internally,  but  when  rubbed  on  the  forehead,  and  applied  to  the  nos- 
trib.  He  particularly  approves  of  the  following  Liniment :  Pound  the  bark 
of  mandragora,  the  seed  of  black  henbane,  and  opium,  with  the  juice  of  let- 
tuce, and  rub  into  the  temples. 


XCIX. ON  CATAPHORA,  OR  80MN0LBNCT. 

See  the  Commentary  on    the  Chapters   on  Lethargy   and    Cams   in 
Book.  III. 


C. THE  EPISTLE  07  DI0CLE8  TO  KING  ANTIG0NU8. 

This  Diocles  was  an  ancient  physician  of  great  eminence.  Galen  often 
mentions  him  along  with  his  idol,  Hippocrates,  as  the  greatest  of  medical 
authorities.  Cselius  Aurelianus  frequently  quotes  his  opinions  in  respectful 
tenns,  although  belonging  to  a  different  sect  from  his  own.  Pliny  says,  that 
he  was  next  to  Hippocrates  in  fame  as  in  time.  Octavius  Horatianus  calls 
bim  the  Younger  Hippocrates.  Athensus  mentions  a  work  of  his  on  Poisons, 
and  another  on  Cookery. 

Le  Clerc  questions  the  authenticity  of  this  Epistle,  but  seems  to  have  had 
DO  other  grounds  for  his  scepticism  Uian  the  general  suspicion  which  attaches 
to  all  the  Epistols  Gnecanics.  It  is  published  in  the  Biblioth^ca  Graca 
of  Albertus  Fabricius,  who  appears  to  have  been  satisfied  of  its  genuineness. 
Mr.  Moir,  the  author  of  Outlines  of  the  Ancient  History  of  M^icine,  con- 
demns it  as  Apocryphal,  upon  the  authority  of  Schulze,  p.  76. 


HEADS  OF  THE  SECOND  BOOK. 


In  this  Book,  which  is  the  Second  of  the  whole  Work,  the  subject 
of  Fevers  is  treated  of. — First,  Of  those  things  which  relate  to  the 
Bymptoms  and  general  core  of  Fevers ;  neat,  Concerning  the  origin 
and  treatment  of  each  particular  Fever ;  and,  third.  Concerning  the 
complaints  which  usually  follow  Fevers. 


1.  Preface  to  the  Book  on  Fevers. 

2.  Of  the  principal  considerations  to  be  inquired  into  with  regard  to 

Fevers. 

3.  From  Galen,  what  to  call  the  commencement  of  the  Disease. 

4.  How  to  know  whether  the  Disease  will  be  fatal  or  not. 

^'  How  to  know  whether  the  Disease  will  be  of  short  or  of  long  duration. 

6.  How  to  know  if  the  Disease  will  terminate  by  a  crisis  or  by  resolution. 

7.  On  Critical  Days. 

8. '  That  the  Critical  Symptoms  appearing  in  the  commencement  are  unfa- 
vourable. 

9>  How  to  judge  beforehand  of  a  future  crisis. 

10.  How  to  recognise  a  present  crisis. 

H*  How  to  know  whether  a  past  crisis  be  favourable. 

^2.  On  Pulses. 

13.  On  the  Alvine  Evacuations. 

14.  On  the  Indications  from  the  Urine. 

15.  On  the  Indications  from  the  Sputa. 

16.  Diagnosis  and  Cure  of  Ephemeral  FeYen. 

17.  Diagnosis  of  Putrid  Fevers. 

18.  Treatment  of  Putrid  Fevers. 

19.  On  the  Diagnosis  of  Tertians. 

20.  The  Cure  of  Tertians. 

21.  Cure  of  Spurious  Tertians. 

22.  Diagnosis  of  Quartans. 

23.  Cure  of  Quartans. 

24.  Diagnosis  of  the  Quotidian  Intermittent. 

25.  Cure  of  the  Quotidian. 

26.  On  the  Fever  Hepialus,  and  Rigor  without  heat. 

27.  On  Continual  Fevers. 


130 

28.  Cure  of  Synochous  Fevers. 

29.  Diagnosis  of  Ardent  Fevers. 

30.  Cure  of  Ardent  Fevers. 

31.  On  the  Diagnosis  and  Cure  of  Fever  connected  with  an  Erysipelatous 

affection. 

32.  Diagnosis  of  Hectic  Fevers. 

33.  Cure  of  Hectic  Fevers. 

34.  On  Semi-tertians. 

35.  On  Epidemic  Diseases. 

36.  On  the  Plague,  from  the  Writings  of  Ruffus. 

37.  On  those  that  are  seized  vrith  Syncope    from  a  collection   of  crude 

humours. 

38.  On  those  that  are  seized  with  Syncope  from  thin  humours. 

39.  Concerning  the  other  causes  of  Syncope. 

40.  On  Pain. 

41 .  On  Melting  or  Colliquative  Diarrhoea 

42.  On  Watchfulness  in  Fevers. 

43.  Cure  of  Somnolency. 

44 .  Cure  of  Headach  in  Fevers. 

45.  On  the  care  of  those  things  which  relate  to  the  Stomach. 

46.  On  Inordinate  Cold  and  Rigors  in  Fevers. 

47.  On  Sweatings. 

48.  On  Cough  in  Fevers. 

49.  On  Sneezing. 

50.  On  Loss  of  Appetite. 

51.  On  Inordinate  Appetite. 

52.  On  Canine  desire  of  Food. 

53.  On  Thirst. 

54.  On  Roughness  of  the  Tongue. 

55.  On  Nausea. 

56.  On  Vomiting  of  Bile. 

57.  On  Singultus,  or  Hiccough. 

58.  On  Looseness  and  Constipation  of  the  Bowels  in  Fevers. 

59.  On  Bleedings  at  the  Nose. 

60.  On  Fainting,  or  deliquium  animi  in  Fevers. 

61.  Cure  of  Ulceration  over  the  Os  Sacrum. 


PAULUS     iEGINETA. 


BOOK   SECOND. 


I.— 0»  Fevers  J  from  tite  Works  of  Galen  and  several  others. 

After  having  treated  of  those  things  which  relate  to  the  preserva- 
tion of  health,  we  now  come  to  the  treatment  of  persons  already  in 
disease,  beginning  with  homogeneous  disorders  as  being  the  most  sim- 
ple. These  are  what  are  called  fevers.  Wherefore,  using  principally 
Oribasius'  Epitome  from  the  works  of  Galen  and  several  others  on 
this  subject,  we  shall  add  a  few  things  omitted  by  them. 

II. — Of  the  principal  Considerations  to  be  inquired  into  with 

regard  to  Fevers, 

The  first  thing  to  be  considered  is,  whether  the  disease  will 
prove  fatal  or  not ;  then,  if  it  is  not  to  prove  fatal,  whether  it  will 
be  acute  or  chronic  (these  considerations  apply  to  other  great  dis- 
orders) ;  and,  third,  whether  it  will  come  to  a  sudden  crisis  (which 
is  peculiar  to  fevers),  or  be  resolved  locally. 

III. — From  Cralenj  what  to  call  the  Commencement  of  the 

Disease, 

As  headach  is  not  the  same  complaint  as  fever,  so  neither  are 
iQsoninolency,  loss  of  appetite,  heaviness  of  the  whole  body,  and  a 
^se  of  lassitude  ;  and  yet  each  of  these  symptoms,  although  differ- 
ent from  fever,  announces  its  approach.  A  fever  setting  in,  and 
^ore  especially  in  an  acute  manner,  cannot  escape  our  notice,  nor 
e^en  that  of  a  person  unacquainted  with  these  matters.  Or,  if  we 
should  suppose  that  it  might  escape  us,  I  should  wonder  if  the 

k2 


132  PAULUS    ^GINETA. 

patient  himself  could  be  ignorant  of  it  for  more  than  an  hour. 
Wherefore  I  call  that  time  the  commencement  of  the  disorder, 
•when  those  beginning  clearly  to  be  affected  with  the  fever  first  be- 
take themselves  to  bed. 


IV. — How  to  know  whether  the  Disease  mil  prove  fatal  ornot. 

These  are  fatal  symptoms  :  a  deathlike  countenance,  sharp  nose, 
hollow  eyes,  and  the  other  symptoms  described  by  Hippocrates, 
when  they  do  not  proceed  from  watchfulness,  or  evacuation,  or  want 
of  food  ;  also,  intolerance  of  the  light,  shedding  tears  from  no  exter- 
nal cause,  and  the  eyes  not  retaining  their  proper  expression,  the 
one  eye  appearing  less  than  the  other,  or  the  white  of  the  eyes  be- 
coming red,  or  livid,  or  black,  or  turning  muddy ;  and  the  white  of 
the  eyes  appearing  during  sleep,  the  eye -lids  not  being  closed,  un- 
less this  symptom  proceed  from  a  great  evacuation,  or  from  habit. 
Likewise  grinding  the  teeth,  a  state  of  delirium,  picking  at  flocks  of 
wool,  or  bits  of  chafl^,  are  not  favourable.  Attention  should  also  be 
paid  to  the  patient's  mode  of  lying.  To  lie  supine,  as  it  were,  in  a  re- 
laxed state,  and  to  sink  downwards  in  bed,  indicate  the  extremity  of 
weakness.  It  is  still  worse  to  have  a  cold  respiration  at  the  mouth 
and  nostrils;  and  a  pulse  obscure, dense,  and  intermitting,  and  profuse 
sweatings  with  syncope  are  most  mortal  symptoms.  If  all  these 
symptoms  or  even  more  appear,  or  if  they  be  fewer  in  number  but 
strong,  and  if  they  be  without  any  favourable  ones,  death  is  inevit- 
able. Tlie  breathing  free,  pulse  natural,  soundness  of  intellect,  being 
disposed  to  take  whatever  food  is  administered,  the  appearance  of 
countenance  and  mode  of  reclining  like  those  of  persons  in  health, — 
all  these  symptoms  are  favourable  and  prognosticate  recovery.  In 
short,  whatever  symptom  is  contrary  to  the  natural  state  indicates 
an  unfavourable,  whereas  what  is  corresponding  indicates  a  favour- 
able termination.  Concerning  the  prognosis  from  the  urine,  alvine 
discharges,  and  sputa,  we  will  speak  soon. 


V. — How  to  know  if  the  Disease  will  be  of  long  duration. 

The  duration  of  the  disease  may  be  ascertained  from  four  things — 
from  the  movement  of  the  disease  itself,  from  the  habit  of  the  pa- 
tient, from  the  pulse,  and  from  the  species  of  the  fever.  From  the 
movement  of  the  disease  thus :  if  the  four  periods  of  a  particular 
paroxysm  have  passed  over  quickly  and  in  the  least  possible  time, 
the  disease  will  be  an  acute  one,  the  furthest  bound  of  which  will 
be  the  seventh  day,  and  generally  will  come  to  a  crisis  on  the 
fourth.  If  the  periods  of  the  first  paroxysm  occupy  more  time  but 
do  not  exceed  twelve  hours,  the  disease  will  still  be  an  acute  one, 
which  will  terminate  within  the  fourteenth  day.  If  it  extend 
longer,  so  that  the  commencement  and  augmentation  of  the  pa- 
roxysm alone  occupy  a  longer  period  than  a  day  or  a  night,  such  a 


BOOK  SECOND.  183 

disease  will  prove  a  long  one.  If  the  disease  have  no  particular 
paroxysms,  but  consist  of  one  continued  paroxysm  from  beginning 
to  end,  as  in  synochous  fevers,  even  in  this  case  you  may  call  the 
disease  an  acute  one.  It  may  be  judged  of  from  the  habit  of  the 
patient :  thus,  if  the  face  and  the  rest  of  the  body  are  already  con- 
siderably reduced,  an  acute  disease  is  indicated ;  but  if  wholly  unre- 
duced, a  chronic  one ;  for  a  great  collection  of  offending  matter  is  indi** 
cated,  which  will  require  a  length  of  time  for  its  concoction.  It  may 
be  judged  of  from  the  pulse :  thus,  a  great,  strong,  quick,  and  dense 
pulse,  indicates  an  acute  disease,  but  the  contrary  a  chronic.  From 
the  species  of  the  fever,  inasmuch  as  hot  and  ardent  fevers  indicate 
an  acute,  whereas  gentler,  and,  as  it  were,  smothered  fevers  indicate 
a  chronic  one. 


VI. — How  to  know  if  the  Disease  tvill  terminate  by  a  Crisis j  or 

by  Resolution. 

This  may  be  ascertained  from  what  has  been  already  said,  namely, 
the  species  of  the  fever  and  its  duration,  and  perhaps  from  the 
species  of  the  fever  alone.  For  hot  and  ardent  fevers  are  of  short 
duration,  and  have  usually  some  cntical  evacuation  ;  whereas  the 
gentler  prove  more  chronic  and  terminate  for  the  most  part  by  ab- 
scess. From  what  has  been  said,  it  appears  that  we  may  prognosti- 
cate not  only  when  the  disease  will  come  to  a  crisis,  but  also  how  it 
will  terminate ;  for  acute  diseases  generally  terminate  by  evacuation, 
and  the  chronic  by  abscess. 


VII. — On  Critical  Days, 

Op  the  critical  days  some  terminate  the  disease  frequently, 
faithfully,  well,  completely,  clearly,  obviously,  and  others  con- 
tnoywise.  But  the  13th  is  known  to  possess  an  intermediate 
character.  Some  of  these  are  such  as  to  prove  critical  if  they  ex- 
perience even  the  most  moderate  impetus  of  nature,  such  as  the  7th 
and  14th ;  whilst  most  of  them  prove  critical  in  violent  commotions 
of  the  system  but  not  otherwise.  Neither  are  the  favourable  all 
equally  favourable,  nor  the  unfavourable  all  equally  unfavourable  ; 
nor  is  their  favourableness  and  unfavourableness  according  to  any 
order.  Those  in  the  first  rank  of  favourable  days  may  be  arranged 
tbus :  the  best  of  all  are  the  7th  and  14th,  next  to  them  the  9th, 
and  nth,  and  20th ;  and  near  to  them  the  17th  and  5th,  after  these 
the  4th,  after  it  the  3d  and  18th. — Opposed  to  them,  of  the  second 
rank  are  these.  The  worst,  which  proves  obscurely  critical  with 
(langer,  and  is  as  it  were  diametrically  opposed  to  the  7th  is  the  6th. 
Near  to  it  are  the  8th  and  10th,  after  these  the  12th,  16th,  and 
19th.  Intermediate  between  these  is  the  13th,  being  neither  so 
ol^ectionable  as  those  of  the  second  rank,  nor  so  favourably  critical 
as  those  of  the  first.     The  critical  days  then  are  thus  arranged 


134  PAULUS  iEGlNATA. 

according  to  their  degree  by  Galen.  Numerically  thus  :  the  favour- 
able are  the  dd,  4th,  5th,  7th,  9th,  11th,  14th,  17th,  18th,  20th; 
the  unfavourable,  the  6th,  8th,  10th,  12th,  16th,  19th;  the  inter- 
mediate, the  13th.  Some  of  the  critical  days  give  information  con- 
cerning the  others,  and  are  hence  called  Indicatory  by  Hippocrates, 
because  they  indicate  the  crisis  that  is  to  happen  on  another  critical 
day.  Thus  the  4th  indicates  a  crisis  on  the  7th,  by  inducing  sweats, 
perspirations,  or  some  such  particular  evacuation,  or  by  displaying 
certain  signs  which  had  not  formerly  taken  place,  or  some  symptoms 
of  concoction.  Galen  says,  that  the  4th  is  indicatory  of  the  6th,  al- 
though it  be  unfavourable,  as  the  1 1th  is  of  the  14th,  and  the  17  th  of 
the  20th.  Until  the  14th  day  the  crises  are  the  most  decided,  next  to 
these  until  the  20th, — from  the  20th  to  the  40th  they  gradually  lose 
their  decided  character.  Of  these,  the  first  in  degree  are  the  27  th,  34th, 
and  40th,  after  which  are  the  24th  and  3 2d.  The  other  numbers 
intermediate  between  the  20th  and  40th  are  indeterminate,  and  those 
after  the  40th  are  not  properly  critical,  as  they  terminate  diseases 
by  concoctions  and  abscesses  rather  than  by  crises.  Hippocrates 
seems  entirely  to  disregard  all  those  after  the  40th  day,  yet  he 
enumerates  the  60th,  80th,  and  100th.  After  these,  he  says  that 
some  diseases  prove  critical  in  seven  months,  some  in  seven  years, 
and  others  as  it  would  appear  in  twice  or  thrice  seven  years. 


VIII. — That  Critical  Symptoms  appearing  in  the  commence- 

ment  are  unfavourable, 

Thb  signs  of  concoction  are  never  unfavourable,  for  concoction 
always  takes  place  when  nature  prevails,  and  therefore  the  signs  of 
it  are  always  favourable.  But  the  critical  signs  may  sometimes  ap- 
pear unfavourably,  owing  to  the  crisis  partying  of  a  double  cha- 
racter (as  was  said  with  regard  to  the  critical  days),  being  sometimes 
favourable  and  sometimes  unfavourable.  They  ought  not  therefore 
to  appear  at  the  commencement,  nor  during  the  increase  of  the  dis- 
ease, but  after  its  acm^,  at  which  time  nature  is  prevailing  over  the 
disease. 


IX. — How  to  judge  beforehand  of  a  future  Crisis. 

If  the  paroxysms  increase  in  violence,  and  occur  earlier  and 
become  much  stronger;  if  they  invade  on  the  third  day;  and 
if  symptoms  of  concoction  appear  in  the  urine,  alvine  discharges, 
and  sputa ;  the  disease  will  certainly  soon  come  to  a  crisis.  If  the 
attack  is  slow,  and  if  the  paroxysms  occur  at  the  same  hour  every 
day,  you  may  expect  that  the  crisis  will  not  take  place  till  after  ft 
longer  time.  And  those  fevers  which  make  their  attack  with, 
rigors  cannot  terminate  until  the  rigor  abate ;  for  until  that  oc- 
cur it  is  impossible  for  the  disease  to  have  attained  its  acm^,  and 
therefore  much  less  is  it  reasonable  to  expect  that  it  is  upon  the 
decline. 


BOOK    SACOND.  135 

X. — How  to  recognise  a  present  Crisis, 

Rs8TLB88NB8s  precedes  every  crisis,  and  if  the  crisis  be  to  take 
place  by  day,  it  will  occar  by  night,  or  if  the  crisis  be  to  take  place 
daring  the  night,  it  will  occur  by  day.     Then  certain  symptoms  sa- 
pervene,  such  as   headach  not  previously  occurring,   sympathetic 
pain  of  the  neck,  retraction  of  the  hypochondrium,  sudden  difficulty 
of  breathing,  and  other  dangerous  symptoms  which  did  not  mani- 
fest themselves  before.    And  if,  when  these  occur,  the  pulse  instead 
of  sinking  is  increased  in  magnitude  and  becomes  stronger,  and  the 
critical  day  approaches,  and  if  it  be  one  of  the  favourable,  you  may 
not  only  anticipate  a  crisis  but  also  a  good  one.     And  be  not  then 
alarmed  if  you  see  the  patient  become  delirious  and  disturbed,  for 
these  are  indications  of  the  humours  being  carried  upwards ;  in  like 
manner  as  certain  other  symptoms  indicate  their  being  determined 
downwards,  such  as  pain  in  the  bottom  of  the  belly,  gripes  about  the 
navel,  pain  in  the  loins,  borborygmi,  and  other  similar  symptoms. 
In  addition  to  these,  if  the  patient  was  accustomed  to  have  a  hae- 
morrhoidal  discharge,  and  if  the  period  of  it  be  at  hand,  and  in  like 
manner  with  respect  to  the  menstrual  discharge  (if  the  patient  be  a 
woman)  it  is  not  unlikely  that  the  crisis  may  take  place  by  such  an 
evacuation. — And  a  critical  sweat  is  recognised  by  a  precursory 
moistness  of  the  skin  (especially  if  occurring  upon  one  of  the  days 
called  indicatory),  and  by  openness  of  the  pores.    From  these  you 
may  recognise  crises  by  evacuations  upwards.     For,  in  addition  to 
the  aforesaid,  you  ought  to  examine  the  face  of  the  patients,  and 
whether  there  be  palpitation  in  any  part,  or  throbbing  of  the  tem- 
poral arteries ;  or  if  the  cheek,  nose,  or  eye  be  redder  than  usual, 
you  ought  the  rather  to  anticipate  the  coming  crisis ;  but  if  they  shed 
tears  involuntarily,  or  fancy  that  they  see  sparks  of  light,  and  con- 
stantly carry  their  hands  to  their  nose  as  if  to  rub  it,  then  indeed 
you  may  see  not  only  an  approaching  but  a  present  flow  of  blood .-^ 
Por  when  they  rub  it  once  or  twice  the  ^blood  straightway  breaks 
forth.    Pungent  pain  at  the  stomach,  and  trembling  of  the  under-lip 
often  indicate  a  crisis  by  vomiting.     These  considerations  are  suf- 
ficient, but  to  them  may  be  joined  the  age  and  constitution  of  the  pa- 
tient, as  strengthening  the  anticipation ;  to  which  may  be  a(fded,  the 
season  of  the  year  and  the  present  constitution.     For  if  the  patient 
1)6  a  child,  or  otherwise  by  nature  warm  and  full  of  blood,  you  may 
still  more  form  this  anticipation ;  or  if  formerly  when  in  health  or 
disease,  as  we  remarked  before,  an  evacuation  of  blood  appeared,  this 
circumstance  alone  may  be  sufficient  to  make  you  expect  an  he- 
morrhagy.  And  if  the  season  of  the  year  be  summer,  or,  if  not  sum- 
mer, if  the  present  state  of  the  weather  be  hot,  and  if  the  patient 
had  often  experienced  a  crisis  at  that  season  by  hemorrhage,  if  the 
body  be  plethoric,  if  there  is  retention  of  the  customary  evacuations, 
all  these  things  ought  to  strengthen  your  expectations.    In  like  man- 
ner you  ought  to  judge  of  the  other  evacuations.    Or,  if  none  of  these 
sirmptoms  should  appear,  but  if  there  be  uneasiness  occurring  on  one  of 


136  PAULUS  iSGINSTA. 

the  critical  days  after  the  20th ;  or  if,  when  the  disease  is  at  its  acm^, 
pains  should  seize  certain  joints,  or  near  the  ears,  or  in  other  parts ; 
or  if  not  pains,  but  local  sweats  should  occur  unceasingly  in  any 
part  of  the  body;  then  indeed  you  may  expect  a  crisis  to  take  place  by 
abscess,  and  in  that  part  where  the  sweats,  pains,  or  swelling  oc- 
curred. 


XI. — How  to  determine  whether  a  past  Crisis  be  favovrable. 

If  a  proper  evacuation  takes  place  after  the  concoction,  and  the 
fever  is  resolved  by  the  critical  evacuations  ;  if  the  patient  is  freed 
from  all  other  symptoms ;  if  his  colour  has  improved  in  proportion 
to  the  evacuation ;  if  his  pulse  has  become  more  regular,  and  his 
strength  better ;  and,  what  is  the  most  salutary  symptom  of  all,  if 
these  are  accompanied  by  repose  of  the  constitution,  this  may  be 
pronounced  to  be  the  best  possible  crisis.  If  any  of  these  be  want- 
ing, the  goodness  of  the  crisis  will  diminish  proportionally. 


XII. — On  the  Pulse^  from  the  Works  of  Galen, 

The  pulse  is  a  motion  of  the  heart  and  arteries,  accomplished  by 
a  diastole  and  systole.  Its  use  is  two-fold ;  for,  by  the  diastole, 
which  is,  as  it  were,  a  distension  and  expansion  of  the  artery,  the 
cold  air  enters,  ventilating  and  resuscitating  the  vital  power,  and 
hence  the  formation  of  the  vital  spirits  ;  and  by  the  systole,  which 
is,  as  it  were,  a  falling  down  and  contraction  of  the  circumference 
of  the  artery  towards  the  centre,  an  evacuation  of  the  fnliginoua 
superfluities  is  produced.  The  arteries  themselves  are  oblong  hol-» 
low  vessels  like  the  veins,  but  consist  of  two  coats,  in  order  to  fit 
them  for  the  afore-mentioned  motion,  and  because  they  have  to 
contain  blood  and  spirits.  They  arise  from  the  heart,  and  are 
distributed  to  all  parts  of  the  body  ;  and,  therefore,  all  the  arteries 
pulsate  in  a  similar  manner,  and  like  the  heart,  so  that  from  one 
you  may  judge  of  all  the  rest.  But  the  motion  of  all  cannot  be 
equally  well  observed ;  for  those  which  are  situated  in  parts  that 
are  not  fleshy  may  be  easier  felt  than  those  in  fleshy  parts.  Nor  is 
any  one  more  conveniently  situated  for  being  felt  than  the  one  at 
the  wrists.  The  First  kind  of  pulses  is  in  regard  to  the  time  of 
their  motion,  as  observed  in  systole  and  diastole.  Their  differences 
are,  the  quick,  slow,  and  moderate ;  because  every  body  which  is 
moved  must  be  moved  quickly,  slowly,  or  intermediately,  as  to 
time  ;  that  is  quick  which  is  moved  over  a  great  distance  in  a  short 
time  ;  that  is  slow  which  is  moved  over  a  short  distance  in  a  long 
time ;  and  that  is  moderate,  whose  motion  is  intermediate.  The 
Second  kind  of  pulses  is  in  regard  to  the  extent  of  the  diastole. 
For,  since  every  body  has  three  dimensions,  length,  breadth,  and 
depth,  and  an  artery  is  a  body,  it  follows,  that  an  artery  must  have 
these  dimensions.     When,  therefore,  an  animal  is  in  its  natural 


BOOK    SECOND.  137 

state,  you  will  find  its  arteries  dilated  moderately  every  way ;  but 
when  not  in  its  natural  state,  its  dilatation  will  be  deficient,  or  exceed 
according  to  some  one  of  its  dimensions.  In  calculating  this,  you 
must  remember  the  natural  state  of  the  pulse  ;  and  if  it  is  found  to 
exceed  in  breadth,  you  must  call  it  broad,  if  in  length,  long,  and  if  in 
depth,  high,  or  deep.  It  is  clear,  that  the  opposites  to  these,  or  those 
that  are  deficient,  are  the  narrow,  short,  and  low.  And  with  regard 
to  those  which  are  altered  from  the  natural  state  in  all  their  dimen- 
sions, that  which  is  every  way  diminished  is  called  small,  and  that 
which  is  every  way  increased,  great.  The  Third  kind  is  with  re- 
gard to  the  tone  of  the  vital  strength.  The  varieties  are  three,  the 
strong,  the  tpeak,  and  the  moderate.  The  strong  is  that  which  strikes 
the  finger  of  the  physician  strongly,  and  the  weak,  feebly  and  faint- 
ly ;  while  the  moderate  is  intermediate  between  them,  and  is  held 
by  some  to  be  the  natural  one ;  for,  that  a  strong  pulse  is  occa- 
sioned by  passion  and  baths  and  is  not  natural.  In  reply  to  which, 
Galen  contends,  that  a  pulse,  rendered  stronger  by  non-natural 
causes,  soon  undergoes  a  change ;  and  that,  therefore,  a  strong 
pulse,  which  does  not  readily  change,  is  natural  and  moderate. 
The  Fourth  kind  is  in  regard  to  the  consistence  of  the  instrument, 
I  mean  the  body  of  the  artery.  In  this  respect  there  are  three  dif- 
ferences ;  for  the  artery  is  either  harder  than  natural,  and  is  called 
a  hard  pulse,  or  softer,  and  is  called  a  soft,  or  intermediate,  and  is 
called  in  this  respect  moderate.  The  Fifth  kind  is  in  regard  to  the 
contents  of  the  artery ;  and  their  dififerences  are,  the  full,  the  empty, 
and  the  moderate,  since  every  vessel  must  be  full,  empty,  or  mo- 
derately full  of  liquids.  A  fall  pulse,  then,  as  Archigenes  defines  it, 
is  one  which  indicates  an  artery  that  is  completely  fuU,  and  the  im- 
pression of  which  is,  that  it  is  distended  with  fluids ;  and  an  empty 
one  conveys  an  impression,  as  if  its  contents  were  full  of  bubbles 
of  air,  so  that  the  finger,  when  pressed  upon  it,  seems  to  fall  into 
an  empty  space.  These  five  kinds  of  pulses  regard  one  motion  of 
the  artery.  And  since  the  quality  of  the  heat  in  the  heart  may  be 
more  apparent  than  usual  in  the  artery,  some  have  hence  formed 
a  Sixth  kind  of  pulses.  Of  the  other  kinds,  whether  they  are  in 
regard  to  one  or  more  pulsations,  they  derive  their  character,  either 
from  the  time  of  rest,  or  the  rhythm,  or  their  equality  and  inequality, 
or  their  regularity  and  irregularity.  The  kind,  then,  in  regard  to 
the  time  of  rest,  which  is  the  Seventh  in  order,  is  divided  into  the 
dense,  the  rare,  and  the  moderate.  And,  since  an  artery  has  a 
double  motion,  composed  of  two  opposite  motions,  it  must  of  ne- 
cessity have  two  seasons  of  rest,  the  one  after  the  diastole  before 
the  systole,  the  other  after  the  systole  before  the  diastole,  which 
many  people  affirm  cannot  be  perceived ;  and,  therefore,  the  inter- 
val of  rest  between  two  motions  has  been  chosen.  When,  there- 
fore, there  is  a  long  interval  of  rest,  the  pulse  is  called  rare,  when 
short,  dense,  and  when  intermediate,  moderate.  The  Eighth  kind  is 
in  respect  to  rhythm.  Rhythm,  then,  in  general,  is  the  ratio  and 
proportion  of  one  time  to  another.  In  regard  to  the  pulse,  it  is, 
acceding  to  some,  the  ratio  of  the  time  of  motion  to  the  time  of 


138  PAULUS   iEQlNETA. 

rest,  as  of  the  systole  and  diastole,  to  the  intermediate  time  of  rest ; 
but,  according  to  others,  it  is  the  ratio  of  a  time  of  motion  and  rest 
to  another  time  of  motion  and  rest,  or  of  motion  to  motion. 

Of  rhythm,  then,  there  are  two  varieties,  the  proper,  and  the 
improper  rhythm.  Of  the  improper,  there  is  a  threefold  difference ; 
first,  when  there  is  a  slight  departure  from  rhythm  ;  second,  when 
there  is  a  greater;  and,  third,  when  there  is  no  rhythm  at  all. 
Thus,  for  example,  in  a  child,  if  his  pulse  has  the  rhythm  of  child- 
hood, it  is  called  its  proper  rhythm,  if  it  has  that  of  an  adult,  it  is 
said  to  be  an  improper  rhythm,  or  if  it  preserve  no  ratio  at  all,  it  is 
said  to  be  without  rh3rthm. 

The  Ninth  kind  of  pulses  is  found  in  all  the  other  kinds  already 
mentioned ;  namely,  that  which  regards  equality  and  inequality, 
which  may  be  remarked  either  in  one  pulse,  or  in  many,  which  last 
is  called  the  Systematic,  and  of  which  we  must  speak  more  clearly. 
An  equal  pulse,  then,  is  that  which  is  alike  in  order,  as  regards 
magnitude,  strength,  frequency,  and  certain  other,  or,  indeed,  all 
its  other  characters.  The  unequal  pulse,  is  that  which  is  unlike  in 
order.  For,  if  all  are  alike,  as,  for  example,  all  deficient  in  mag- 
nitude, such  a  pulse  is  called  equal.  But  if  the  first,  second,  and 
third  appear  alike,  but  the  fourth  unlike,  it  is  clear  that  such  a 
pulse  is  unequal  as  to  magnitude.  Of  this  kind  are  the  intermitting 
and  the  intercurrent.  For  not  only  after  one  or  more  great  pulsa- 
tions may  one  smaller  occur ;  but  sometimes  this  motion  is  wholly 
wanting,  and  the  pulse  is  said  to  intetmit.  The  other  kind,  the  in- 
tercurrent, is  the  opposite  to  this  ;  for,  when  we  are  expecting  an 
interval  of  rest,  a  supernumerary  pulsation,  as  it  were,  occurs. 
When  the  second  is  a  little  smaller  than  the  first,  and  the  third  than 
the  second,  and  the  fourth  than  the  third  in  like  manner,  and  so  on- 
wards, such  pulses  are  called  sharp-tailed  or  myuri,  deriving  their 
names  ^om  figures  terminating  in  a  sharp  point.  Such  as  are  al- 
together diminished,  and  never  cease  from  this  state,  terminate  in 
a  total  loss  of  motion,  and  aie  called  failing,  or  fainting  myuri. 
There  are  two  varieties  in  respect  to  those  which  fail,  for  some  of 
them  persevere  in  that  state  of  smallness  in  which  they  terminated, 
whilst  others  attain  again  their  original  magnitude,  or  nearly  so, 
or  perhaps  a  greater,  and  these  are  called  recurrent  myuri.  Pulses 
also  are  called  myuri,  from  their  inequality  in  regard  to  one  pulsa- 
tion, concerning  which  we  will  speak  presently.  And  this  is  the 
nature  of  that  inequality  of  pulse,  called  Systematic.  But  that 
which  takes  place  with  regard  to  one  pulse,  or  one  part  of  an  artery, 
or  more,  as  perhaps  with  regard  to  motion,  for  the  inequality  is  ob- 
served on  one  part  of  the  artery,  when  the  motion  of  the  artery 
upon  the  finger  begins  one  way  and  terminates  another,  beginning 
quicker,  and  terminating  slower,  or  reversely.  This  happens  in  a 
threefold  manner,  the  motion  either  remaining  constant,  or  being 
interrupted,  or  recurring  and  beating  double,  as  it  were.  If,  then, 
remaining  constant  and  uninterrupted,  it  should  change  from  quick- 
ness to  slowness,  or  conversely,  such  a  pulse  is  said  to  be,  and  is  of 
unequal  velocity.     But  if,  after  being  interrupted  by  an  interval  of 


BOOK  8£COND.  139 

rest,  it  again  appear  quicker,  it  is  called  the  goat^Uap  or  dorcadissana, 
the  term  being  derived  from  the  animal  dorcas,  which,  in  jumping 
aloft,  stops  in  the  air,  and  then  unexpectedly  takes  another  and  a 
swifter  spring  than  the  first.  But,  if  after  the  diastole  it  recur,  and, 
before  a  complete  systole  take  place,  strike  the  finger  a  second 
time,  such  a  pulse  is  called  a  reverberating  one,  or  dicrotos,  from  its 
beating  twice.  You  may  see  such  a  thing  take  place  upon  a  stithy, 
when  a  hammer,  swung  by  the  hand,  first  strikes  the  stithy,  and 
afterwards,  recoiling  from  the  re-action  of  the  stithy,  strikes  it  of  it- 
self a  second  or  third  time.  And  not  only  may  an  inequality  as  to 
the  time  of  motion  take  place  as  to  one  pulsation  in  one  part  of  an 
artery,  but  also  in  regard  to  the  strength  of  the  power ;  not  so, 
however  in  regard  to  the  extent  of  dilatation  (for  it  is  impossible 
that  the  same  pulse  in  the  same  place  should  be  great  and  small  at 
the  same  time),  nor  in  regard  to  the  other  kinds  of  pulses.  But  in 
different  places  different  parts  of  an  artery  may  exhibit  a  double 
inequality  in  one  pulsation.  For  the  motion  may  continue  constant, 
and  be  swifter  at  one  finger  and  slower  at  another ;  or,  it  may  in** 
termit,  and  one  finger  may  perceive  it,  and  another  not.  And  also, 
in  r^ard  to  the  extent  of  the  diastole,  the  same  inequality  becomes 
apparent  in  diffident  places.  Of  this  kind  are  the  myuri,  diminish- 
ing once  and  again  at  one  pulsation ;  for,  if  at  the  inner  finger  the 
pulse  should  be  great  and  swelled  up,  but  under  the  external  at  the 
thumb  of  the  patient  it  appear  smaller,  such  a  pulse  is  called  myn- 
rus,  from  its  resemblance  to  the  tail  of  a  mouse — or  meiurus,  from 
its  being  diminished  like  a  tail.  But,  if  the  pulse  appear  great,  and 
swelled  under  the  middle  finger,  but  smaller  on  each  side,  Archi- 
genes  called  this  pulse  innuens  et  circumnuens,  i.e.  the  declining,  and 
the  declining  on  both  hands,  wishing  to  mark  the  smallness  of  the 
diastole,  with  the  declination,  as  it  were,  of  the  two  extremities ; 
for  these  parts  do  not  appear  as  if  they  were  cut  short,  but  as  if 
they  were  bent  in  and  a  little  contracted  on  each  side,  and  hence 
the  pulse  is  curtailed  (myurus)  on  both  sides. 

And  when  the  inequality  as  to  magnitude  takes  place  at  different 
times,  such  pulses  become  undulatory  and  vermicular.  And  if  irre- 
gularity of  position  be  joined  to  them,  they  are  called  spasmodic 
and  vibratory.  Let  us  begin  with  the  undulatory,  in  which  the 
whole  artery  is  not  dilated,  at  the  same  time,  according  to  the  same 
inequality,  but  this  part  of  it  first,  that  second,  that  third,  and  that 
fourth,  the  motion  continuing  constant  like  the  swelling  of  the 
waves.  And  some  have  the  wave  carried  straight  forward,  some 
obliquely ;  some  have  a  sufficient  altitude  in  a  short  expansion  as 
to  length,  and  some  conversely ;  some  have  a  broad,  and  some  a 
narrow,  and  they  have  the  like  inequality  in  regard  to  quickness 
and  strength.  When  the  undulatory  is  wholly  diminished  in  size, 
it  is  called  the  vermicular,  which  resembles  the  motion  of  a  worm. 
As  the  undulatory  pulse,  when  it  goes  on  diminishing,  terminates  in 
the  vermicular,  so  in  like  manner  does  the  vermicular  in  the  ant- 
like,  when,  most  <^  its  motions  being  lost,  it  terminates  in  one,  and 
it  a  very- small  motion.    It  is  called  formicans  from  its  resemblance 


140  PAULU8   ifiGlNETA. 

to  the  ant  {formica),  on  account  of  its  smallness  and  kind  of  mo- 
tion. The  ant 'like  or  creeping  pulse  (called  formicans)  is  very 
small,  there  being  none  smaller  than  it ;  and,  in  like  maimer,  it  is, 
of  all  others,  the  most  indistinct  and  dense,  but  is  not  quick  as 
Archigenes  supposed.  Nearly  allied  to  it  is  the  hectic.  For,  as 
there  is  a  hectic  fever,  so  is  there  also  a  hectic  pulse,  which  under* 
goes  little  or  no  variation,  but  remains  always  the  same  as  at  first, 
contracted  and  never  expanding,  the  whole  habit  being  turned  into 
disease.  The  spasmodic  pulses  appear  as  if  they  were  dragged, 
stretched,  and  drawn  by  the  extremities,  conveying  the  sensation  of 
a  stretched  cord.  But  no  such  thing  takes  place  in  the  vibratory; 
for,  in  them  the  dilatation  is  greater,  as  if  different  parts  of  the 
artery  were  carried  upwards  at  one  and  the  same  time.  They  may 
be  resembled  to  darts,  which,  when  thrown  with  force,  are  carried 
along  with  a  vibratory  motion.  The  pulse  is  serrated  when  part 
of  the  artery  seems  to  be  dilated,  and  part  not ;  the  artery  itself 
also  appearing  to  be  harder  than  natural.  This  pulse  has  some  of 
the  characters  of  the  vibratory,  and  is  quick  and  dense,  but  not  al« 
ways  great.  In  addition  to  those  mentioned,  there  is  a  tenth  kind 
of  pulses  arising  from  inequality,  namely,  relating  to  regularity  and 
irregularity.  The  unequal  pulses  being  divided  into  those  which  are 
alike  as  to  periods,  and  those  which  are  wholly  unlike,  the  regular 
and  irregular  are  formed  according  to  each  of  these  divisions ;  from 
the  equality  of  periods,  the  regular  is  formed,  and  from  the  entire  ine- 
quality the  irregular.  The  equal  pulse  is  also  always  regular  (since 
consequently  we  call  it  alike)  ;  but  the  unequal  is  not  altogether  irre- 
gular, for,  supposing  it  to  have  no  equality,  and  yet  to  preserve  a  cer- 
tain period,  such,  for  example,  as  to  extent  of  diastole,  if  there  are 
two  great  and  one  small,  then  again  two  great  and  one  small,  and  so 
on  successively,  such  a  pulse  would  be  called  anomalous,  that  is  to 
say,  unequal,  but  regular.  But,  if  it  not  only  had  no  equality,  but 
likewise  no  order  in  its  inequality,  such  a  pulse  would  be  not  only 
unequal,  but  also  irregular,  and  in  like  manner  with  regard  to  the 
other  kinds.  Of  the  irregular,  some  are  altogether  so,  observing  no 
period  whatever  ;  others  are  indeed  regular  as  to  periods,  but,  having 
no  continued  order,  they  may,  in  this  respect,  be  called  irregular* 
but  in  so  far  they  observe  a  certain  period  regularly,  they  being  regu- 
lated as  to  their  periods.  As  if,  for  example,  there  were  two  great 
and  two  small,  then  three  great  and  three  small,  and  four  great  and 
an  equal  number  small ;  and,  returning  again,  two  great  and  two 
small,  three  great  and  as  many  small,  and  so  on  in  like  manner. 
It  is  to  be  remarked,  that,  of  all  the  other  opposite  kinds,  there  is 
one  intermediate  between  the  two  extremes,  but  that  there  is  none 
between  the  equal  and  unequal,  and  the  regular  and  irregular,  un- 
less you  choose  to  call  the  one  which  is  regular  as  to  periods  the 
medium  between  the  regular  and  irregular.  And  the  intermediate 
pulses  of  all  the  other  kinds  are  the  natural,  except  that  which 
relates  to  strength  and  weakness,  as  we  showed.  But,  in  those 
we  have  been  describing,  the  equal  alone  is  the  natural,  and  all  the 
others  are  not  natural,  namely,  the  unequal,  the  regular,  and  the 


BOOK    SECOND.  141 

irregular.  These  are  all  the  kinds  of  pulses  and  their  generic  dif- 
ferences. Some  add  two  others  to  these,  the  one  in  regard  to  the 
position  of  the  artery,  according  as  it  seems  to  he  carried  upwards 
or  downwards,  to  the  right  or  to  the  left,  and  the  other  in  regard 
to  the  times  of  expansion.  But  these  we  treated  of  along  with  the 
uidulatory  and  the  vihratory.  And  we,  for  the  sake  of  hrevity, 
have  only  delivered  the  simple  varieties ;  hut,  from  what  has  been 
said,  one  may  easily  cmnect  them^^  and  discover  those  which  arise 
irom  their  combinations. 

The  causes  affecting  the  pulses  are  next  to  be  treated  of, 
with  which  is  connected  the  prognosis  from  them.  We  shall 
begin  with  those  which  respect  magnitude,  because  it  is  more  ob- 
nous  than  the  others.  A  great  pulse  is  produced  either  by  some 
argent  necessity,  such  as  an  excess  of  heat  in  the  heart  re- 
quiring refrigeration,  and  as  it  were  ventilation  from  without ;  or 
it  may  arise  from  leanness  of  the  body,  as  we  shall  soon  show. 
The  excess  of  heat  is  occasioned  either  by  natural  causes,  such  as 
the  ages  of  manhood  and  youth,  or  simply  a  hot  season,  place,  or  a 
warmer  temperament;  or  by  non-natural  causes,  such  as  the  air 
which  surrounds  us  being  hotter  than  common,  hot  baths,  exercises,* 
food,  wine,  heating  medicines ;  or  by  preternatural  causes,  such 
as  a  hot  intemperament,  putrefaction  of  the  fluids,  passion,  or  the 
like.  You  may  judge  of  these  classes  of  pulse  from  the  following 
observations.  Those  which  are  natural  are  permanent  and  not 
rery  susceptible  of  change,  whilst  the  others  readily  change,  so  that 
often  while  you  examine  them,  or  generally  after  a  very  short  time, 
they  will  altogether  alter.  A  pulse  also  which  owes  its  greatness 
to  a  hot  bath  has  softness  for  an  accompaniment ;  and  hardness 
is  generally  combined  with  greatness  proceeding  from  a  hot  in- 
temperament, especially  when  combined  with  dryness  of  the  sys- 
tem. Those  who  have  undergone  moderate  friction  or  exercise 
have  a  pulse  intermediate  between  hardness  and  softness ;  but  they 
have  the  parts  about  the  chest  warmer  than  natural,  which  is  the 
case  also  with  those  in  a  passion.  Those  that  are  influenced  by 
food,  the  use  of  wine,  or  rage,  have  vehemence  joined  to  greatness. 
Those  who  wish  to  conceal  anger,  or  something  which  they  have 
done  without  permission  of  the  physician  (such  as  if  a  person  has 
taken  a  heating  medicine,  and  wishes  to  conceal  it  from  the  physi- 
cian, who  inquires  about  it  while  he  feels  the  pulse),  in  such  per- 
sons, a  manifest  inequality  is  joined  to  greatness.  To  the  discovery 
of  this  state,  other  considerations  may  contribute,  such  as  the  habit 
of  the  patient,  as  if  he  appeared  to  be  fond  of  taking  medicines,  or 
his  disposition,  as  if  it  be  bad,  and  cunning  at  concealments.  A 
pulse  which  is  great  from  putrefaction  of  the  fluids  has  joined  a  con- 
traction more  hasty  than  natural  to  its  greatness.  To  form  a  great 
pulse,  an  urgent  necessity  is  not  alone  sufficient;  but  the  vital  powers 
must  also  contribute,  and  a  condition  of  the  instrument  or  artery  in- 
termediate between  hardness  and  softness.  When  the  heat,  therefore, 
is  increased  in  the  heart  by  any  of  the  above-mentioned  causes,  in 
the  first  place,  the  pulse  becomes  great,  and,  the  greatness  not  being 
able  to  supply  the  want,  quickness  is  straightway  joined  to  it ;  and, 


142  PAULUS  iEGINETA. 

if  that  is  not  sufficient,  density  is  superadded.     But  small,  slow, 
and  rare  pulses  are  formed  by  the  opposite  causes.     But,  when  a 
change  first  takes  place  from  a  great,  quick,  and  dense  pulse  to 
their  opposites,  namely,  when  the  necessity  is  at  an  end,  the  first 
character  of  the  pulse  is  not  the  first  that  leaves  it,  but  it  loses  first 
that  which  it  last  acquired,  becoming  first  rare,  then  slow,  and  last 
small.     But,  if  the  slowness  and  smedlness  should  go  on  increasing, 
the  rarity  will  again  change  to  density,  in  order  that  the  necessary 
want  may  be  supplied.     Such  are  the  causes  of  greatness,  quick- 
ness, density,  and  their  opposite  pulses.     To  these  we  shall  con- 
nect the  alteration  of  the  pulse  in  regard  to  one  dimension  only. 
Breadth  alone  then  is  increased,  principally  by  a  redundancy  of 
humidity,  either  natural,  or  from  external  causes,  as  loftiness  is  oc- 
casioned by  the  softness  of  the  instrument,  assisted  by  the  vital 
power ;  but  length  is  rendered  apparent,  by  the  dr3mess  and  melt- 
ing of  the  surrounding  flesh,  the  other  dimensions  being  contracted. 
For  an  artery  cannot,  in  fact,  become  longer  than  natural ;  and  this 
ought  more  properly  to  be  called  the  lean  pulse,  as  the  opposite  one, 
namely,  that  which  is  increased  only  in  breadth  and  depth,  should 
be  called  the  fat.     The  pulse  sometimes  falls  under  the  opposite 
characters  to  this,  when  it  is  restrained  as  to  any  of  its  dimensions, 
and  appears  low,  narrow,  and  short,  when  it  is  not  so  in  reality, 
but  seems  so,  owing  to  the  thickness  of  the  fat,  flesh,  or  membranes 
which  press  upon  it.      Sometimes,  too,  the  whole  seems    small, 
when  it  is  not  so  in  reality  ;  and  feeble  in  like  manner.     And  what 
do  I  say?     Sometimes  an  asphyxy,  or  complete  loss  of  pulsation, 
hath  seemed  to  take  place  over  the  whole  arteries,  when  there  is 
no  such  thing  in  reality ;  and  this  has  happened,  more  especially  to 
those  who  have  felt  them  carelessly,  when  the  motion,  being  really 
indistinct,  escapes  notice,  owing  to  the  quantity  of  flesh ;  for  it  is 
impossible  that  a  complete  a8ph3nEy  could  take  place  while  the  man 
is  alive.     In  like  manner,  again,  in  the  emaciated,  small  pulses  ap- 
pear great.     When,  therefore,  the  body  is  greatly  wasted,  the  ar- 
tery which  runs  along  the  spine  has  often  been  felt  by  those  who 
touch  the  abdomen,   and  also  the  pulses  in  members  which  be- 
fore used  not  to  be  felt.     Wherefore,  we  must  attend  to  all  circum- 
stances, that  we  may  not  be  mistaken  in  our  diagnosis.     A  strong 
pulse  is  occasioned  by  the  force  of  the  natural  faculty,  when  not 
counteracted  by  any  other  cause,   such  as  the  want  being  faint, 
or  from  hardness  of  the  instrument.     But  a  feeble  pulse  may  arise 
from  weakness  of  the  natural  powers  alone,  although  no  other  causes 
contribute.     For  a  strong  pulse  stands  in  need  of  all  the  other 
causes  for  its  formation ;  but  the  feeble  is  produced  by  weakness 
alone.      The  originally  strong  pulse  accompanies  moderate  ages, 
seasons^  j^aces,  and  temperaments ;  but  the  feeble  the  immoderate. 
A  pulse  changing  from  feebleness  to  strength  is  formed   by  the 
vital  faculty  growing  strong,  from  a  preceding  state  of  debility.     It 
is  strengthened  either  by  things  within  the  body,  such  as  concoc- 
tion of  the  fluids,  or  an  excretion  of  them,  or  passion ;  or  by  ex- 
ternals, such  as  wines,  food,  exercises,  and  whatever  will  rectify 


BOOK    SECOND.  143 

the  intemperament.    The  natural  powers  are  weakened  by  want  of 
food,  watchfulness,  immoderate  evacuations,  grief,  cares,  and  more 
especially  pains  inducing  syncope,  and  whatever  forms  an  intem- 
perament.    Some  inexperienced  persons  have  thought  a  hard  pulse 
strong,  but  a  person  of  experienced  understanding  and  touch  will 
not  mistake  them  ;  for  a  strong  pulse,  being  mostly  accompanied 
with  greatness,  is  swelled  up  to  loftiness  and  strikes  the  finger 
forcibly ;  but  the  hard  does  not  admit  of  greatness,  on  account  of 
the  unyielding  state  of  the  artery.     Wherefore,  a  pulse  becomes 
bard,  owing  to  the  hardness  of  the  artery.     This  is  occasioned  by 
immoderate  cold,  or  dryness,  or  tension  proceeding  from  inflamma- 
tion or  spasm.     To  the  hardness  are  straightway  joined  smallness, 
quickness,  and  sometimes  density  instead  of  greatness,  owing  to 
the  exciting  want.     A  soft  pulse  follows  a  humid  state  of  the  ar- 
tery.   An  artery  is  rendered  more  humid  by  things  not  preternatural, 
SQch  as  more  liquid  food,  immoderate  baths,  much  sleep,  a  more 
abundant  diet,  and  hilarity ;  and  by  preternatural  causes,  such  as 
coma,  lethargy,  dropsy,  and  the  other  pituitous  affections.     A  full 
pulse  indicates  an  abundance  of  fluids,  or  plethora  from  food,  or 
from  drinking  wine,  as  the  empty  on  the  other  hand  indicates  de- 
ficiency of  food  or  evacuation.     When  the  body  of  the  artery  feels 
warmer  under  the  finger,  tiiis  indicates  great  heat  in  the  heart, 
while  the  rest  of  the  body  is  cold,  or  a  certain  spasmodic  state  of 
the  arteries,  which  are  warmed  by  the  violent  motion.     Archigenes 
says,  that  the  place  of  the  artery  will  particularly  be  found  warmer 
in  catochus,  and  in  those  who  are  about  to  be  affected  with  somno- 
lency.    With  regard  to  rhythm,  when  the  ratio  of  the  times  of 
motion  and  rest  is  equal,  it  indicates  a  proper  temperament  of  the 
body,  or  no  great  departure  from  it,  as  in  early  age,  and  the  otherwise 
well-regulated  bodies.     But,  when  the  time  of  rest  is  greater  than 
that  of  motion,  this  indicates  that  heat  prevails,  as  in  adults  and 
those  of  the  adjoining  ages ;  as,  in  aged  bodies  which  are  entirely 
eold,  the  time  of  motion  is  greater  than  that  of  rest.     It  is  to  be  re- 
marked, that  inequality  in  regard  to  rhythm,  being  the  measure  of 
that  as  to  quickness  and  density,  this  holds  the  place,  as  it  were,  of 
the  materiel  to  the  rhythm. 

The  intermittent  and  intercurrent  pulses  take  place  when  the 
powers  are  oppressed,  and,  as  it  were,  borne  down ;  but  the  inter- 
current indicates  a  lesser,  and  the  intermittent  a  greater  injury. 
And,  in  general,  that  state  in  which  the  powers  are  oppressed  and 
borne  down,  changes  the  pulses  to  inequality  and  irregularity  in 
every  other  respect,  and  also  in  regard  to  strength  and  greatness. 
The  pulses  called  myuri,  being  shown  to  be  of  two  kinds  (for  they 
are  found  either  in  that  inequality  called  systematic,  or  in  regard  to 
one  pulsation),  the  failing  or  fainting  evince  the  last  prostration  of 
the  powers ;  but,  when  they  return,  or  are  recurrent,  they  indicate 
that  the  powers  are  weak,  but  that  they  are  struggling,  contending, 
and  have  not  yet  submitted.     As  to  the  myuri,  in  regard  to  one 
pulsation,  called  the  failing,  and  the  failing  on  both  hands  (innuentes 
et  circumnuentes),  these  happen  to  persons  who  are  gradually  wasted 


144  PAULUS  iEGINETA. 

by  inflammations  not  yet  resolved,  and  to  those  who  waste  from 
whatever  cause*  the  bodies  around  the  arteries  being  melted  down. 
Pulses  of  unequal  velocity,  and  those  called  dorcadissantes  or  gout- 
leap,  principally  accompany  febrile  heat.     But,  if  the  pulse  be  faint 
at  the  commencement  of  the  diastole,  and  increase  in  velocity  to- 
wards the  end  and  beginning  of  the  systole,  this  indicates  that 
putrefaction  is  prevailing,  nature  hastening  on  the  discharge  of  the 
fuliginous  superfluities.     But  if,  on  the  other  hand,  it  be  faint  at 
the  commencement  of  the  systole,  and  rather  make  speed  towards 
the  diastole,  you  may  be  sure  that  the  heat  is  prevailing,  and  long- 
ing for  refrigeration.     These  in  fever  are,  for  the  most  part,  ac- 
companied by  density,  and  sometimes  greatness,  if  the  powers  he 
not  restrained  by  the  hardness  of  the  instrument.     When  the  hard- 
ness of  the  artery  increases,  and  the  powers  are  not  weakened,  the 
double  or  reverberating  pulse  is  formed.     The  undulatory  pulse  most 
commonly  attends  the  more  humid  aflections,  such  in  particular  as 
anasarcous   swellings,   lethargy,   and  peripneujnony.      When  the 
powers  of  life  are  beginning  to  fail,  but  are  still  making  a  faint 
struggle,  the  undulatory  pulse  sinks  into  the  vermicular ;  but,  when 
they  decline  to  their  lowest  ebb,  this  last  passes  into  the  ant-like 
or  formicans.     The  hectic  particularly  attends  those  in  consump- 
tion and  marasmus.     The  spasmodic  pulse  takes  place  when  the 
origin  of  the  nerves  is  suffering  from  some  inflammatory  aflection, 
as  in  phrensy  and  acute  attacks  of  epilepsy,  when  those  aflfected 
with  them  die  while  they  are  yet  warm,  contrarywise  to  those  in 
syncope,  for  they  are  alive  after  they  have  become  cold.     The 
clonodic  or  vibratory  pulse  takes  place  when  the  wants  of  the  system 
require  a  great  diastole,  and  the  vital  powers  are  sufficient  for  that 
purpose,  but  are  opposed  by  the  body  of  the  artery ;  which,  from  its 
hardness,  cannot  be  expanded  to  a  large  diastole,  as  happens  in 
great  inflammations  and  chronic  obstructions.  The  serrated  pulse  is 
indicative  of  inflammation,  and  particularly  in  some  tendinous  part.  It 
is  no  less  so  of  pleurisy,  and  when  slight,  it  indicates  that  the  inflam- 
mation is  gentle,  and  easily  to  be  concocted;  but  when  intense,  that  it 
is  severe  and  of  difficult  concoction,  and  will  be  attended  with  urgent 
danger,  if  the  powers  be  weak,  or,  if  they  be  strong,  that  it  will  be 
slowly  concocted,  for  it  will  either  terminate  in  empyema,  or  a  con- 
sumptive marasmus  will  supervene.     One  ought  also  to  know,  that 
irregularity  of  the  pulse  commonly  accompanies  its  inequalities ;  for 
you  will  rarely  find  an  unequal  pulse  orderly.     Wherefore,  the 
lesser  constitutional  injuries  occasion  unequal  and  regular  pulses, 
but  the  greater,  the  unequal  and  irregular. 

These  are  the  simple  causes  of  the  pulses  and  their  prognosis, 
and  from  them  the  compound,  as  we  stated  when  treating  of  their 
differences,  may  easily  be  discovered. 


XIII. — On  the  AMne  Discharges. 
Of  the  alvine  discharges,  the  best  is  that  which  is  soft  and  com- 


BOOK  SECOND.  145 

pact»  and  is  evacaated  at  the  hour  which  is  customary  in  health. 
Such  excrement  is  yellowish,  of  the  proper  consistence,  and  not  very 
fetid  ;  for  whatever  is  different  from  these  is  not  good.  That  which 
resembles  in  colour  the  food  which  has  been  taken,  or  is  thin,  wants 
the  natural  juices,  and  is  passed  quickly,  is  indigested.  But  that 
which  is  very  yellow,  if  evacuated  in  the  beginning  of  a  disease,  in- 
dicates that  the  complaint  is  of  a  very  bilious  nature  ;  but  if  after 
the  acm^,  that  the  body  is  properly  purged.  The  green  is  indica- 
tive of  violet-coloured  bile,  but  the  black  of  black  bile,  or  of  adust 
blood  mixed  with  it.  The  livid  marks  a  coldness  and  considerable 
mortification  of  the  internal  parts.  The  oily  is  indicative  of  a  melting 
of  the  fat  in  the  body  ;  as  the  glutinous,  which  is  worse  than  the  oily, 
indicates  a  melting  of  the  parts  of  the  animal.  That  which  is  very 
fetid  indicates  no  small  degree  of  putridity.  With  regard  to  them 
all,  if  the  quality  of  the  excrements  does  not  correspond  with  the 
food  which  had  been  taken,  judge  from  hence  of  the  affection.  Of 
all  kinds,  the  worst  and  most  fatal  is  black,  livid,  oily,  and  what  is 
hastily  passed. 


XIV. — On  the  Indications  from  the  Urine. 

As  concerning  the  alvine  discharges,  so  also  with  respect  to  the 
orine  ;  using  that  of  healthy  persons  as  a  rule,  we  shall  hence  form 
our  indications  of  that  of  persons  in  disease.  That  urine,  therefore, 
is  best,  which  is  nearest  to  that  of  healthy  persons.  Such  is  that 
which  is  at  the  same  time  somewhat  tawny  and  yellow,  and  which 
straightway  attains  a  proper  consistence.  There  are  three  varieties 
of  turbid  urine ;  for  either  straightway  after  being  voided  it  deposits 
a  sediment,  or  it  always  remains  the  same,  or  it  is  voided  pure,  but 
sfterwards  becomes  turbid ;  of  these,  the  third  is  bad,  the  first  favour- 
able, the  second  intermediate  between  them.  That  which  is  wholly 
unconcocted,  being  altogether  watery,  is  symptomatic  of  digestion 
bdng  entirely  gone  in  the  venous  system.  But  when  it  is  passed 
frequently,  the  disease  is  called  diabetes,  which  is  the  worst  of  un- 
Qoncocted  urines.  Next  is  the  thin  and  white  urine,  which  resem- 
Ues  water.  Nearly  allied  to  these,  is  another  kind  of  urine,  appear- 
ing in  many  diseases,  and  which  is  very  like  to  the  thin  and  white. 
The  palish  is  next  to  this.  The  pale  may  also  be  somewhat  tawny, 
and  is  concocted  in  proportion  as  it  partakes  of  this  colour.  It 
ought,^  however,  to  be  as  much  different  from  water  in  thickness  as 
in  colour,  if  it  is  to  be  properly  concocted.  But  if  it  preserve  ex- 
actly its  natural  colour,  and  have  a  white,  smooth,  equable,  and 
copious  sediment,  it  is  indicative  of  perfect  digestion.  A  greater 
quantity  than  natural  indicates  that  a  crude  humour  is  purged  off ; 
but  if  it  is  somewhat  thicker  than  natural,  and  has  a  certain  sedi- 
ment, it  is  not  then  altogether  unconcocted.  But  if  it  have  farinaceous, 
scaly,  furfuraceous,  black,  livid,  green,  or  fetid  sediments,  such  urine 
is  altogether  unconcocted  and  mortal.  But  urine  of  a  proper  colour, 
and  which  at  the  same  time  has  white,  smooth,  and  equable  sedi- 

L 


146  PAULIJS  iEGINETA. 

ments,  or  certain  cloud-like  appearances,  or  substances  swimming 
in  the  middle,  is  of  all  others  the  best.  Of  these  characters,  the 
sediment  is  of  the  most  importance  ;  next,  the  substances  swimming 
in  it ;  and,  third,  the  cloud-like  appearances  on  its  surfttce.  In  fine, 
of  those  things  which  float  in  the  urine,  the  more  they  subside 
downwards  so  much  the  better. 


XV. — On  the  Indications  from  the  Sputa. 

Such  as  are  somewhat  yellow,  tawny,  frothy,  and  thin,  indicate 
only  want  of  concoction,  but  nothing  else  positively  bad.  But  such 
as  are  purely  yellow,  tawny,  frothy,  green,  viscid,  round,  and 
still  more  the  black,  are  positively  bad.  For,  with  the  exception  of 
the  blood,  whatever  of  the  other  humours  is  unmixed,  indicates  a 
bad  diathesis,  having  its  origin  in  an  inflammatory  heat.  Tiie 
bloody  sputa  are  of  an  intermediate  character,  but  those  of  yellow 
and  black  bile  are  unfavourable.  The  manner  in  which  they  are 
brought  up,  ought  also  to  be  considered ;  for,  if  they  are  readily  spit 
up,  it  is  clear  that  such  are  good,  whereas  the  contrary  are  bad.  It  is 
an  indication  of  complete  concoction  that  the  expectoration  is  unctuous, 
white,  and  equable,  and  in  consistence,  neither  fluid  nor  very  thick  ; 
as  it  is  of  a  complete  failure  of  concoction  that  is  not  spit  up  at  all. 
If  it  is  indeed  spit  up,  but  thin,  it  is  a  mark  of  feeble  concoction.  If 
it  is  of  an  unmixed  tawny  or  yellow  colour,  it  is  not  good.  -  But  if 
it  is  livid,  of  a  violet- colour,  or  black,  it  is  a  most  fatal  symptom. 


XVI. — TJie  Diagnosis  and  Cure  of  Ephemeral  Fevers. 

It  is  a  peculiar  and  inseparable  symptom  of  ephemeral  fevers^ 
that  concoction  of  the  urine  takes  place  on  the  first  day ;  and  a  plea- 
sant state  of  the  heat  is  likewise  a  peculiar  and  inseparable  S3rmpr 
tom.  After  the  first  solution  of  the  fever,  you  will  have  a  still 
more  confident  diagnosis;  for  the  motion  of  the  arteries  then  becomes 
similar  to  that  of  persons  in  health,  whereas  no  other  fever  returns 
so  soon  to  the  natural  state.  And  it  is  aho  a  great  mark  of  this  fever, 
that  the  patient  bears  it  well.  They  are  readily  seized  with  this  com- 
plaint in  whom  the  perspirations  are  not  vaporous,  but  acrid,  as  If 
containing  something  fuliginous.  Such  are  they  who  are  of  a  hot 
and  dry  temperament,  and  are  altogether  much  troubled  with  bitter 
bile.  Those  who  are  seized  with  this  fever  from  fatigue,  should  be 
rubbed  softly  with  oil  and  bathed ;  but  those  from  dryness,  are  to  be 
rubbed  less  and  bathed  more.  Those  from  care,  grief,  watchful* 
ness,  or  anger,  are  to  be  bathed,  yet  not  often,  but  slightly  rubbed 
with  plenty  of  tepid  oil,  possessed  of  little  stypticity ;"  and  bathed 
according  to  habit.  Those  who  have  been  seized  with  the  fever 
from  beat,  are  straightway  to  be  treated  with  cooling  remedies  and 
more  baths,  but,  by  no  means,  with  much  oil  and  friction.  The 
cooling  remedies  are  to  be  rose  oil,  or  cold  oil  of  unripe  olives,  pre- 


BOOK  SECOND.  147 

pared  withoot  salts.  The  same  are  to  be  poured  upon  the  open  of 
the  head,  and  the  hath  used  when  the  fever  has  passed  its  acmd.  If 
a  person  has  fever  from  cold,  he  is  to  be  bathed  in  the  decline ;  but 
if  the  fever  be  attended  with  catarrh,  he  is  not  to  be  bathed  until 
concoction  take  place :  but  those  who  have  fever  from  a  hot  cause 
are  to  be  bathed  while  these  symptoms  are  present.  Those  A-om 
cold,  are  to  be  warmed  moderately,  and  have  the  head  bathed  with 
sach  applications  as  the  oil  of  iris  and  of  nard.  To  those  in  whom 
the  fever  is  occasioned  by  constriction  of  the  skin,  the  proper  reme- 
dies are,  baths  of  tepid  sweet  waters,  attenuant  friction,  exercises, 
and  an  exhilarating  diet.  Those  in  whom  the  fever  is  occasioned  by 
want  of  food,  are  to  be  led  to  the  bath  after  the  decline  of  the  first 
paroxysm,  and  to  have  plenty  of  tepid  oil  poured  upon  them ;  are  to 
be  rubbed  most  gently,  and  to  remain  for  the  greater  part  of  the 
time  in  the  cistern  of  the  warm  bath.  After  coming  out  and  re- 
covering their  strength,  they  are  to  be  led  again  to  the  bath,  and 
afterwards  get  warm  water  to  drink,  the  juice  of  ptisan,  and  some- 
times of  lettuce ;  and  are  to  take  of  fishes  having  tender  flesh,  in 
white  broth.  The  common  diet  in  all  these  cases  ought  to  consist 
of  things  which  contain  good  juices,  of  easy  digestion,  and  which 
will  not  be  restrained  within  the  pores  of  the  skin.  Wine  should 
be  given  which  is  watery  in  appearance  and  strength.  It  will  some- 
times be  proper,  on  the  first  attack  of  the  fever,  to  give  some 
nourishing  food,  when  the  fever  has  been  enkindled  by  an  intem- 
perament  inclining  to  the  hot  and  dry.  Those  who  have  this  fever 
from  inflammation  of  the  glands  of  the  groin,  do  not  require  a  phy- 
sician to  instruct  them  what  ought  to  be  done ;  for,  attending  to  the 
ulcer  from  the  time  that  the  bubo  is  formed,  they  take  the  bath  in 
the  decline  of  the  paroxysm.  But  they  ought  to  be  restricted  as  to 
wine,  ontil  the  inflammation  of  the  groin  is  resolved,  and  use  a 
spare  diet. 


XVIL— 0»  Putrid  Fevers. 

Thk  diagnosis  of  fevers  from  putrefaction  is  formed  from  observ- 
ing that  none  of  the  procataratic  or  exciting  causes  had  preceded ;  and 
it  is  peculiar  to  fevers  from  putrefaction,  that  they  do  not  commence 
with  rigors,  being  preceded  neither  by  strong  heat  nor  cold ;  and 
compression  of  the  pulse  is  also  peculiar  to  them.  This  is  the  name 
given  to  the  pulse,  when  in  the  commencement  of  the  paroxysm  it 
m  very  small  and  irregular.  This  is  a  well-marked  peculiarity  of 
such  fevers.  But  the  strongest  chfu'acteristic  of  putrid  fevers  is,  the 
quality  of  the  heat ;  for  it  is  fuliginous  so  as  to  prove  pungent  to  the 
touch.  Want  of  concoction  in  the  urine  and  feeble  digestion  are 
also  peculiar  to  them.  For,  in  such  fevers,  a  strong  and  distin- 
guished appearance  of  concoction  in  the  urine  is  never  to  be  seen  at 
first. 


l2 


148  PAULUS  .fiGINETA. 


XVIII.— 7%e  Cure  of  Putrid  Fevers. 

When  the  powers  of  the  constitution  are  strong,  a  person  affected 
with  a  putrid  fever  ought  to  be  bled  in  the  commencement,  provided 
there  be  no  crudities  in  the  stomach.  But  when  the  powers  are 
weak,  or  the  age  of  the  patient  is  an  objection,  you  must  not  bleed. 
After  the  evacuation  by  bleeding,  it  will  be  proper  to  clear  away 
the  putrid  matters  by  urine,  the  belly,  and  sweating.  And,  if  they 
have  spontaneously  been  determined  towards  the  stomach,  they  may 
be  evacuated  by  emetics,  but  otherwise  you  must  not  produce  an 
unnatural  irritation.  Such  things  ought  also  to  be  selected  as  will 
eflfect  the  afore-mentioned  evacuations  without  heating  or  drying, 
such  as  the  juice  of  ptisan,  honied  water,  oxjTnel,  apomel,  and  the 
root  of  parsley.  When  the  belly  is  not  evacuated,  an  injection  of 
mulse,  with  oil,  may  be  given.  The  body  is  not  to  be  rarefied  before 
evacuations  ;  but,  after  evacuations,  it  may  be  rarefied  by  means  of 
an  oil  possessing  a  gentle  heat,  such  as  that  of  camomile.  At  this 
season,  all  the  secretions  are  promoted  by  drinking  of  some  watery 
wine,  and  using  a  tepid  bath  of  sweet  water.  When  the  strength 
of  the  fever  is  an  objection,  you  must  neither  use  wine,  the  bath, 
nor  rarefying  unctions  ;  but,  in  such  cases,  drinking  of  cold  water 
is  the  most  suitable  remedy,  if  nothing  prevent  the  use  of  it  like- 
wise. But  if  all  the  powers  are  strong,  the  fever  of  a  very  hot 
nature,  with  clear  symptoms  of  concoction,  cold  water  may  be  given 
boldly.  But  if  he  is  muscular,  and  the  constitution  of  the  air  hot 
and  dry,  he  will  not  be  hurt  by  being  thrown  into  a  cold  bath. 
And  if  the  fever  is  moderate,  and  the  strength  good,  with  symp- 
toms of  concoction,  baths,  the  drinking  of  wine,  and  unctions  of  a 
rarefying  nature  will  be  beneficial  to  such  persons. 


XIX. — The  Diagnosis  of  Tertian  Fevers. 

The  tertian  fever  being  occasioned  by  yellow  bile,  which  is  set 
in  agitation,  has  a  considerable  rigor  in  the  beginning,  which  dif- 
fers, however,  from  the  rigor  of  a  quartan  in  this,  that  the  whole 
skin  feels  as  if  it  were  pierced  and  wounded ;  but,  in  quartans,  the 
attack  is  accompanied  with  a  strong  chill ;  and  quotidians  have  no 
preceding  rigor,  they  are  only  accompanied  with  a  chill.  But  in 
tertians,  the  order  of  the  pulse  is  regular,  and  the  fever  is  attended 
with  strong  thirst  towards  the  acme,  and  burns  up  the  man ;  but, 
afterwards,  the  acme  takes  place,  and  the  heat  is  equally  diffused 
every  where.  If  you  apply  your  hand,  at  first  it  is  met  by  a  strong 
and  pungent  heat,  which  seems  as  if  carried  upwards  in  the  form 
ef  vapour,  but  it  is  soon  extinguished  under  the  hand,  if  it  is  al- 
lowed to  remain.  And  when  the  person  drinks,  straightway  a  hot 
vapour  in  great  quantity  issues  from  the  skin,  announcing  a  sweat. 
But  vomiting  of  bile  supervenes,  or  the  belly  is  loosened,  and  they 
j:ass  bilious  urine.     With  these  the  fever  goes  off,  having  compre- 


BOOK  SECOND.  149 

hended  not  more  than  twelve  hours  in  one  paroxysm.  "When, 
therefore,  it  abates  within  twelve  hoars,  we  call  it  true  tertian ; 
when  the  paroxysm  is  more  protracted,  we  name  it  simply  tertian ; 
and  when  the  paroxysm  is  prolonged  to  the  utmost,  so  as  to  have 
but  a  small  interval,  we  call  it  prolonged  tertian. 


XX. — On  the  Cure  of  Tertian  Fever, 

In  the  true  tertian,  as  being  occasioned  by  yellow  bile,  we  must 
dilute  and  cool,  evacuate  the  defluxions  upon  the  stomach  by  eme- 
tics, and  downwards  by  the  belly,  and  carry  them  off  by  urine  and 
perspiration.     The  belly,  therefore,  is  to  be  moved  by  emollient 
clysters,  and  the  secretion  of  urine  promoted  by  infusions  of  parsley 
aad  dill  in  the  drinks.     And  if  symptoms  of  concoction  appear,  you 
may  confidently  give  wormwood.     Apply  also  baths  of  warm  com- 
mon water,  and  let  neither  nitre,  nor  salts,  nor  mustard  be  rubbed 
upon  his  body;  but  let  the  patient  enter  them  after  having  had 
warm  oil  poured  over  his  body.     There  will  be  no  mistake  if  those 
who  are  fond  of  baths  be  bathed  twice ;  and,  if  symptoms  of  the  disease 
being  concocted  appear,  there  will  be  no  harm  even  if  he  is  bathed 
oftener.      Until  the  disease  is  concocted,  wine  is  to  be  entirely  pro- 
hibited ;  but  when  concoction  commences,  first  some  thin  and  watery 
wine  may  be  given,  and  food  of  a  diluent  and  cooling  nature  will  be 
proper ;  but  honey,  mustard,  pickles,  and  every  thing  heating  must 
be  abstained  from.     Such  was  the  practice  of  the  ancients  ;  nor  is 
it  to  be  wondered  at,  as  these  men  were  more  habituated  to  exer- 
cises and  a  restricted  diet ;  but  now,  when  order  is  perverted,  the 
bile  is,  for  the  most  part,  found  mixed  with  phlegm.     Wherefore, 
now-a-days,  most  tertians  are  either  without  a  rigor,  or  it  is  very 
slight.*    And  the  mode  of  cure  is  also  changed ;  for,  neither  does 
the  bath  suit  with  tertians  now  before  concoction,  nor  yet  a  full  diet, 
except  crumbs  of  bread,  eggs,  or  the  like. 


XXI. — The  Cure  of  Spurious  Tertians. 

It  does  not  suit  with  spurious  tertians  to  bathe  at  the  commence- 
ment, nor  until  symptoms  of  concoction  have  made  their  appearance. 
Neither  does  it  answer  to  give  food  every  day,  but  every  alternate 
day  will  be  sufficient.  Rest  and  warm  applications  to  the  hypo- 
chondriac region  agree  with  them,  also  broths  of  easy  digestion, 
and  clysters  not  very  emollient.  And  if  detraction  of  blood  be  ex- 
pedient,  it  ought  by  no  means  to  be  omitted.  The  nature  of  the 
diet  ought  not  upon  the  whole  to  be  cooling  and  diluent,  but  things 
of  an  incisive  nature  ought  to  be  added.  They  are  particularly  be- 
nefited by  the  juice  of  ptisan,  to  which  have  been  added  pepper, 
hyssop,  sweet  marjoram,  and  spikenard.  Also,  add  pepper  to  honied 
water,  boil,  and  g^ve  it  to  drink,  and  likewise  every  thing  which 
will  promote  the  secretion  of  urine,  except  those  things  which  are 


150  PAULUa  ^GINETA. 

of  a  very  heating  and  desiccant  nature.  In  particular,  after  the 
seventh  day,  give  wormwood;  and  many  have  been  benefited  by 
drinking  oxymel,  and  taking  gentle  laxatives.  A  vomit  taken  with 
food  answers  well  with  those  in  whom  the  affection  is  chronic. 


XXII. — The  Diagnosis  of  Quartans. 

The  quartan  makes  its  attack  with  much  coldness,  as  having  its 
origin  from  a  cold  humour,  namely,  the  black  bile ;  but  it  is  not 
attended  with  ardour  and  febrile  heat  like  the  tertian,  neither  does 
a  vomiting  of  bile .  accompany.  If,  in  addition  to  these,  the  urine 
be  thin,  white,  and  watery,  the  fever  certainly  is  a  quartan ;  but  the 
characteristic  of  a  true  quartan  is  a  small  and  rare  pulse.  They 
have  their  beginning  most  frequently  in  autumn,  supervening  upon 
wandering  fevers.  At  that  season,  intermittents  generally  assume 
the  quartan  type,  although  sometimes  the  paroxysm  observes  a 
longer  interval  of  days. 


XXIW.— The  Cure  of  Quartans. 

Those  affected  with  quartans  are  to  be  treated  gently,  without 
any  powerful  medicine  or  evacuation,  unless  a  great  fulness  of  blood 
prevail,  in  which  case  it  may  be  necessary  to  bleed.  The  diet 
should  be  good  and  not  flatulent,  and  the  belly  ought  to  be  loosened 
by  the  customary  things ;  and,  if  these  are  not  sufficient,  clysters  may 
be  used,  at  first  emollient,  and  afterwards  acrid.  They  must  be 
prohibited  from  swine's  flesh,  and  every  thing  that  is  viscid  and 
slowly  evacuated,  and  also  from  all  cooling  and  diluent  articles  of 
food.  Let  them  use  a  thin  white  wine  moderatdy  wann,  also 
pickles  and  mustard.  And  after  an  interval  of  some  days,  they 
should  take  the  composition  consisting  of  three  peppers,  or  that 
called  Diospoliticus.  And  if  they  take  every  day  of  pepper  alone  in 
water,  they  will  do  well.  But  if  the  patient  is  at  the  acme  of  the 
complaint,  his  diet  ought  to  be  very  light,  he  should  be  enjoined  to 
take  protracted  rest,  and  to  take  care  of  his  bowels  by  using  emol- 
lient and  laxative  things.  Next,  let  him  use  diuretics ;  and  if  the 
symptoms  of  concoction  appear  manifest,  then  he  may  boldly  have 
recourse  to  such  as  evacuate  black  humours,  and  that  not  once  only, 
but  frequently.  Give  him  also  the  medicine  from  vipers,  and  such 
others  as  are  recommended  for  these  fevers,  among  which  is  the 
well-known  and  celebrated  one  containing  the  Cyrenaic  juice. 


XXIV. — The  Diagnosis  of  the  Quotidian. 

The  quotidian  does  not  make  its  attack  with  a  rigor  on  the  first 
day,  but  in  progress  of  time,  a  chill  rather  than  rigor  takes  place, 
which  is,  with  difficulty,  succeeded  by  heat,  and  it  goes  on  long  in- 


BOOK  SECOND.  151 

creasing.  Yet,  it  does  not  make  those  affected  hot,  nor  their  respir- 
ation frequent  and  thick,  nor  does  it  make  them  pant  or  drink  cold 
water.  But  they  have  vomitings  of  phlegm,  and  whatever  is  voided 
by  the  belly,  is  cold,  crude,  and  watery,  in  these  fevers.  And  they 
have  no  sweats  during  the  first  days,  neither  have  they  an  intervd 
of  freedom  from  fever.  Their  colour  is  white  and  pale  ;  their  urine 
thin  and  white,  or  thick,  turbid,  and  red. 


XXV.— 7%e  Cure  of  Quotidians. 

In  curing  the  quotidians,  we  use  oxymel  during  the  first  days, 
and  those  things  which  promote  the  discharge  of  urine.  And,  upon 
the  whole,  the  diet  ought  to  be  incisive ;  but,  at  its  acme,  we  must 
look  to  the  stomach,  particularly  its  orifice.  We  must  also  prescribe 
an  emetic  from  radishes  with  food,  and  phlegmagogue  cathartics 
in  abundance,  until  it  subside. 


XXVI. — On  the  Fever  HepiahiSy  and  the  Rigor  tvithoul  heat. 

Thb  vitreous  phlegm  being  the  coldest  of  all,  if  it  accumulate  in 
the  body«  and  remain  free  from  putrefaction,  it  occasions  the  rigor 
without  heat,  which  is  not  attended  with  fever.     In  those  fevers 
which  are  kindled  by  the  humours,  it  is  putrefaction  for  the  most 
part  which  kindles  febrile  heat.     If  it  become  putrid,  and  that 
through  its  whole  substance,  which  is  rarely  the  case,  owing  to  its 
great  coldness,  it  occasions  quotidian  fever.     But  when  it  is  half 
putrid,  and  not  equally  through  its  whole  substance,  but  some  parts 
of  it  being  putrid,  and  others  not,  it  gives  rise  to  the  fever  called 
Hepialus,  in  which  those  affected  have  rigors  and  fever  at  the  same 
time ;  for  the  parts  of  the  humour  which  are  not  putrid  being  scat- 
tered through  the  veins  all  over  the  body,  occasion  rigor ;  but  the 
putrid  parts  kindle  fever.      The  word  Hepialus  is  either  derived 
from  ^irtoff  cikos,  I.  e.  the  sea,   which  is  mDd  in  appearance,   al- 
though formidable  in  reality ;  or  from  ^uds  aXcafciv,  i.  e.  warming 
gently.     And,  as  this  fever  is  of  the  quotidian  kind,  being  formed 
by  phlegm,  it  is  to  be  treated  in  particular  in  the  same  manner ; 
only  that  it  requires  remedies  as  much  hotter  and  more  incisive  than 
the  quotidian,  as  its  phlegm  is  colder  than  that  of  the  other.     The 
rigor  without  heat  stands  in  need  of  heating  things  still  more  than 
the  hepialus.     Wherefore,  the  composition  of  thiee  peppers,  that 
from  calamint,  and  still  more  that  from  Cyrenaic  juice  are  particu- 
larly suitable  to  this  complaint,  as  also  the  remedies  prepared  from 
castor  and  the  like.     You  will  find  a  fuller  account  of  these  matters 
in  the  45th  chapter,  "  on  immoderate  rigor  and  cold."     The  fevers 
called  Lipyrise,  and  the  Typhoid  or  smoky,  and  whatever  others  arc 
mentioned  besides  those  described,  being  all  of  the  same  kind  as  the 
above-mentioned,  will  require  the  same  methods  of  cure  as  those 
^bich  have  been  mentioned,  or  will  soon  be  described. 


152  1»AULUS  iEOINETA. 


XXVII. — On  the  Continual  Fevers, 

The  continual  fevers  are  allied  to  each  of  the  intermittents ;  thus, 
to  the  true  tertian  is  allied  the  Causus  or  ardent  fever ;  to  the  quo- 
tidian, that  fever  which  has  a  paroxysm  every  day,  hut  does  not 
terminate  in  a  complete  freedom  from  fever ;  and,  in  like  manner, 
to  the  quartan,  that  which  has  an  exacerbation  every  fourth  day. 
For,  the  true  causus  has  all  the  other  characteristics  of  the  tertian, 
and  differs  from  it  only  in  not  commencing  with  a  rigor,  nor  ending 
in  a  complete  remission  of  the  fever.  The  continual  fever  which 
has  an  exacerbation  every  day,  possesses  all  the  other  characteris- 
tics of  a  quotidian,  except  that  it  does  not  terminate  in  a  perfect 
apyrexy.  In  like  manner,  the  continual  fever  which  has  an  exacer- 
bation every  fourth  day,  but  does  not  terminate  in  a  complete  apy« 
rexy,  is  allied  to  the  quartan.  A  continual  fever,  therefore,  is  one 
which  does  not  terminate  in  any  interval  from  fever  until  it  is  alto- 
gether resolved.  But  when  it  evinces  no  remission,  it  is,  indeed, 
of  the  same  class  as  the  ardent  fevers,  but  differs  from  them  in 
Hcutenesa. 


XXVIII. — The  Diagnosis  and  Cure  of  Synochous  Fevers, 

Synochous  fevers  are  produced  either  by  effervescence  of  the 
blood,  or  putrefaction  of  the  same,  arising  from  obstruction,  and 
have,  therefore,  but  one  paroxysm  from  beginning  to  end.  The 
s3niiptoms  are,  pulse  great,  strong,  quick,  dense,  equable ;  but  they 
are  not  pungent ;  and  the  urine  is  little  different  from  the  natural  * 
The  cure  of  them  consists  in  blood-letting  ad  deliquium.  And  those 
who  are  affected  with  these  fevers,  and  are  not  bled,  run  the  most 
imminent  danger.  But  if  any  thing  should  prevent  us  from  having 
recourse  to  phlebotomy,  we  must  use  such  other  remedies  as  are 
calculated  to  remove  obstructions,  those  which  evacuate,  and  such 
as  will  allay  the  effervescence  of  the  blood.  But  when  in  these 
cases  you  remark  symptoms  of  concoction  of  the  humours,  and 
there  is  neither  inflammation,  sedematous  swelling,  nor  scirrhus  in 
any  important  part,  nor  any  part  cold,  so  as  that  the  evil  may  be 
determined  to  it,  you  may  boldly  give  cold  water,  more  especially 
if  the  patient  has  been  accustomed  to  cold  drink. 


XXIX. — On  the  Diagnosis  of  Ardent  Fevers, 

The  following  symptoms  accompany  ardent  fevers ;  tongue  dry, 
rough,  and  black,  griping  of  the  stomach,  excrements  pale,  strong 
thirst,  watchfulness,  and  sometimes  delirium. 


BOOK   8BCOND.  153 


XXX.— The  Cure  of  Ardent  Fevers. 

EiTHBR  of  the  following  things  must  take  place,  that  this  fever 
may  terminate  completely ;  the  bilious  humonrs  most  either  be  eva- 
coated  or  extingaished.  They  are  evacoated  then  by  sweating, 
vomiting,  or  purging  downwards;  but  they  are  extinguished  by 
cold  drink,  with  which  we  have  entirely  cured  ardent  fevers.  For 
diet,  those  in  causns  should  not  take  water  alone,  nor  mead  alone, 
but  boiled  mead  much  diluted  with  water ;  for  their  food  ought  to 
consist  entirely  of  drinks.  The  bath  will  suit  with  those  only  af* 
fected  with  causns  who  are  free  from  all  inflammatory  and  erysipe- 
latous swelling.  And  if  they  exhibit  symptoms  of  concoction,  it 
will  suit  still  better  with  them ;  but  not  so  if  the  fever  be  occasioned 
by  a  saltish  humour.  These  should  be  supported  with  the  juice  of 
ptisan. 


XXXI . — Diagnosis  and  Cure  of  Fevers  with  an  Erysipelatous 

affection. 

Fbvsrs  accompanied  with  an  erysipelatous  aflection  about  the 
viscera,  may  be  known  by  the  vehement  effervescence  and  strong 
pain  in  the  part,  also,  by  the  thirst  and  inordinate  burning ;  in  a 
li^ord,  by  the  S3anptoms  of  bitter  bile  putrefying  along  with  a  defi- 
cient blood.  They  are  to  be  treated  in  this  manner :  the  patient 
must  abstain  altogether  from  the  bath,  and  at  the  acme  of  the  com- 
plaint, use  the  very  coldest  water.  But  it  must  not  be  used  at  the 
commencement,  but  cold  things  are  to  be  applied  externally ;  and 
if  this  is  not  sufficient,  they  must  be  taken  internally.  Lettuces  and 
«uch  like  things  are  particularly  befitting.  The  juice  of  the  lettuce 
is  likewise  a  seasonable  application  externally,  also,  that  of  the 
boose-leek  (seny^er'^vivumj,  and  such  like  cooling  things.  We  may 
use  the  following  application,  which  is  an  excellent  one :  Squeezing 
out  the  juice  of  some  cooling  thing,  we  put  it  into  a  mortar  with 
purslain,  then  pound  and  strain  it ;  at  the  time  of  using,  we  mix 
a  little  polenta  with  it,  and  place  it  in  cold  water  to  cool  it.  A 
piece  of  cloth  folded  double  is  to  be  put  into  it,  and  afterwards  ap- 
plied to  the  hypochondrium,  and  not  suffered  to  remain,  but  another 
cold  one  must  be  substituted.  We  sometimes  mix  the  oil  of  unripe 
olives. 


XXXII. — Diagnosis  of  Hectic  Fevers. 

The  hectic  fever  is  not  only  seated  in  the  fluids  and  spirits,  but 
ftlso  in  the  solid  parts.  It  is  unaccompanied  with  pain,  and  those 
affected  with  this  fever,  imagine  that  they  have  no  fever  at  all,  for 
they  ars  sensible  of  bo  heat,  all  the  parts  being  heated  equally. 


154  PAULUa  a2:GIN£TA. 

Hectic  fevers  have  a  double  origin,  for  the  most  part  supervening 
upon  ardent  fevers  which  have  been  protracted  so  long  as  to  con- 
sume in  time  all  the  juices  in  the  body  of  the  heart ;  or  they  may 
come  on  while  these  still  remain.  The  former  constitute  not  only 
hectic  but  marasmus.  Those  that  come  on  while  the  juices  of  the 
heart  remain,  seize  upon  the  body  of  the  heart,  and  hence  the  fe- 
brile flame  is  kindled,  like  the  flame  of  a  lamp  from  its  wick.  This 
is  one  of  the  modes  of  formation.  The  other  mode  is,  when  they 
make  their  attack  originally,  commencing  like  ephemeral  fevers, 
from  grief,  anger,  or  much  fatigue  attended  with  heat.  These  may 
be  cured  without  difficulty ;  but  those  of  them  which  have  termi- 
nated in  marasmus,  it  is  impossible  to  cure.  A  hectic  fever  which 
is  running  into  marasmus  may  be  easily  recognised.  You  may  see 
the  patients'  eyes  immeasurably  hollow,  turbid,  dry,  and  aflected 
with  a  certain  squalid  appearance.  The  vital  bloom  of  their  colour 
is  gone ;  their  forehead  is  parched  and  stretched ;  they  constantly 
wink  as  if  asleep,  and  yet  the  affection  is  not  sleep,  but  an  inability  to 
keep  awake  ;  their  temples  are  collapsed  ;  and  what  remains,  but  the 
bones  and  skin  alone?  Tf  you  lay  bare,  and  examine  the  parts  about 
the  belly,  you  will  fancy  that  none  of  the  entrails  and  intestines  re- 
main, and  that  the  hypochondrium  is  forcibly  drawn  upwards.  The 
skin  is  parched  in  the  last  extreme,  the  pulse  slender,  dense,  and 
hard.  The  heat  on  the  first  application  of  the  hand  seema  faint, 
but  soon  afterwards  feels  acrid  and  pungent.  While,  therefore,  any 
of  the  natural  moisture  remains,  the  fever  is  only  hectic ;  but  when 
the  humidity  runs  the  risk  of  being  altogether  consumed,  a  true 
marasmus  is  formed. 


XXXIII.— 7%e  Cure  of  Hectic  Fevers. 

Thosb  aflbcted  with  hectic  fevers,  should  be  well  supplied  with 
food  from  the  commencement,  on  account  of  the  pungency  of  the 
humours.  The  best  nure  is  a  moistening  diet.  You  ought  also 
to  give  for  nourishment,  the  juice  of  ptisan,  and  broths  of  chond- 
rus,  adding  a  little  bread ;  and  to  treat  the  patient  with  a  draught 
of  moderately  cold  water,  when  neither  inflammation  nor  putre- 
faction of  the  humours  is  present.  But  if  you  conclude  that  the 
lesion  is  great,  you  must  proscribe  the  cold  water,  and  have  re- 
course to  the  cold  applications  externally.  To  those  aflfected  in 
this  manner,  baths  are  at  all  times  proper. 


XXXIV. — On  Semi'tertians. 

As  a  tertian  paroxysm'  commences  with  a  rigor,  and  a  quotidian 
without  one,  the  fever  composed  of  both,  brings  on  a  degree  of 
shivering,  which  is  less  than  a  rigor,  and  greater  than  chUlness,  as 
being  a  combination  of  these  two  extremes.  Whence,  this  fever 
has  not  iminroperly  got  the  name  of  semi-tertian.    These  fevers  are 


BOOK   SECOND.  155 

formed  in  two  ways,  either  the  two  paroxysms  aniting  into  one 
period,  or  being  mixed  together  from  the  commencement.  When» 
therefore,  the  tertian  prevails,  the  fever  is  attended  with  a  strong 
shivering,  and  has  even  a  certain  degree  of  rigor  at  the  attack. 
Snch  a  fever  also,  soon  becomes  hotter  and  more  ardent,  and  brings 
on  some  vomiting  of  bile,  or  a  discharge  of  it  downwards,  or  a 
sweat.  When  tiie  other,  the  pituitoos,  prevails,  there  is  cold- 
ness of  the  extremities,  but  little  shivering ;  neither  are  they  ac- 
companied with  thirst,  nor  are  they  ardent.  But  when  the  ter- 
tian intermittent  and  continual  quotidian  are  equal  in  magnitude, 
the  commencement  of  the  paroxysm  is  with  shivering ;  and  when 
that  from  phlegm  prevails,  there  are  contractions  and  shiverings ; 
but,  if  the  hotter  species  prevail,  they  soon  acquire  heat.  This 
is  the  true  semi- tertian,  being  a  fever  formed  from  an  equal  com- 
bination of  both,  a  tertian  intermittent,  and  a  continual  quotidian. 
But  that  which  is  not  the  true  semi-tertian,  has  either  more  of 
the  bilious,  or  of  the  pituitous  character;  which  species  is  of 
easiest  cure,  the  smaller  humour  being  readily  overcome  by  the 
prevalence  of  the  greater,  or  by  the  aid  of  art.  When  the  pitui- 
tous state  prevails,  we  must  use  the  remedies  mentioned  for  the 
quotidian ;  or,  if  yellow  bile,  those  for  the  tertian,  always  bestow- 
ing most  attention  upon  that  which  is  most  urgent,  but  not  neglect- 
ing the  other  entirely. 


XXXV. — On  Epidemic  Diseases. 

Wb  call  those  diseases  Epidemic  and  Common,  that  attack  many 
together;  which,  having  a  common  origin,  have  also  a  common 
cause.  Common  diseases  are  produced  by  common  food  of  a  bad 
quality,  drinking  of  bad  water,  inordinate  fatigue,  the  want  of  the 
customary  exercise,  deprivation  or  repletion  from  the  prevalence 
either  of  a  famine  or  of  great  abundance.  The  nature  of  the  country 
will  also  often  occasion  common  diseases,  either  from  its  l3dng  ad- 
jacent to  marshes,  or  to  some  deep  pit,  which  emits  a  deleterious  and 
pCTnicious  exhalation.  These  things  happen  frequently.  But  the 
atmosphere  which  surrounds  us  may  alter  the  temperaments,  by 
being  hotter,  colder,  or  more  humid  than  ordinary.  For,  to  other 
causes  we  are  not  all  exposed  together,  nor  do  we  come  in  contact 
with  them  for  the  whole  day.  But  the  ambient  air  is  diffused 
around  all,  and  is  inhaled  by  respiration.  Now,  the  bodies  of  ani- 
mals must  undergo  a  change  along  with  the  differences  of  tempera- 
ture. He,  therefore,  who  is  acquainted  with  these  matters,  will  not 
only  be  able  to  predict  the  diseases  which  are  to  arise  from  every 
state  of  the  atmosphere,  but  will  be  able  also  to  prevent  them  by 
substituting  a  counteracting  regimen  to  the  intemperament  of  the 
air.  Wherefore,  those  bodies  which  are  disposed  to  a  certain 
disease,  from  a  natural  intemperament,  will  be  affected  by  a  similar 
temperature  of  the  surrounding  air.  But  those  of  an  opposite  tem- 
perament to  the  atmosphere,  instead  of  being  hurt,  will  be  improved; 


156  PAULUS    iEGINBTA. 

the  excess  of  their  intemperament  being  overcome  by  the  opposite 
excess.  He  that  is  acquainted  with  these  things  will  preserve  the 
health,  by  substituting  the  contraries  to  the  constitution  of  the  body ; 
sometimes  perhaps  using  refrigerants,  and  sometimes  heating  things, 
cooling  with  water,  using  restricted  exercise  and  food,  and  plenty 
of  dilution ;  and  warming,  by  means  of  increased  clothing,  exercise; 
more  food,  and  less  drink.  And,  by  kindling  a  great  pile,  one  may 
change  the  air  from  a  humid  state  to  that  which  is  dry  and  hot,  as 
they  say  was  done  by  Acron  of  Agrigentum. 


XXXVl. — On  the  Plague ^  from  the  Works  of  Ruffus. 

In  the  plague  there  is  every  thing  which  is  dreadful,  and  no- 
thing of  this  kind  is  wanting  as  in  other  diseases.  For  there  are 
delirium,  vomitings  of  bile,  distension  of  the  h3rpochondrium,  pains, 
much  sweatings,  cold  of  the  extremities,  bilious  diarrhoeas,  which 
are  thin  and  flatulent ;  the  urine  watery,  thin,  bilious,  black,  having' 
bad  sediments,  and  the  substances  floating  on  it  most  unfavourable ; 
tickling  of  blood  from  the  nose,  heat  in  the  chest,  tongue  parched, 
thirst,  restlessness,  insomnolency,  strong  convulsions,  and  many  other 
things  which  are  unfavourable.  Should  a  person  foresee  that  the 
plague  is  coming,  by  attending  to  the  badness  of  the  season,  and  the 
unhealthy  occupations  of  the  inhabitants,  and  from  observing  other 
animals  perishing ;  when  one  observes  these  things,  let  him  also  ob- 
serve this — what  is  the  character  of  the  present  season,  and  what 
that  of  the  whole  year,  for  you  will  be  able  thereby  to  find  out  the 
best  regimen ;  such,  for  example,  as  if  the  temperature  of  the  season 
ought  to  have  been  dry,  but  has  become  humid;  in  that  case,  it  will 
be  necessary,  by  a  drying  diet,  to  consume  the  superabundant  moisture. 
Care  also  must  be  had  of  the  belly,  and  when  there  is  phlegm  in  the 
stomach  it  must  be  evacuated  by  emetics.  And  when  a  fulness  of 
blood  prevails,  a  vein  should  be  opened.  Purgings  also  by  urine, 
and  otherwise  by  the  whole  body,  are  proper.  But,  if  the  patient  is 
afiected  with  ardent  fever,  and  has  a  fiery  heat  about  the  breast,  it 
will  not  be  improper  to  apply  cold  things  to  the  breast,  and  to  give 
cold  drink,  but  not  in  small  quantity,  for  it  will  only  make  the  flame 
bum  more ;  but  in  full  draughts,  so  as  to  extinguish  it.  But,  if  an 
ardent  fever  prevails  within,  but  the  extremities  are  cold,  and  the 
skin  cold,  the  hypochondrium  distended,  and  the  stomach  sends  the 
matters  which  have  been  melted,  some  upwards,  and  others  down- 
wards ;  if  watchfulness,  delirium,  and  roughness  of  the  tongue,  are 
present ;  in  these  cases,  calefacient  remedies  are  wanted,  to  diflfuse 
the  heat  all  over  the  body,  and  every  other  means  ought  to  be  tried, 
in  order  to  determine  the  heat  from  the  internal  to  the  external 
parts.  The  following  propoma  may  be  used  ; — of  aloes,  two-parts, 
of  ammoniac  perfume,  two  parts,  of  myrrh,  one  part ;  pound  these  in 
fragrant  wine,  and  give  every  day  to  the  quantity  of  half  a  cyathus 
(  5v).  I  never  knew  a  person,  says  Rufliis,  who  did  not  recover  from 
the  plague  after  this  draught.     So  says  Rufitis.     But  Galen  says 


BOOK  SECOND.  15/ 

concerning  pestilential  putrefactions,  that  to  drink  Armenian  bole, 
and,  in  like  manner,  the  theriac  from  vipers,  is  of  great  service ;  and 
that,  in  the  plague  which  prevailed  in  Rome,  all  died  who  were  not 
benefited  by  either  of  these  things. 

XXXVII, — On  the  Treatment  of  those  who  are  seized  tvith 

Syncope  from  Crude  Humours. 

SoMB  are  seized  with  fever  while  having  a  great  collection  of 
crude  humours,  and  while  the  mouth  of  the  stomach  is  disordered. 
In  them  the  hypochondrium  is  distended  with  flatulence,  the  orifice 
of  the  stomach  is  more  swelled  than  natural ;  in  some  the  complexion 
is  more  turned  white  and  watery,  and  in  others  black.     None  of 
these  can  bear  the  loss  of  blood  without  the  most  imminent  danger ; 
but  they  require  evacuation,  although  they  cannot  endure  phleboto- 
my or  purging,  for  even  without  them  they  are  disposed  to  fall  into 
a  state  of  syncope.   They  are  to  be  cured,  then,  by  friction.    It  will 
be  proper,  then,  at  the  commencement  of  the  disease,  to  begin  with 
rubbing  the  limbs  from  above,  downwards,  with  moderately  rough 
linen  cloths,  and  afterwards,  the  whole  arms  from  above,  downwards. 
But  when  the  limbs  have  been  sufficiently  warmed,  and  there  ia 
danger  of  a  sense  of  lassitude,  we  must  use  a  relaxing  oil,  but  avoid 
all  astringents.  When  it  is  winter,  we  must  also  use  a  sudorific  one, 
such  as  the  Sicyonian  oil,  or  that  of  camomile.     After  rubbing  the 
limbs  freely,  we  must  next  rub  off  the  oil,  and  proceed  to  the  spine, 
which  we  must  rub  in  like  manner,  and  then  return  to  the  legs,  and 
from  them  to  the  arms  again,  and  afterwards  to  the  spine  again,  con- 
tinuing this  practice  for  a  whole  day.    Honied  water,  in  which  hys- 
sop has  been  boiled,  is  most  beneficial  in  these  cases.     And  they 
must  neither  get  solid  food,  nor  soup,  nor  water,  nor  be  permitted  at 
all  to  drink  freely  ;  but  they  ought  to  be  contented  with  honied  wa- 
ter alone  for  the  first  three  days,  and  be  rubbed  in  succession.     If 
the  strength  be  moderately  good,  and  the  contents  of  the  stomach  do 
not  pass  properly  downwards,  you  may  venture  with  a  clyster.   But 
if  there  is  a  greater  overflow  of  the  superfluities  than  proper  upon 
the  stomach,  you  must  first  boil  the  honied  water  well,  for  thus  it 
will  be  less  laxative ;  but  when  the  belly  is  looser  than  proper,  you 
must  not  thus  stop  it,  but,  instead  of  the  honied  water,  give  the 
juice  of  ptisan.    But  if  the  discharge  still  continue,  we  must  support 
with  a  gruel  made  from  chondrus.     But  if  we  ascertain  from  the 
pulse  that  the  powers  of  the  system  are  prostrated,  it  will  be  proper 
to  give  bread  out  of  diluted  wine,  provided  there  be  no  inflammation 
of  the  stomach  or  liver.     But  should  they  be  inflamed  at  the  same 
time  that  the  body  is  loaded  with  crude  humours,  the  state  of  the 
patient  is  hopeless.   If  you  perceive  that  the  humours  are  thick,  give 
oxymel  always  instead  of  honied  water ;  or,  if  it  is  summer,  the  pa- 
tient hot,  and  fond  of  cold  drink,  give  him  cold  oxymel ;  but  when 
in  winter,  it  must  be  hot.     Baths  are  most  prejudicial  to  such  per- 
sons.    If,  when  you  are  called,  syncope  has  already  come  on,  and 


158  PAULUS  JBQIN£TA. 

the  parts  which  I  have  mentioned  are  free  from  inflammation,  give 
a  small  bit  of  bread  out  of  wine,  and  proceed  straightway  to  the 
friction  in  the  manner  I  have  described.  In  those  cases  in  which 
the  syncope  is  occasioned  by  yellow  bile  infesting  the  mouth  of  the 
stomach,  we  must  give  cold  chink,  and  administer  wine  that  is  thin, 
of  a  bright  yellow  colour,  and  old. 


XXXVIII. — On  t/wae  who  have /alien  into  Syncope  from  thin 

Humours. 

Those  who  have  fallen  into  a  state  of  syncope  from  thin  humours, 
must  be  treated  quite  oppositely  to  the  manner  described,  for  you 
will  find  the  diagnostic  symptoms  quite  different.  They  must  be 
supported  by  taking  a  little  food  frequently.  And  their  case  is  to 
be  thought  hopeless  when  the  liver  or  stomach  is  inflamed  at  the 
same  time  that  the  powers  are  gone.  In  these  afiections,  the  ex« 
pression  of  the  countenance  speedily  becomes  death-like.  It  is  ne- 
cessary to  support  their  strength  with  food,  but  their  skin  must  be 
condensed  instead  of  being  rarefied  as  in  the  former  case.  The  air 
must  be  cooled,  and  they  must  be  rubbed  with  astringent  oint- 
ments. They  must  be  furnished  with  food  not  very  laxative,  also 
bread  and  g^els  from  chondrus,  with  autumnal  fruits  that  are 
austere,  and  not  apt  to  spoil ;  these,  either  by  themselves  or  with 
bread.  A  watery  wine  taken  from  the  beginning  with  the  food  will 
be  beneficial. 


XXXIX. — On  the  other  causes  which  occasion  Syncope. 

Thkrk  are  four  other  causes  from  which  men  fall  into  syncope  ; 
namely,  violent  pain,  watchfulness,  too  great  evacuation,  and  some- 
times motion  when  in  a  state  of  delirium.  To  these,  if  you  please, 
you  may  add  a  fifth,  namely,  an  intemperament  of  the  primary  or- 
gans. Death  takes  place  most  quickly  when  the  heart  is  aflfected, 
next,  when  the  brain,  but  not  so  when  the  liver. 


XL. — On  Pain. 

A  TORPID  pain  is  occasioned  by  a  cold  aflection ;  the  pulsatory  is 
characteristic  of  a  strong  inflammation.  But,  if  a  jierson  feel  as  if 
pierced  by  a  sharp-pointed  instrument,  or  bored  by  a  wimble,  this 
kind  of  pain  is  from  the  thick  intestine,  i.  e,  the  colon.  The  pungent 
is  seated  in  the  membranes.  The  darting  pain  attends  the  most  ve- 
hement attacks,  not  only  of  hemicrania,  but  also  of  cephalsea.  It 
is  said  to  be  darting  when  commencing  in  the  seat  of  the  affection, 
as  from  a  root,  it  spreads  quickly  to  the  surrounding  parts.  Dis- 
tending pains  take  place  in  the  nerves,  when  they  are  aflected  and 
stretched  towards  both  extremities,  but  they  are  not  liable  to  be 


BOOK    SECOND.  169 

afS&cted  with  lateral  distensions.  The  membrane  under  the  skin 
when  distended  occasions  tensive  and  torpid  pains ;  those  between 
the  flesh,  as  it  were,  divellent.  For  they  are  many,  have  irregular 
insertions,  and  surround  the  flesh.  But  the  pains  proceeding  from 
the  membranes  which  surround  the  bone,  are  deep-seated,  and  seem 
to  proceed  from  the  bones  themselves.  Wherefore,  when  no  external 
caase  of  the  pain  is  apparent,  you  must  consider  the  patient's  preced- 
ing regimen.  If  it  has  been  more  inactive  than  usual,  or  if  he  has 
been  taking  more  nutritive  food  than  common,  or  if  any  evacuation  has 
been  suppressed, — if  any  or  all  of  these  circumstances  be  observed, 
plethora  is  the  cause  of  the  pain,  and  you  must  evacuate  him  as 
quickly  as  possible ;  for,  by  this  means,  you  will  be  enabled  with  all 
safety  to  use  such  remedies  as  are  fitted  to  repel  the  defluxions  from 
the  aflSscted  parts.  If  the  part  be  distended  with  a  fullness  of  blood, 
open  a  large  vein  near  it  immediately ;  but  when  crudities  alone 
are  the  cause,  you  must  purge ;  and,  when  both  meet  together,  you 
mast  use  both  evacuations,  beginning  with  the  bleeding.  If,  after 
both  these  remedies  have  been  tried,  the  pain  continue,  it  is  clear 
that  the  ofiending  matter  has  become  fixed  in  the  part  afiected ;  and 
it  is  also  clear,  that  the  cure  will  be  accomplished  by  discutient  reme- 
dies. In  like  manner,  we  may  cure  pains  from  flatulence,  by  sooth- 
ing them  with  attenuant  food  and  injections,  and  opening  the  pores 
of  the  part  with  cataplasms,  irrigations,  and  fomentations.  If  a 
swelling  bearing  down  and  pressing  upon  the  part  be  the  cause  of 
the  pain,  it  must  be  removed ;  but,  if  it  proceed  from  a  pungent 
humour,  attenuant  and  calefacient  things  are  most  improper.  Dill 
boiled  in  oil  is  anodyne  and  soporific,  and  the  green  more  than 
the  drv. 


XLI. — On  CoUiquaiive  Diarrhoea  or  Melting. 

Whkn  any  thing  is  discharged  from  the  bowels  which  was  not 
part  of  the  food  or  drink  that  was  taken,  but  of  the  fluids  of  the  body 
which  had  flowed  to  them,  (resembling  the  yellow  bile  which  is  con> 
tinually  discharged  by  vomiting  and  purging,  but  differing  from  it 
infoetor ;  and  in  this,  that  the  alvine  discharge  is  of  a  darker  yellow, 
of  the  consistence  of  the  sordes  balneorum,  oily,  and  adipose)  the 
disease  is  called  colliquation  or  melting.  At  first,  the  fat  and  newly- 
made  flesh  are  dissolved  and  melted  by  the  heat  of  the  fever,  but 
as  the  evil  is  protracted,  the  solid  parts  themselves  are  melted  down. 
In  this  most  unfavourable  state  of  fever,  a  draught  of  cold  water  from 
the  coolest  fountain  is  the  most  proper  remedy.  Likewise,  cold 
cataplasms  and  epithems  ought  to  be  applied  to  the  chest  and  hypo- 
chondriac regions,  and  cooling  food  g^ven. 


XLII. — On  Watchfulness  in  Fevers. 
Tbosk  who  are  much  troubled  with  insomnolency,  we   are  to 


160  *  PAULUS   ifiQINETA. 

direct  to  have  their  legs  and  hands  bound  with  ligatures  at  the  time 
when  they  were  accustomed  to  go  to  rest ;  and  make  them  keep 
their  eyelids  open,  or  wink,  until  they  are  sufficiently  fatigued ; 
then  we  suddenly  loosen  the  ligatures,  remove  the  lamp,  and  order 
complete  stillness  to  be  preserved.  But,  when  the  insomnolency  is 
obstinate,  we  must  bathe  the  forehead  during  the  decline  of  the  pa- 
roxysm, with  the  decoction  of  the  heads  of  the  black  poppy,  and  direct 
the  patient  to  snuff  up  the  dried  and  powdered  husk  of  the  white 
poppy ;  or  from  the  root  of  the  mandragora  pounded  with  wine,  or 
rose  oil,  we  make  an  emollient  ointment  (malagma),  and  rub  the 
forehead  with  it.  Or,  we  use,  during  the  paroxyms,  wild  thyme 
boiled  in  must  with  melilot.  Or,  taking  the  pounded  heads  of 
poppies,  we  make  a  cataplasm  of  it  with  bread  and  rose  oil,  or  ce- 
rate. And  the  greatest  attention  ought  to  be  paid  to  the  food.  Let 
about  three  spoonfuls  of  the  seeds  of  the  wlute  poppy  be  added  to 
the  patient's  gruels ;  and  let  his  pot-herbs  be  prepared  by  adding 
to  them  as  many  of  the  leaves  of  the  black  poppy,  if  green,  as  can 
be  contained  within  three  fingers ;  or,  otherwise,  three  or  four 
dried  heads  may  be  boiled  with  them  and  taken.  If,  even  by  these 
means,  sleep  cannot  be  procured,  let  him  be  smeared  with  the  juice 
of  poppy  or  of  mandragora.  But  the  electuary  composed  from  the 
heads  of  poppies,  and,  particularly  that  which  is  drunk  with  sodden 
wine,  to  the  amount  of  a  spoonful,  or  a  spoonful  and  a  half,  disposes 
to  sleep.  Those  who  are  not  troubled  with  fullness  of  the  head 
may  use  the  following  fumigations  in  the  decline  : — Of  Indian  Leaf, 
of  amomum,  of  costus,  of  amabo,  of  each  oz.  1,  of  the  fruit  of  the 
balsam  tree  9>.  1,  of  storax,  of  ammoniac  perfume,  of  Scythian 
bdellium,  of  the  root  of  the  mandragora,  and  juice  of  poppy,  as 
much ;  use  as  a  fumigation  with  C3rpress-wood. 


XLIII. — On  Cataphora  or  Somnolency. 

Spongb  the  forehead  with  oxycrate  of  the  temperature  of  new 
milk  ;  put  tight  ligatures  round  the  extremities  ;  and  apply  to  the 
nose  strong- smelling  things  of  an  incisive  quality.  In  the  remis- 
sions, apply  cupping-instruments  between  the  shoulders  along  the 
spine.  Wlien  the  disease  is  protracted,  errhines  must  be  tried  dur- 
ing the  decline.  Let  the  food  consist  of  such  things  as  have  in* 
cisive  and  dividing  properties,  as  recommended  by  us  in  our  general 
directions  regarding  the  health. 

XLlV.— On  the  Cure  of  Headach  in  Fevers 

When  headach  proves  troublesome  in  fevers,  after  the  accustomed 
evacuations,  in  the  decline  of  the  paroxyms,  the  head  ought  to  be 
anointed,  first  with  the  common  oil  from  unripe  olives,  or  with  rose 
oil,  to  which  some  vinegar  has  been  added;  which,  if  it  be  the  sum- 
mer season,  and  the  fever  of  the  ardent  type,  may  be  used  cold ; 


BOOK  SECOND.  Itil 

bat,  in  winter,  if  the  fever  be  not  ardent,  it  mast  be  hot  or  tepid. 
In  the  oil,  may  be  boiled  the  juice  of  wild  thyme  and  knot-grass 
(pofyffonum)  I  and  in  summer,  the  heads  of  the  poppy,  or  the 
poppy  itself  may  be  added,  as  in  winter,  a  little  of  the  hogs-fennel 
may  be  sabstituted  in  place  of  it.  When  the  pain  continues  in  the 
forehead,  if  the  open  of  the  head  be  bare,  a  poultice  may  be  ap- 
plied to  it,  made  oif  old  barley-meal  and  knot-grass ;  or,  in  like 
ttianner,  of  bread  and  roses,  or  of  some  myrtle  or  wild  thyme. 
Some  are  rather  benefited  by  an  admixture  of  penny- royal,  and 
otherA,  when  the  affection  was  of  a  hot  nature,  have  rather  been 
reoiedied,  by  having  flea-wort  (psyllium)  added  to  the  barley- 
floor,  or  even  by  this  sdbitance  alone,  when  boiled  to  the  con- 
ttStenc^  of  bird-lime.  It  mnst  be  frequently  changed.  Coriander 
with  barley-meal  may  be  used  in  like  manner.  Aloes  with  myrrh 
are  also  to  be  rubbed  in,  or  myrrh  and  ammoniac  in  like  manner, 
and  crocomagma.  Pulsatory  pains  are  dispelled  by  rue  and  mint, 
with  bread,  to  which  a  little  rose  oil  has  been  added.  When*  the 
paiti  does  not  yield  to  the  afore-mentioned  remedies,  we  must  first 
cut  the  hair  close  by  the  skin,  and  then  rub  some  of  the  oily  em- 
brocations over  it  all ;  after  which,  cupping- instruments  are  to  be 
applied  to  the  hind-head,  and  the  extremities  to  be  bound  with 
l^^tares,  and  chafed.  Leeches  also  are  a  proper  application.  But 
if  a  catarrh  or  defluxion  raise  the  pain  in  the'  head,  we  must  ap- 
ply the  remedies  which  will  afterwards  be  described  in  the  pro- 
per place.  But  if  exhalations  from  the  stomach  have  been  carried 
upwards,  and  hurt  the  head,  we  must  attend  to  them,  as  will  be 
mentioned  below. 


XLV. — On  the  Care  of  Stomach  Affections, 

If  the  stomach  be  weak,  we  must  apply  strengthening  cataplasms 
to  it,  such  as  those  made  of  dates  and  wine,  and  of  polenta  and 
saffiron,  and  of  mastich  and  aloes  ;  and  use  embrocations  from  worm- 
woody  the  oil  of  apples,  and  of  mastich,  nard,  and  wine ;  and  if  hot, 
we  must  add  cooling  things,  such  as  the  juices  of  gourd,  lettuce, 
ptorslain,  night-shade,  endive,  and  unripe  grapes.  But  if  the 
bowels  appear  to  be  inflamed,  it  will  be  proper  to  add  to  the  embro- 
cations some  of  the  relaxing  medicines,  such  as  oil  of  camomile 
and  of  privet,  the  grease  of  a  cock  or  goose  and  bdellium,  ammo- 
niac, or  the  like ;  and  to  the  cataplasms,  the  seed  of  parsley  and 
fenugreek,  the  flowers  of  the  marshmallows  and  camomile ;  and,  in  a 
word,  let  the  application  be  a  compound  of  relaxing,  attenuant,  bit- 
ter, and  astringent  properties. 


XLVI. — On  Inordinate  Chills  and  Rigors  in  Fevers. 

Whsn  rigors  are  critical,  we  must  not  interfere  with  them,  nor 
attempt  to  put  an  end  to  the  struggle ;  and  a  chill  succeeding  to  a 


162  PAULUS    .EGINETA. 

sweat  will  readily  pass  away  and  give  no  trouble.  But  when  the 
rigor  and  chills  are  protracted,  and  more  particularly,  if  occasioned 
by  a  collection  of  cold  phlegm,  we  are  first  to  apply  ligatures  round 
the  limbs  in  various  ways,  and  then  anoint  them  with  the  oil  of 
camomile,  or  of  privet,  or  of  iris ;  or,  if  a  stronger  application  be 
required,  we  may  add  to  the  oil  some  pepper,  or  the  seed  of  the 
rosemary,  or  adarce,  or  castor,  and  the  whole  body  is  to  be  gently 
rubbed  with  these  things.  And  in  order  that  the  oil  may  not  run 
off,  a  small  quantity  of  wax  may  be  melted  with  it.  Or,  if  it  is  the 
rigor  not  attended  with  heat,  we  must  use  the  most  powerful  re- 
storative ointments  (acopa),  and  also,  dropaces  and  sinapisms. 
Proper  fomentations  ought  likewise  to  be  got  ready.  The  acrid- 
scented  things  are  likewise  proper,  such  as  calamint,  penny-rojral, 
and  hyssop.  Before  the  attack,  we  should  likewise  give  for  drink, 
honied  water,  in  which  pepper  and  rue  have  been  boiled.  And  wis 
should  likewise  give  of  the  Cyrenaic  juice,  to  the  size  of  a  millet, 
two  hours  before  the  paroxysm,  mixing  it  up  with  boiled  honey ; 
and  we  are  to  give  the  juice  of  the  laser- wort  in  like  manner.  And 
the  composition  for  quartans,  made  from  the  Cyrenaic  juice,  has 
proved  beneficial  to  many.  And  some,  by  going  into  a  bath  of  hot 
oil,  have  shaken  off  obstinate  rigors,  as  Archigenes  affirms.  But 
Galen  directs  before  the  attack,  to  rub  the  skin  with  southernwood, 
or  dried  calamint,  or  the  leaves  and  flowers  of  flea-bane  (conyza), 
or  with  costus,  or  pellitory,  these  two  last  with  oil.  By  these 
means,  the  rigors  will  nearly  or  altogether  cease. 


XLVIL— 0?i  Sweats, 

Wb  must  allow  critical  sweats  to  go  on  until  they  produce  the 
necessary  evacuation,  and  co-operate  by  means  of  moderate  heat 
and  rest,  and  not  wiping  away  the  sweat  (for  one  brings  on  ano- 
ther), by  washing  the  mouth  with  warm  liquids,  by  warm  drinks, 
and  by  sleep.  The  sweats  which  occur  in  the  decline  of  a  fever, 
are  to  be  treated  like  the  critical.  Sudorific  remedies  are  suffi- 
ciently treated  of  in  the  48th  Chapter  of  the  First  Book.  But 
when  the  sweats  exceed  in  quantity,  they  must  be  wiped  oflf,  and 
the  covering  of  clothes  lightened,  so  as  to  cool  the  patient.  For, 
by  exceeding,  they  occasion  lassitude,  and  often  bring  on  syncope.^ 
Let,  therefore,  the  covering  be  light  and  moistened ;  let  the  air  bie, 
cooled;  and  let  ventilation  be  used  during  sleep.  Let  the  black 
myrtle,  pounded,  be  sprinkled  on  the  body,  and  gall,  and  the  bark  of 
the  pine  in  like  manner.  Let  amber  and  polenta,  with  astringent 
wine,  be  applied  to  the  proper  parts ;  and  let  the  face  be  sponged 
with  oxycrate.  Archigenes  uses  asbestus  and  the  burned  lees  of 
wine  in  these  cases,  and  for  the  rigor  not  succeeded  by  heat.  For 
both,  he  says,  when  heated,  become  dry.  He  also  directs  to  bathe 
the  middle  parts  of  the  body  with  the  juice  of  plantain,  or  corian- 
der, or  purslain,  or  cabbage,  that  they  may  obstruct  the  passages  of 
the  sweat.     In  sleep,  pieces  of  cloth  smeared  with  Cimolian  earth 


BOOK    SECOND.  163 

« 

diisolved  in  water,  are  to  be  applied  to  the  back  and  chest.  And 
the  whole  body  should  be  anointed  with  the  oil  of  roses,  or  of  ap- 
ples, or  of  lentisk,  or  of  myrtle,  or  with  the  cerates  ft-om  them. 
Bat  fatty  substances  are  particularly  adapted  to  them ;  for,  by  shut- 
ting up  the  insensible  pores,  they  prevent  the  passage  of  the  fluid. 
It  is  clear,  that  dry  food  and  moderately  astringent  wines  are  befit- 
ting to  them ;  but  much  drink  should  be  avoided,  and,  in  particu- 
lar, all  things  of  a  very  liquid  nature,  and  likewise  ft-equent  wash- 
mgs  of  the  mouth.  But,  if  possible,  gestation  should  be  taken  in  a 
cold  state  of  the  air.  The  extremities  in  particular,  are  to  be  cooled  by 
these  means.  For  those  sweats  which  are  extorted  by  spasms  and 
pains,  tight  ligatures,  or  fomentations,  are  to  be  applied  to  the  ex- 
tremities, and  they  may  be  relieved  by  gently  rubbing  with  woollen 
cloths. 


XLVIII. — On  Cough  in  Fevers, 

Wx  must  endeavour  to  remove  a  cough  in  fevers,  more  especially 
in  such  as  come  on  with  rigors,  for  it  exasperates  the  fever  when  it 
is  subsiding.  We  must  give  lozenges  from  boiled  honey  to  hold 
below  the  tongue,  for  these  melt  and  remove  the  substances  which 
obstruct  respiration.  The  time  for  using  them  is  at  the  acme  of  the 
paroxysm,  and  a  short  time  before  the  attack.  Well-boiled  hydro- 
mel  must  likewise  be  given.  When  there  is  no  suspicion  of  the 
nerves  being  affected,  in  process  of  time  you  may  give  oxymel  with 
confidence,  or  if  not  it,  the  decoction  of  hyssop,  which  is  a  remedy 
also  for  rigors.  If  the  fever  is  not  of  the  ardent  kind,  you  may 
give  castor,  which  is  also  of  use  to  the  nervous  system.  Electua- 
ries may  be  used,  made  of  the  kernels  of  the  common  and  wild  pine, 
ins,  liniseed,  bitter  almonds,  and  nettle-seed.  But  the  most  of  these 
niay  be  mixed  with  the  food.  Turpentine-rosin  should  be  given  in 
an  egg.  To  the  chest  and  the  parts  about  the  trachea,  apply  a  sul- 
phurated woollen  cloth,  and  oil  of  rue,  or  of  iris,  or  of  dill.  Tight 
ligatures  long  applied,  are  excellent  for  stopping  cough,  I  mean  to 
the  middle  and  extremities.  Nor  will  it  be  unsuitable  to  use  staves- 
acre  dried,  which  may  be  chewed  with  dried  grapes  or  mastich. 
The  extremities  may  be  rubbed,  chafed,  and  bound  with  ligatures, 
and  afterwards  the  retracted  parts  unbound.  But  if  the  cough  an- 
noys, owing  to  the  acrid  nature  of  the  fever,  we  must  use  a  gargle 
of  tepid  water.  Cold  water  also  is  often  useful ;  and,  in  like  man- 
ner, gargles  of  oxycrate,  or  of  the  decoctions  of  dates,  roses,  or  li- 
^Qorice.  Moderately  cooling  things  are  also  to  be  laid  over  the 
Wels  and  heart. 


XLIX. — On  Sneezing. 

-      Bnxbzing  frequently  occurring  in  fevers  is  troublesome,  for  it 
^  I   ^^termines  to  the  head  and  weakens  the  strength,  and,  in  some 

m2 


164  PAULUS  iEGINETA. 

cases,  it  produces  a  discharge  of  blood.  Such  are  the  bad  effects 
of  sneezing,  which  ought,  therefore,  to  be  contended  against.  It  is 
restrained  by  rubbing  the  nose,  forehead,  and  eyes  ;  by  yawning,  fre- 
quent friction  of  the  roof  of  the  mouth,  eructation,  stretching  of  the 
loins,  raising  the  head,  turning  to  the  side,  gently  chafing  the  ex- 
tremities, anointing  the  masseter  muscles,  pouring  hot  oil  into  the 
ears,  applying  a  warm  cushion  under  the  chin.  It  is  proper  to 
avoid  being  roused  suddenly  from  sleep,  and  also  smoke,  dust, 
acrid  smells,  pepper,  castor,  mustard,  and  mint.  The  smell  of  ap- 
ples and  polenta  is  proper,  for  it  blunts  the  desire  of  sneezing. 
The  empty  sea- sponges  do  the  same.  When  there  is  a  ft-equent  de- 
sire of  sneezing  without  the  ability,  let  the  lips  be  composed,  smell 
to  acrid  substances,  and  let  the  mind  be  relaxed. 


L. — On  Loss  of  Appetite. 

When  loss  of  appetite  is  occasioned  by  depraved  humours,  we 
must  give  those  kinds  of  food  and  drink,  which  will  either  clear 
away  such  humours  by  vomiting,  or  downwards  by  the  belly,  or 
those  that  by  dilution  will  render  them  better.  You  have  the  ma- 
terials of  these  things  treated  of  in  the  First  Book  of  this  work. 
Should  the  loss  of  appetite  be  occasioned  by  debility,  since  all  debi- 
lity is  owing  to  an  intemperament  of  the  parts,  we  must  cure  the 
species  of  intemperament  by  its  contraries.  Wherefore,  we  will 
give  a  more  particular  account  of  loss  of  appetite  in  treating  of 
stomach  complaints  in  the  Third  Book.  But,  in  fevers,  we  must 
straightway  endeavour  to  bring  back  the  appetite  with  aromatics, 
more  particularly  by  giving  polenta  pounded  in  water,  or  ozycrate, 
or  diluted  wine,  or  a  decoction  of  some  of  the  fragrant  and  astrin- 
gent ft'uits ;  by  gentle  unction  and  moderate  friction  of  the  whole 
body,  by  chafing,  by  bathing  the  face,  and  swallowing  a  small 
quantity  of  water.  And,  by  putting  the  fingers  down  tibe  throat, 
the  stomach  has  been  roused  to  bring  up  the  food,  more  especially 
if  the  fluid  discharged  be  bilious  or  acid.  After  the  fir&t  days,  cata- 
plasms of  dates,  of  apples,  of  the  wild  vine,  of  wormwood,  and  of 
aloes,  ought  to  be  applied  over  the  stomach.  Let  a  variety  of  sim- 
ple food  be  prepared,  and  from  grain,  having  some  difference  from 
the  common  articles,  but  not  very  different  from  those  used  in  fe- 
vers ;  and  among  them,  those  fruits  which  do  not  readily  turn  acid, 
nor  are  very  sweet,  but  are  ripe;  however,  they  are  not  to  be  eaten 
to  satiety,  but  only  so  as  to  whet  the  appetite  for  other  food. 
While  they  are  eating,  the  most  delicious  articles  ought  to  be  pre- 
sent, which  may  have  the  power  to  provoke  and  incite  the  desire. 
After  the  fever  is  gone,  should  the  want  of  appetite  continue  during* 
the  recovery,  yellow  parsnip  boiled  with  oxymel,  and  lettuces,  and. 
pickled  olives,  and  capers,  and  pickles,  the  bulbi,  and  every  other 
stomachic  should  be  thought  of;  and,  in  particular,  those  things 
should  be  recollected  in  which  the  patient  delighted  most  when  ixx 
good  health.     Walking,  gestation,  vociferation,  calefkcient  plasters* 


BOOK    SECOND.  165 

frictions,  and  exercises,  ought  to  be  had  recourse  to.  And  drinking 
the  propoma  from  wormwood,  or  from  aloes,  or  swallowing  the 
vinegar  of  squills  to  the  amount  of  a  mystrum,  have  proved  excellent 
remedies. 


LL — On  Bulimos  or  Inordinate  Hunger. 

If  want  of  appetite  should  pass  into  the  opposite  state,  I  mean 
an  excessive  atrophy,  called  bulimos,  we  must  resuscitate  such  per- 
sons with  roasted  pork,  or  kids,  and  other  savoury  things ;  and,  in 
a  word,  we  must  use  every  strong-scented  thing,  if  the  acute  stage 
of  the  fever  be  past.  We  must  bind  the  extremities,  and  rouse, 
by  pinching  the  cheeks,  and  pulling  the  hair  and  ears.  When 
recovered,  we  must  give  bread  that  has  been  dipped  in  diluted 
wine,  or  any  other  diffusible  thing. 


LII. — On  the  Canine  Appetite. 

Although  this  symptom  seldom  occurs  during  fevers,  it  some- 
times does  afterwards ;  and,  as  it  is  allied  to  loss  of  appetite,  as 
being  the  opposite  extreme,  it  will  not  be  improper  to  treat  of  in- 
ordinate appetite.  Since,  therefore,  this  affection  is  generally  oo 
casioned  by  an  acid  phlegm,  we  must  use  those  things  which  will 
divide  aftd  dissipate  it.  Such,  in  particular,  are  all  sweet  and  saline 
things,  and  those  which  are  called  heating  detergents.  We  must, 
therefore,  give  largely  of  the  heating  wines.  Such  are  the  gold- 
coloured,  and  those  which  are  red  without  being  styptic.  We  must 
also  give  them  the  sweeter  kind,  although  tiiey  should  not  be 
thirsty.  When  they  come  to  dinner,  we  must  give  them  first,  all 
&tty  things,  and  evfery  thing  beside  which  is  prepared  with  much 
oil,  and  has  no  austere  or  astringent  property.  These,  although 
(hey  should  not  overcome  the  cause  of  the  complaint,  at  all  events, 
destroy  the  insatiable  desire  of  food;  but  abstinence  from  them 
lessens  the  collection  of  phlegm  in  the  stomach.  We  must  also 
give  pickles,  and  after  them,  plenty  of  the  afore-mentioned  wines 
to  be  drank.  By  x>ersevering  with  these  things  for  some  time,  the 
complaint  subsides. 


LIIL— 0»  Thirst. 

A  protracted  thirst  may  be  supposed  to  be  occasioned  by  dryness, 
or  heat  of  the  parts  by  which  liquids  pass  from  the  mouth  to  the 
stoinach ;  and  the  natural  cure  of  dryness  is  sleep,  and»  of  heat, 
watching.  Some  become  thirsty  from  wine,  or  the  heating  nature 
of  their  food,  in  which  case,  the  proper  cure  is  cold  drii^.  But 
some  desire  drink  of  a  bad  quality,  as  they  do  food  corresponding 
to  the  prevailing  cacochymy.     I  have  known  persons  seized  with 


166  PAUL.U8   JEGISETA. 

unquenchable  thirst,  of  which  they  died,  who  had  eaten  of  the 
vipers  called  dipsades,  and  others  who  had  got  drunk  upon  old 
wine  ;  and  also  persons  on  board  of  a  ship,  who,  when  their  fresh 
water  failed  them,  had  drank  of  sea  water,  have  all  died.  Febrile 
thirst  may  be  mitigated,  by  pouring  upon  the  head  the  coldest  oil, 
or  rose  oil.  But  the  best  remedy  for  thirst,  is  the  seed  of  the 
black  lettuce,  chewed,  or  the  liquorice  ;  or,  seed  of  the  cucumber 
may  be  retained  in  the  mouth.  Give  also  the  following  pill,  called 
adipson : — of  gaVden  cucumber,  dr.  viii. — of  tragacanth,  dr.  iv. — 
dissolve  the  tragacanth  in  the  white  of  fresh  eggs,  and  when  dis- 
solved, add  to  the  pounded  seeds  of  the  cucumber;  and  when 
softened,  form  pills,  which  dry  in  the  shade.  Give  one  of  these 
pills  to  hold  below  the  tongue,  and  drink  the  fluid  of  it  as  it  dis- 
solves. Give  also,  to  swallow,  the  decoction  of  quinces,  or  of  pears, 
or  of  medlars,  or  of  the  tendrils  of  the  vine,  or  the  juice  of  the  po- 
megranate. 


LIV. — On  Roughness  of  the  Tongue, 

Wk  may  moisten  asperity  of  the  tongue,  by  making  the  patients 
retain  in  the  mouth  a  decoction  of  linseed.  But  it  will  be  more 
efficacious,  if  sebesten  plums  be  boiled  with  the  Unseed.  Having 
immersed  the  finger  in  this  liquor,  and  rubbed  the  tongue  with  it, 
let  them  rinse  the  mouth  with  clear  water,  or  let  them  clean  it 
with  a  sponge,  and  then  anoint  it  with  rose  oil.  And  the  oil  of 
roses  mixed  with  honey  also  answers  well.  Likewise  the  juice  of 
the  purslain  retained  in  the  mouth,  and  the  sumach  used  for  condi- 
ments, when  mixed  with  honied  water,  have  a  good  effect. 
Damascenes,  also,  and  the  bones  of  the  sebesten  plum  retained  in 
the  mouth,  and  rolled  on  the  tongue,  and  the  stem  of  the  lettuce, 
answer  well.  Archigenes  says,  that  the  Indian  salt,  which,  in 
colour  and  consistence,  is  like  the  common  salt,  but  which  re- 
sembles honey  in  taste,  when  chewed  to  the  size  of  a  lentil,  or,  at 
most,  of  a  bean,  does  moisten  greatly.  They  should  lie  upon  the 
side  (for  lying  upon  the  back  dries  greatly),  and  they  ought  to 
keep  the  mouth  shut,  because  keeping  it  open  allows  the  moisture 
to  dry  up.  Sneezing  properly  produced,  moistens  the  tongue  xaore 
effectually  than  any  other  means. 


LV. — On  Nausea. 

Whbn  nausea  comes  on  without  being  produced  artificially,  it  is 
a  clear  inference  that  noxious  humours  are  vexing  the  stomach. 
Some  feel  uneasy,  but  vomit  nothing,  the  humour  being  retained 
in  the  coats.  When  the  humours  are  pituitous,  we  must  g^t  them 
concocted  by  rest,  spare  diet,  and  sleep.  But  the  thinner  may  be 
ejected  by  vomiting,  produced  either  with  the  juice  of  ptisan,  or 
with  honied  water.     But  those  which  are  viscid  and  thick,  stand  in. 


BOOK    SECOND.  1(>7 

need  of  attcnuant  remedies,  such  as  oxymel,  and  the  like.  But, 
when  a  noxious  fluid  is  detained  in  the  coats,  the  powder  from  aloes, 
called  Picra,  is  heneficial,  hut  astringents  are  pernicious ;  whereas, 
if  there  be  much  fluid,  but  not  of  a  noxious  kind,  astringents  will 
be  beneficial,  but  the  aloetic  medicine  will  bring  on  marasmus. 
When  cold  is  joined  to  humidity,  we  must  mix  calefacients  with 
astringents.  The  symptom  of  the  affection  being  of  a  cold  nature, 
is,  that  there  is  no  thirst,  nor  sensation  of  heat. 


LVI. — On  vomiting  of  Bile, 

To  those  who  vomit  bile,  a  cataplasm  must  be  applied,  made  of 
dates,  the  rind  of  pomegranate,  and  gall,  boiled  in  wine  or  oxy- 
crate,  along  with  pounded  bread.  And  acacia,  hypocystis,  and  the 
flowers  of  the  wild  pomegranate  and  sumach,  ought  to  be  added  to 
it.  A  cupping-instrument,  also,  when  applied  with  a  strong  heat,  is 
of  great  service.  Food  ought  to  be  given  frequently  in  small  quan- 
tities. To  those  who  vomit  black  bile  and  have  the  stomach  in- 
flated, apply  sponges  soaked  in  hot  vinegar  of  the  most  acrid  quali- 
ties, or  a  cataplasm  of  the  leaves  of  the  ivy  boiled  in  wine. 


LVII. — On  Hiccough. 

Singultus  is  occasioned  either  by  fulness,  or  emptiness,  or  the 
presence  of  acrid  and  pungent  humours  in  the  stomach,  and  when 
they  are  vomited,  it  ceases.  And  many,  if  they  only  take  the  medi- 
cine composed  of  the  three  kinds  of  pepper,  and  drink  wine  imme- 
diately after,  have  hiccough.  And  it  is  well  known,  that  many 
people  hickup  when  the  food  spoils  on  the  stomach.  Many  also 
hickup  horn,  rigors.  We  will  find  an  emetic  a  proper  remedy  in  cases 
which  are  occasioned  by  fulness  or  pungency,  and  warmth  in  those 
from  cold ;  and,  when  the  complamt  is  occasioned  by  a  plethora  of 
humours,  there  is  need  of  strong  evacuation.  This  may  be  accom- 
plished by  sneezing,  but  when  emptiness  is  the  cause,  sneezing  will 
not  core  it ;  for  in  such  cases,  we  must  give  rue  with  wine,  or  nitre 
in  honied  water,  orhartwort,  or  carrot,  or  cumin,  or  ginger,  or  cala- 
minty  or  Celtic  nard.  These  are  the  remedies  for  such  cases  as  are 
occasioned  by  corruption  of  the  food,  cold,  or  plethora.  When  a 
redundance  of  cold  and  viscid  humours  is  the  cause,  give  castor  to 
the  amount  of  three  oboli  to  drink  in  oxycrate,  and  the  same  thing 
will  be  of  use  when  applied  externally  to  the  skin,  along  with  old 
Sicyonian  oil.  The  vinegar  of  squills  or  oxymel  may  also  be  drank 
with  advantage.     Retaining  the  breath  is  likewise  of  great  use. 


168  PAUMTS  iCGINETA. 


LVIII. — On   Constipation  and  Looseness  of  the  Bowels  in 

Fevers. 

Those  things  which  remedy  a  dry  state  of  the  bowels  are  treated 
of  in  the  First  Book  sufficiently.  But  since  a  humid  or  loose  state 
of  the  bowels  may  prevail  in  fevers,  this  also  must  be  treated  of ; 
for  many  are  cut  off  not  by  the  fever  itself,  but  by  this  symptom 
alone.  In  the  commencement,  we  must  not  interfere  with  the  dis- 
charge when  it  proceeds  from  corruption  of  the  food  and  indiges- 
tion ;  but  when  the  evacuation  becomes  immoderate,  it  must  be  re- 
strained. If  the  discharges  are  of  an  acrid  nature,  that  which  is 
given  should  consist  of  good  juices,  and  be  otherwise  thick,  such  as 
spoon-meats  from  pearl-spelt  (chondrus,)  and  ptisan.  Baths  are  also 
befitting  after  the  complaint  has  become  concocted.  But  when  the 
discharges  consist  of  phlegm  and  are  watery*  on  the  other  hand, 
the  food  ought  to  be  of  a  more  dry  and  heating  nature,  as  far  as  the 
fever  will  permit.  Of  this  kind,  are  those  things  which  are  prepared 
from  heating  condiments.  But  they  must  abstain  horn  baths,  un- 
less otherwise  required.  When  the  digestive  faculty  is  in  an  atonic 
state,  we  must  give  food  and  applications  of  an  astringent  nature ; 
the  food  consisting  of  things  in  particular,  to  which  pomegranates, 
apples,  pears,  or  medlars,  have  been  added,  or  these  fruits  them- 
selves, and  thin  fragrant  wine  of  an  astringent  quality ;  and  the 
applications  are  to  be  cataplasms  made  of  polenta,  and  dates,  and 
wormwood,  roses,  myrtles,  and  such  like  things.  It  most  be  con- 
sidered also,  to  what  part  these  cataplasms  are  to  be  applied,  I  mean 
the  region  of  the  stomach,  the  lower  belly,  or  perhaps  the  loins. 
Bloody  discharges  are  restrained  and  dried  up  by  remedies  contain- 
ing fine  flour  of  polenta,  with  frankincense,  or  manna  mixed  wttb 
wine,  or  oxy crate.  When  the  watery  discharge  is  acrid,  it  most 
be  sweetened  by  a  lavement  either  with  water  alone,  or  the  juicQ 
of  ptisan,  or  of  chondrus,  or  rice,  or  tragum,  not  once,  but  often; 
and  afterwards  there  are  to  be  added  dried  roses,  or  myrtleau  aa4 
sometimes  galls  ;  and  an  egg  with  rose  oil,  and  a  thin  astringent 
wine,  or  the  decoction  of  roses,  may  be  injected  or  applied  to  tbsir 
anus,  which  will  blunt  the  desire  of  going  to  stooU  .  But  when  the 
calls  are  frequent,  a  clew  formed  of  warm  threads  may  be  applied  tc^ 
the  anus. 


LIX. — On  Trickling  of  Blood  and  Hemorrhage  from  tAs  Nose. 

Since  a  trickling  of  blood  indicates  a  fulness  in  the  whole  body, 
or  in  the  head,  being  occasioned  either  by  expression  or  conden- 
;^tion,  and  as  a  free  evacuation  would  relax  them,  and  diminish 
the  quantity,  it  may  be  proper  to  evacuate  where  nature  points. 
With  this  view,  I  have  ventured,  in  cases  of  quartan  epistaxis, 
to  open  the  vessels  in  the  nostrils  with  the  reed  called  Typha. 
We  must  not  be  contented  with  a  small  evacuation,  but  must  take 


BOOK  SECOND.  169 

away  blood  in  proportion  to  the  strength.  Spontaneous  hemorrhage 
from  the  nose  in  fevers,  when  critical,  are  not  to  be  interfered  wiSi ; 
but  yet,  if  the  flow  of  blood  be  immoderate,  it  ought  to  be  restrained. 
In  the  iirst  place,  tight  ligatures  ought  to  be  applied  to  the  patient's 
extremities,  and  his  head  elevated.  It  would  appear  that  a  ligature 
to  the  privy  parts,  is  particularly  adapted  for  restraining  bleeding 
from  the  nose.  The  nostrils  ought  not  to  be  wiped,  nor  the  part 
irritated,  so  that  a  clot  of  blood  may  be  allowed  to  form.  Let  the 
nose  be  cooled  by  a  sponge  soaked  in  oxycrate,  and  the  nostril 
plugged  vLp  with  a  pledget  dipped  in  some  of  the  astringent  appli- 
cations. The  composition  of  them,  and  the  rest  of  the  treatment, 
we  will  deliver  more  fully  in  the  following  Book,  "  on  the  parts  which 
are  afiected." 


LX. — On  Deliguium  Animi  or  Swooning. 

«  Whbn  the  fainting  is  occasioned  by  cholera,  diarrhoea,  or  other 
repeated  and  copious  evacuations,  we  must  sprinkle  water  upon  the 
patient,  twist  his  nose,  rub  over  the  orifice  of  the  stomach,  and  en- 
courage vomiting.    We  should  also  irritate  the  sesophagus  with  our 
:fingers  or  a  feather.     Several  strong  ligatures  are  likewise  to  be  ap- 
plied>  when  the  evacuations  are  downwards,  to  the  arms ;   and, 
when  upwards,  to  the  legs.   The  patients  are  also  to  be  placed  in  an 
easy  erect  posture,  and  a  cupping-instruxnent  applied,  so  as  to  pro- 
duce revulsion  to  the  opposite  part  of  the  body.     Wine  and  water 
relieves  prostration  of  strength  occasioned  by  ft-equent  evacuatio|is, 
provided  there  be  no  inflammation  of  any  visceral  part,  nor  violent 
headach,  nor  delirium*  nor  ardent  fever  unconcocted,  to  contra-in- 
dicaJte  it;  for  in  suc^  casesi  wine  will  do  much  mischief.   And,  if  it 
be  summer,  and  the  patient  of  a  hot  temperament,  and  addicted  to 
drink  cold  things^  we  may  give  cold  drink ;  but  if  the  contrary, 
warm.     When  the  deliquium  is  occasioned  by  profusion  of  sweats, 
we  are  to  constrict  the  skin,  as  formerly  said,  and  allow  a  free  current 
of  cool  air.     In  defluxions  on  the  stomach,  none  of  these  things  is 
fitting,  unless  the  application  of  strengthening  things  to  the  belly 
and  stomach,  and  bathing  them ;  for  baths  are  most  beneficial  in 
cases  of  stomach  defluxions,  but  greatly  aggravate  hemorrhages  and 
sweatings.  Those  who  have  fainting  fits  from  plethora,  must  abstain 
from  wine,  and  food,  and  from  baths  too,  if  there  be  fever.   And  we 
must  give  them  honied  water,  having  thjnne^  marjoram,  penny- 
royal, or  hyssop  boiled  in  it.     Oxymel  also  is  beneficial  to  them. 
But  if  the  faintings  proceed  from  depraved  humours  contained  in 
the  stomach,  we  must  diiect  a  vomit  with  water  and  oil — at  the 
same  time  tickling  the  throat  with  the  finger  or  a  feather.     But  if 
vomiting  cannot  be  thereby  procured,  we  must  give  pure  oil,  which 
will  often  evacuate  downwards.     And  wormwood  is  applicable  in 
such  cases.     But  if  the  faintings  are  occasioned  by  weakness  of  the 
stomach,  we  must  use  tonic  medicines,  as  formerly  stated  in  the 
chapter  which  treats  of  this  aflection,   and  rub   the   extremities. 


'70  PAULUS  itlGINETA. 

When  they  proceed  from  exposure  to  immoderate  heat,  we  are  to 
prescribe  the  bath ;  or,  when  from  excessive  cold,  we  must  use  the 
medicine  containing  the  three  peppers,  and  pepper  itself.  Those  who 
fall  into  fainting  fits  owing  to  great  heat,  or  insolation,  or  from  re- 
maining long  in  the  bath,  may  be  cured  by  being  sprinkled  with 
cold  water,  and  exposed  to  the  wind ;  by  having  their  stomach  rub- 
bed, and  getting  wine  and  food.  But  if  the  swooning  be  occasioned 
by  the  greatness  of  the  inflammation,  or  bad  nature  of  the  fever  in 
the  attacks,  and  if  the  patient  is  cold,  we  ought  to  rub  his  limbs 
strongly,  chafe  him,  apply  ligatures,  force  him  to  keep  awake,  and 
abstain  from  food.  And  these  things  are  to  be  done  previous  to  the 
paroxysm.  But  those  who  have  fain  tings  from  dryness,  two  or  three 
hours  before  the  paroxysm  should  get  for  food  either  the  juice  of 
chondrus,  or  bread  out  of  water,  along  with  the  kernels  of  the 
pomegranate,  or  apples,  or  pears.  But  if  great  danger  be  antici- 
pated, we  must  also  give  wine.  Those  who  have  sudden  attacks  of 
fainting  are  to  be  thus  treated.  And  in  all  cases  we  are  to  find  out 
the  cause  of  the  deliquiom,  and  direct  our  attention  to  it.  And 
sometimes  the  greatest  care  must  be  bestowed  upon  this  symptom, 
which  threatens  danger,  or  death  itself. 


LXI. — On  Ulceration  about  the  Os  Sacrum. 

This  affection  occurs  most  frequently  in  protracted  fevers,  owing 
to  the  patients  having  been  long  confined  to  bed.  When,  therefore, 
the  part  begins  to  appear  red,  we  make  a  circular  piece  of  wool, 
of  the  proper  magnitude,  and  lay  it  below  the  part,  and  afterwards 
prepare  a  rose  or  m}n-tle  cerate,  containing  litharge  or  ceruse,  and 
apply  it.  When  there  is  inflammation,  we  may  use  a  cataplasm  of 
bread,  with  nightshade,  or  knot-grass,  or  plaintain,  or  tender  cab- 
bage. But  if  the  ulceration  be  spreading,  we  are  to  use  a  cataplasm 
of  dried  lentils,  along  with  the  inner  rind  of  the  pomegranate. 


COMMENTARY 


OK  Tax 


SECOND  BOOK 


or 


PAULUS     iEGINETA. 


Ji BE  following  ancient  authorities  may  be  consulted  on  the  subject  of 

^erer; — Hippocrates,  Epidem,  et  alibi. — Galenus,  Comment,  in  Hippocr, 

JEpideniy  de  Differentiis  Fehrium,  Meth,  Med,  lib.  viii.  Therap,  ad  Glauc. 

lib.  i.  De  Typis,  de  Criiibus  et  alibi, — Celsus,  lib.  iii. — Pseudo-Dioscorides, 

jEiuporiit,  lib.  ii. — Oribasius,  Synop.  lib.  vi.  Euporiit. — ^Areteus,  Morh, 

.Jkcut,  ii.  4. — ^Aetius,  lib.  v. — C.  Aurelianus,  Fau,  Acut,  ii.  10. — ^Alexander, 

lib.  xii. — Alexander  Aphrodisieus,  Probl.i,  84. — ^Actuarius,  Meth.  Med.  lib. 

iii. — Plinius,  H.  N,  xxriii.  66.  xxx.  30. — Palladius,  de  Febribus. — Psellus, 

€)ptu  Medicum, — Synesius,  de  Pe6rt6tis.— -Constantinus  Africanus,  de  Febri' 

ims, — Serenus  Samonicus. — Vindiciani  Epistola  ap.  Fabricii  Bibl,  Grmc. 

torn.  xiii. — ^Avicenna,  lib.  iv.  fen  .i. — Syrasis  Avicenna  Expositor, — Haly 

Abbas,  'Fheor.  viii.,  Pract,  viii. — ^Alsaharavius,  Theor.  vi.,  Pract,  xxxii. — 

Serapion,  tr.  vi. — Avenzoar,  lib.  iii.  tr.  7. — Averrhoes,  Colliget.  lib.  vii.— 

Ilhases,  ad  Mans,  lib.  x.,  ContinenSf  lib.  xxx. 

I. PREFACE  TO  THE  BOOK  ON  FEVERS. 

All  the  ancient  authorities  held,  that  a  Fever  consists  of  a  preternatural 

increase  of  the  innate,  or,  as  it  is  now  called,  animal  heat.    Thus,  Palladius 

defines  a  Fever  to  be  ^*  a  preternatural  heat,  which  begins  in  the  heart,  and 

is  diffused  by  the  arteries  over  the  whole  body,  sensibly  injuring  the  actions 

of  the  body.''    Hippocrates,  Galen,  Aetius,  Alexander,  Psellus,  and  Actua- 

rius,  give  similar  dennitions.  Cslius  Aureliauus,  says  of  Asclepiades : — **  Fe- 

brium  ponit  signum  calorem  plurimum.^* — Morb,  Acut,  i,  14.  Isidorus  defines 

a  Fever  thus : — **  Febris  a  fervore  dicta  est ;  est  enim  abundantia  caloris/' 

Orig.    The  celebrated  Erasistratus  maintained  an  opinion,  lately  revived  by 

Clutterbuck,  that  Fevers  and  Inflammations  are  identical. — (See  Milligan  s 

Celsns,  p.  13.  and  p.  112).    He  further  taught,  that  in  Fevers,  the  blood  of 

the  veins  is  thrown  into  the  arteries.    Plutarch,  de  placit,  Philos,  v.  29. 


172  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK. 

The  Arabians  adopt  the  opiDions  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen.  Thus, 
for  example,  Haly  Abbas  defines  Fever  to  be  a  preternatural  heat  proceed- 
ing from  the  heart,  and  diffused  by  the  arteries  over  all  parts  of  the  body. 
According  to  him  there  are  three  kinds  of  Fevers.  First,  those  which  are 
seated  in  the  spirits,  and  affect  only  the  heat  of  the  body.  These  are  called 
£pheraeral  Fevers.  The  Second,  originate  in  a  vitiated  state  of  the  fluids, 
which  impart  a  preternatural  degree  of  heat  to  the  heart,  whence  it  is  dif- 
fused over  all  the  body.  The  Third  arise  in  the  vital  organs  and  solid  parts, 
from  which  heat  is  transmitted  to  the  heart.  Pract,  viii  2. — See  also,  in 
particular,  Rhases,  Cont.  lib.  Xxx. 

That  an  increase  of  the  temperature  of  the  body  is  an  almpst  invariable 
concomitant  of  Fever,  was  satisfactorily  proved  by  the,thermometrical  ex- 
periments of  Dr.  Currie.     Medical  Reports. 


II. OF  THE  PRINCIPAL  CONSIDERATIONS  TO  BE  INQUIRED  INTO  WITH 

REGARD  TO  FEVERS. 

This  Chapter,  and  great  part  of  the  Contents  of  this  Book^  are  taken  from 
Galen,  Therap,  ad  Glauc,  lib.  i.  or  from  Oribasius,  Synop$,  lib.  vi. 


III. WHAT  TO  CALL  THE  COMMENCEMENT  OF  THE  DISEASE. 

The  whole  of  this  Chapter  is  taken  from  Galen,  de  dUhus  discretoriis, 
where  the  question  is  fully  discussed.  Aetius,  like  our  author,  defines  the 
commencement  of  a  Fever,  to  be  the  time  when  the  strength  of  the  patient 
being  overcome  by  the  complaint,  he  is  obliged  to  take  to  bed.  On  this 
point,  the  Arabians  venture  to  differ  from  the  Greeks.  Thus,  Rhases  and 
Avicenna  reckon  the  commencement  from  the  time  when  the  patient  first 
feels  a  departure  from  health. 

The  disagreement  among  the  authorities  upon  this  point  is  to  be  regretted, 
as  it  tends  to  obscure  the  doctrine  of  the  Critical  Days. 


IV. HOW  TO  KNOW  WHETHER  THE  DISEASE  WILL  PROVE  FATAL 

OR  NOT. 

This  description  of  the  fatal  symptoms  of  common  Fever,  will  bear  a  com- 
parison even  with  Pringle*s  admirable  detail  of  the  unfavourable  appearances 
of  Jail  Fever.  Our  author's  description,  indeed,  is  mostly  taken  from  the 
Prognostics  of  Hippocrates,  and  the  Commentary  of  Galen  upon  the  same. 
Galen  gives  an  explanation  of  the  causes  of  the  symptoms,  from  which  we 
shall  select  a  few  specimens.  It  is  one  of  the  Prognostics  of  Hippocrates, 
that  profuse  perspiration  in  acute  Fevers  is  unfavourable;  and,  in  explana- 
tion of  this,  Galen  states,  that  a  critical  sweat  may  indeed  be  favourable ; 
but  that  such  as  are  profuse  and  continued,  indicate  a  complete  prostration 
of  the  vital  powers.  A  fixedness  of  the  eyes,  is  said,  by  Hippocrates,  to  be 
a  fatal  symptom ;  the  reason  of  which,  according  to  Galen,  is,  that  it  pro- 
ceeds from  paralysis,  or  insensibility  of  the  muscles  of  the  eye.  Hippo- 
crates mentions  it  as  an  unfavourable  symptom  when  the  patient  lies  with 
bis  mouth  open;  and  Galen,  with  seeming  propriety,  attributes  this  symptom 
to  the  origin  of  the  nerves,  that  is  to  say,  the  brain,  undergoing  pressure. 
Hippocrates  states,  that  involuntary  discharges  from  the  bowels  are  an  un- 
fevourable  symptom;  and  Galen  justly  remarks,  that  they  indicate' great 
insensibility. 


COMMBNTART  OK  THE  SECOND  BOOK.  173 

Celsus  fi^ves  an  elegant  translation  of  this  part  of  the  works  of  Hippo- 
crates. The  following  is  his  version  of  the  description  of  the  Facies  Hip- 
pocratica : — *'  Ad  ultima  jam  ventum  esse  testantur,  nares  acutic,  collapsa 
tempora,  concavi  oculi,  frigidae  languidseque  aures  et  imis  partibus  lenitar 
verse,  cutis  circa  frontem  dura  et  intenta,  color  aut  niger  aut  perpallidus.** 
Other  unfavourable  symptoms  are  also  strikingly  portrayed : — '*  Mali  morbi 
testimonium  est  vehementer  et  crebro  spirare ;  a  sexto  die  cepisse  inhorres- 
cere;  pus  exspuere;  vix  excreare;  dolorem  habere  continuum;  difficulter 
ferre  morbum;  jactare  brachia  et  crura;  sine  voluntate  lachrimare;  habere 
huraorem  glutinosum  dentibus  inhaerentem;  cutem  circa  umbilicum  et 
pubem  macram,  prscordia  in6ammata,  dolentia,  dura,  tumida,  interna,  ma^ 
gisque  si  hxc  dextra  parte,  quam  sinistra  est ;  periculosissimum  tamen  est,  si 
vens  quoque  ibi  vehementer  agitantur/' 

Aetius  and  Oribasius,  like  our  author,  borrow  almost  every  thing  from  Hip- 
pocrates and  Galen. 

Rhases  and  Avicenna,  particularly  the  latter,  treat  of  the  prognostics  in 
Pever  very  fully.  Avicenna,  like  Hippocrates,  sets  down  deafness  as  an  un- 
^vourable  symptom.  Pringle,  on  the  contrary,  states  it  as  rather  a  fa- 
vourable one.  On  this  point,  my  own  experience  inclines  me  to  lean  to  the 
side  of  the  ancients.  Dr.  Russel  found  deafness  an  unfavourable  symptom 
of  the  Plague  at  Aleppo,  1760.  Hippocrates  had  stated,  that  Jaundice  com- 
ing on  before  the  seventh  day,  is  un&vourable ;  but  Averrhoes  affirms,  that 
sill  the  Indian  and  Persian  physicians  reckoned  it  a  favourable  symptom. 
IRhases  considers  yellowness  of  the  skin  an  unfavourable  symptom,  unless 
the  Fever  be  of  a  bilious  nature.  Alsaharavius  says,  it  is  an  unfavourable 
complication  when  it  does  not  prove  critical.  He  states  it  as  a  dangerou:} 
symptom,  when  the  patient  lies  on  his  back  with  his  legs  drawn  up.  This 
agrees  with  the  Prognostic  of  Celsus — ^  Mors  denuntiatur  ubi  aeger  supinus 
cubat,  eique  genua  contracta  sunt.''  Avicenna  and  Averrhoes,  state  it  as  a 
£ital  symptom,  when  the  patient  sinks  down  in  bed  and  exposes  his  hands 
and  feet.    Averrhoes,  Comment,  in  Cantica  Avicenna. 

Prosper  Alpinus  g^ves  an  admirable  account  of  the  Prognostics  in  diseases. 
— See  nis  work,  de  prasagiendd  morte  et  vitd  agrotantium,  passim.  He 
agrees  with  the  ancients,  that  deafness  is  an  unfavourable  symptom,  unless 
it  occur  at  the  time  of  a  crisis.  Like  the  ancients,  he  considers  the  absence 
of  thirst  an  unfavourable  symptom  in  ^ardent  diseases,  as  indicating  that  the 
system  is  insensible  of  its  wants. 


y. HOW  TO  KNOW  WHETHER  THE  DISEASE  WILL  BE  OV   LONG 

DURATION. 

Celsus  thus  states  the  Prognostics  of  a  protracted  Fever : — ''  Signa  qu»- 
dam  sunt,  ex  quibus  coUigere  possumus,  morbum,  etsi  non  interemerit,  lon- 
gius  tamen  tempus  habiturum :  ubi  frigidus  sudor  inter  febres  non  acutas 
circa  caput  tantum,  et  cervices  oritur :  aut  ubi,  febre  non  quiescente,  corpus 
insudat :  aut  ubi  corpus  modo  frigidum,  modo  calidum  est,  et  color  alius  ex 
alio  fit;  aut  ubi,  quod  inter  febres  aliqua  parte  abscessit,  ad  sanitatem  non  perve- 
nit;  aut  ubi  aeger  pro  spatio  parum  emacrescit :  item  si  urina  modo  liquidaet 
puraest,  modo  habet  qua^dam  subsidentia;  si  Isevia  atque  alba  rubraque  sunt^ 
qos  in  e&  subsidunt;  aut  si  quasdam  quasi  miculas  reprssentet;  aut  si  bul- 
lulas  excitat." 

Galen  has  given  a  full  exposition  of  these  symptoms  in  his  Commentary 
on  the  Prognostics  of  Hippocrates,  from  which  Aetius,  Oribasius,  and  our 
author  have  borrowed  largely.     Rhases,  Avicenna,  but  most  especially  Haly 


174  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  8BC0ND  BOOK. 

Abbas,  treat  at  great  length  of  this  subject.    See  also  Averrhoes'  Commen- 
taries on  the  Cantica  of  Avicenna. 


VI. HOW  TO    KNOW  WHETHER  THE  DISEASE  WILL    TERMINATE    BT 

A  CRISIS  OR  BT  A  RESOLUTION. 

A  SIMILAR  Statement  is  made  by  Aetius,  v.  22.  See  also  Averrhoes,  Com- 
ment, in  Cantica  Avicenna. 

VII. ON  THE  CRITICAL  DATS. 

The  father  of  medicine,  who  was  profoundly  skilled  in  Semeiology,  appears 
to  have  attached  great  importance  to  the  observance  of  the  Critical  Days. 
At  first,  as  Galen  remarks,  he  seems  to  have  been  undecided  respecting  cer- 
tain days,  and,  accordingly,  he  gives  a  somewhat  different  account  of  them 
in  his  Prognostics  and  Aphorisms  from  what  he  has  done  in  his  Epidemics. 
His  latter  list  of  Critical  Days  differs  little  or  nothing  from  that  of  Galen.  . 

Galen  reposes  such  confidence  in  the  doctrine  of  Critical  Days,  that  he  ^ 
affirms,  that,  by  a  proper  observance  of  them,  the  physician  may  be  able  to  ' 
prognosticate  the  very  hour  when  a  Fever  will  terminate.  The  following  i& 
his  List: — ^The  7th  is  particularly  favourable;  next,  the  14th;  next  to  these, 
the  9th,  11 U),  and  20th ;  then,  the  17th  and  5th ;  afterwards,  the  4th,  3d,  and 
18th.  The  6th  is  very  doubtful  and  unfavourable;  the  8th  and  10th,  like  the 
6th ;  the  12th,  16th,  and  19th,  like  the  8th  and  10th.  Intermediate  between 
these  two  lists  of  Favourable  and  Unfavourable  days,  is  the  1 3th.  He  informs 
us  that  Diodes  and  Archigenes  held  the  21st  to  be  particularly  favourable, 
but  he  agrees  with  Hippocrates  in  rejecting  it,  and  adopting  the  20th. 

Celsus  follows  the  system  of  Archigenes.  He  says,  ''  Kpurifioi  dies  erant, 
dies  tertius-quintus,  Septimus,  nonus,  undecimus,  quartus-decimus,  unus  et 
vicesimus;  ita  ut  summa  potentia  septimo,  deinde  quarto-decimo,  deinde 
uni  et  vicesimo  daretur.''  But  he  does  not  hesitate,  afterwards,  to  express 
his  distrust  in  the  whole  system;  for,  he  adds,  ''verum  in  his  quidem  anti- 
quos  tunc  celebres  Pythagorici  numeri  fefellerunt;  cum  hie  quoque  medi- 
cus  non  numerare  dies  debeat,  sed  ipsas  accessiones  intueri.'^ 

The  Greek  writers  subsequent  to  Galen  adopt  his  system,  with  little  or  no 
alteration.  Aetius  arranges  the  Critical  Days  thus : — First  in  order,  the  7th 
and  14th;  then,  the  9th  and  11th;  next  to  them,  the  17th  and  5th;  then,  the 
4th;  and  afterwards,  the  3d  and  20th.    The  6th  is  usually  bad. 

The  Arabians,  with  scarce  one  exception,  adopt  the  Galenic  system.  Avi- 
cenna, who  treats  of  the  Critical  Days  very  fully,  mentions  the  list  of  them 
given  by  Hippocrates  and  Galen,  and  also  that  by  Archigenes,  but  decides 
in  favour  of  the  former. 

Rhases  mentions  the  Critical  Days  in  the  following  terms: — ^The  3d  is  cri- 
tical in  very  acute  fevers ;  the  4th  is  indicative  of  the  7th  and  6th ;  the  5th  is 
favourable;  the  6th,  generally  unfavourable;  the  7th  is  a  particularly  favour- 
able or  unfavourable  crisis ;  the  8th,  rarely  critical,  but,  if  it  be,  unfavourable; 
the  11th,  critical  and  indicative  of  the  14th;  the  12th,  rarely  critical,  and  like 
the  8th;  the  13th,  rarely  critical;  the  14th,  critical  and  favourable;  the  15th, 
like  the  13th;  the  16th,  like  the  12th;  the  17th,  like  the  9th,  and  indicative 
of  the  20th;  the  18th,  rarely  critical,  or  unfavourable;  the  19th,  rarely  criti- 
cal, or,  if  so,  not  bad;  the  20th,  next  to  the  14th,  and  favourable;  the  21sty 
sometimes  critical,  but  less  frequently  so  than  the  20th ;  the  24th,  resembling 
the  20th;  after  these,  the  27th,  31st,  37th,  and  40th,  are  critical.  Averrhoes 
remarks,  that  great  deference  is  due  to  Rhases*  opinion  upon  this  subject, 


C'OMMSNTARY  ON  THE  S£COND  UOOK.  175 

since  it  was  confirmed  by  experience,  in  more  than  ten  thousand  cases,  in  an 
Infirmary  (in  infirmaria  Relenson).  His  list  is  very  little  different  from  that 
of  Galen.  In  bis  Continensy  he  gives  an  account  of  the  systemof  Arcbigenes, 
but  states  that  he  prefers  that  of  Hippocrates.  Lib.  xxxii. 

Averrhoes  states,  that  the  medical  world  was  divided  between  the  systems 
of  Archigenes  and  Galen,  but  he  inclines  to  the  side  of  the  latter  in  this  case, 
although  on  most  occasions  given  to  dispute  his  authority. 

Avenzoar,  upon  the  whole,  nearly  agrees  with  Rhases,  but  expresses  him* 
self  undecided  with  regard  to  the  20th  and  21st  days.  His  authority  must 
also  be  allowed  to  be  bf  great  weight  upon  this  subject,  if  we  may  believe 
Averrhoes,  that  he  lived  to  the  age  of  one  hundred  and  thirty-five,  and  practised 
medicine  from  his  fortieth  year. 

To  the  first  class  of  Critical  Days,  according  to  Haly  Abbas,  belong  the  7th 
and  14th;  to  the  second,  the  11th  and  20th ;  to  the  third,  the  4th,  17th,  and 
21st;  and  to  the  fourth,  the  3d,  5th,  9th,  and  18th. 

Alsaharavius  gives  a  similar  list  to  Haly's.  He  inclines  rather  to  (he  20th 
than  the  21st  day. 

Galen,  and  most  of  the  ancient  authorities,  believed  that  the  Critical  Day^ 
are  influenced  by  the  moon.    Dr.  Mead  zealously  defends  this  doctrine. 

Nihel  says,  "I  dare  venture  this  bold  assertion,  viz. — that  the  observations 
of  the  ancients  on  Crises  have  never  yet  been  publicly  proved  false  or  preca- 
rious, or  our  neglect  of  them  properly  justified  by  any  author.*'  On  the  I*ulse, 
p.  76.  The  truly  learned  and  modest  Van  Swietan,  after  the  fullest  investi- 
gation of  the  subject,  came  to  the  conclusion,  that  the  ancient  doctrines  with 
regard  to  the  Critical  Days  are  founded  on  nature  and  experience.  Comment. 
§  587.  See  an  interesting  dissertation  on  the  Critical  Days  in  the  works  of 
Bordeu.  There  is  no  end  to  quoting  authorities  upon  both  sides  of  the  ques- 
tion. Van  Helmont  is  one  of  the  most  decided  antagonists  of  the  ancient 
doctrines;  and  Castellus,  Boerhaave,  Hoffman,  Forestus,  Cleghorn,  Stahl, 
and  the  late  Dr.  Robert  Jackson — no  mean  authority  upon  any  matter  relat* 
ing  to  Fever, — maintain  the  propriety  of  attending  to  the  Critical  Days,  and 
e^^pouse  the  opinions  of  the  ancients  with  regard  to  them. 

Prosper  Alpinus  gives  a  correct  summary  of  the  ancient  doctrines  respect- 
ing the  Critical  Days,  depra$,  vita  et  morte  agrot,  vi.  4. 


VIII. THAT  CRITICAL  SYMPTOMS  APPEARING  IN  THE  BEGINNING 

ARE  BAD. 

The  opinion  here  delivered  is  derived  originally  from  Galen,  but  is 
'Maintained  also  by  Oribasius,  and  the  other  authorities.  It  requires  no 
Comment. 


IX. HOW  TO  JUDGE  OF  A  COMING  CRISIS. 

This  chapter  is  copied  from  Oribasius,  5ynop.  vi.  3.  The  subject  is  fully 
^**eated  of  by  Galen,  de  Crisibus.  Rhases  describes  very  accurately  the 
Symptoms  of  an  approaching  crisis,  such  as,  confusion  of  the  understanding, 
Vertigo,  headach,  inquietude,  involuntary  flow  of  tears,  pain  of  the  stomach, 
^c.  He  warns  the  inexperienced  not  be  alarmed  at  the  violence  of  the  pre- 
cursory symptoms,  de  Ke  Med,  x.  26.  Avicenna,  Averrhoes,  Haly  Abbas, 
^nd  Alsaharavius,  though  they  treat  of  the  subject  very  fully,  supply  no  ori- 
ginal views. 

See  an  ample  account  of  the  ancient  opinions  in  Prosper  Alpinus,  rfcpr<f^ 
^'*ta  et  morte  O'grot.  lib.  vi. 


176  COMMENTARY  ON  THB  SECOND  BOOK. 


X. HOW  TO  RECOGNISE  A  PRESENT  CRISIS. 

This  is  taken  with  very  slight  alterations  from  Galen,  Therup.  ad  Glauc. 
lib.  i.  See  also,  de  Cruibus,  iii.  2.  The  critical  evacuations  enumerated 
by  Galen  are,  those  by  vomiting,  by  the  belly,  by  urine,  by  sweats,  by 
hemorrhage  from  the  nose,  by  hemorrhoids,  by  the  menses  in  women,  by 
abscesses  of  the  parotid  glands,  and  by  determination  to  the  knees,  feet,  or 
some  other  part  not  vital.  He  says,  there  are  three  ways  in  which  a  fever 
may  terminate  favourably,  namely,  by  an  evacuation,  by  an  imperfect  crisis 
without  an  evacuation,  and  by  resolution,  that  is  to  say,  when  the  febrile 
symptoms  gooff  gradually. 

There  are  likewise  three  unfortunate  terminations ;  for,  the  patient  may 
die  suddenly  with  much  agitation,  or  in  consequence  of  a  metastasis,  or  he 
may  be  slowly  wasted  by  a  marasmus. 

Averrhoes  enumerates  the  same  kinds  of  critical  evacuation  as  Galen,  and 
otherwise  treats  of  them  very  judiciously.  CoUiget.  iv.  39.  Avicenna  gives 
a  long  account  of  all  the  circumstances  attending  the  Crisis,  but  he  copies 
closely  from  Galen  and  Hippocrates,  lib.  iv.  fen.  2.  tr.  1.  Haly  Abbas,  in 
like  manner,  is  sensible  ana  correct,  but  borrows  from  the  Greeks,  Theor,-  x, 
10.  The  account  given  by  Rhases  is  excellent,  but  it  differs  little  from  our 
author's.  Ad  Mamor.  z.  27.  In  his  Continent,  he  gives  a  full  exposition 
of  the  Galenic  doctrines,  with  his  own  Commentaries.  He  states,  that  a 
Crisis  may  take  place  in  six  ways ;  by  hemorrhage  at  the  nose,  by  an  alvine 
evacuation,  by  vomiting,  by  a  discharge  of  urine,  by  a  sweat,  or  by  an  apos- 
teme,  Lib.  xxxi. 


XI. HOW  TO  DETERMINE  WHETHER  A  PAST  CRISIS  BE  PAVOURABLB. 

This  requires  no  Commentary.    See,   however,   more  fully  Galen  and 
Rhases,  u,  $, 


XII.-— ON  THE  PULSES,  FROM  THE  WORKS  OF  GALEN. 

The  ancient  authorities  on  the  Pulse,  are  the  following :  Celsus,  iii.  6. 
Galenus,  Ubellus  de  puisitnts  ad  Tirones,  de  different,  pvlsuum,  de  dignoscen- 
dibus  pulsibus,  de  causis  pulsuu?n,  de  prasag.  ex  puis.,  Si/nopsis  librorum  dt 
pulsibus. — Philaretus,  de  pulsu. — Actuarius,  Meth.  Med.  i.  9. — ^Avicenna,  lib. 
i.  fen.  2.  doc.  3. — ^Averrhoes,  CoUig,  iv.  16. — Haly  Abbas,  Theor,  lib.  vii.— - 
Alsaharavius,  Theor.  tr.  vii. — Rhases,  ad  Mamor.  x.  32.  Continens,  lib.  xxxi. 
— Psellus,  Opus  Medicum  apud  Boissonade,  Anecdota  Graca, 

Prosper  Alpinus,  gives  an  excellent  exposition  of  the  ancient  doctrines  on 
the  Pulse,  de  pras.  vii.  et  morte  agrot.  iv.  3. — Le  Clerc's  account  is  not  so 
accurate.  Hist,  de  la  Medic,    Wetsch  is  tolerably  correct,  de  Pidsu, 

Hippocrates  does  not  appear  to  have  attached  much  importance  to  the 
observation  of  the  Pulse,  for  he  generally  neglects  to  mention  its  characters, 
and  that  even,  where  we  would  most  expect  to  find  them  stated,  as,  for  ex- 
ample, when  he  is  detailing  the  symptoms  of  Epidemical  Fevers.  Celsus, 
too,  expresses  himself  in  doubtful  terms  respecting  the  indications  (uniished 
by  the  Pulse. — ''  Venis  enim  maxim^  credimus,  fallacissimae  rei ;  quia  s«pe 
ists  leniores,  celerioresve  sunt,  et  setate,  et  sexu,  et  corporum  naturi;  et 
plerumque  satis  sano  corpore,  si  stomachus  infirmus  est,  nonnunquam  etiam 
mcipiente  febre,  subeunt  et  quiescunt;  ut  imbecillus  is  videri  possit,  cui 


OOmiBNTART  ON  THB  SBCONO  BOOK.  177 

bdle  laCuro  gravis  Mstat  aoccssio.  CooUra  saepe  eas  concitat  et  resolvit  sol, 
et  balneuDiy  et  eaercitatio,  et  metus,  et  ira,  et  qualibet  alius  animi  afiectut.'' 
Aretseus  and  Cselios  Aurelianus  are  indeed  sutiScieotly  minute  and  accurate 
in  detailing  tbe  characters  of  the  Pulse,  while  describing  the  symptoms  of 
various  diseases^  but  neither  of  them  has  written  expressly  on  the  subject; 
and,  as  the  works  of  Ueiophilus  and  Archigenes  are  entirely  lost,  Galen  must 
be  considered  as  our  first  and  great  authority  on  tlie  Pulse — i  night  almost 
have  said  our  sole  authority,  for  all  subsequent  writers  were  content  lo  adopt 
his  system,  without  the  slightest  alteration.  As  our  author's  account  is  pro- 
fessedly taken  from  the  elaborate  treatises  of  Galen,  it  may,  perhaps,  appear 
uuneoessary  for  me  to  attempt  any  further  exposition  of  the  system ;  but  the 
importance  of  the  subject,  and,  I  may  add,  its  novelty  to  modem  readers, 
have  induced  me  to  make  some  detached  observations  upon  it,  in  order  to 
explain  some  parts  of  it  which  are  confessedly  obscure,  and  to  answer  cer- 
tain objections  which  have  been  stated  against  it,  by  modern  writers  who 
have  not  properly  understood  its  principles. 

Van  Helmont,  although  compelled  to  admit  the  ingenuity  of  Galen's  sys- 
tem, pretends  to  differ  from  him  respecting  the  final  cause  of  arterial  action 
and  respiration,  which,  he  maintains,  is  not  refrigeration  but  the  preservation 
of  animal  heat.  (Operoj  p.  112.)  But,  if  he  had  read  Galen's  Work,  de 
Um  Re$pirmtumi$j  carefully,  he  would  have  found  that  this  is  the  very  sense 
which  Galen  attaches  to  the  terms  Refrigeration  and  Ventilation.  Van  Hel* 
mont  states,  as  a  new  discovery,  that  a  sort  of  concoction  of  the  blood  takes 
place  in  the  left  Ventricle  of  thie  Heart.  But  he  might  have  found  this  doc- 
trine also  in  the  Works  of  Galen. 

The  first  distinctions  of  the  Pulse  are  derived  from  the  extent  of  tbe  Dias- 
lole,  according  to  its  three  dimensions,  namely,  length,  breadth,  and  depth. 
These  give  rise  to  the  characters,  longy  broad,  and  deep  or  high,  (he  Cierc 
renders  the  last  by  ElevL)  A  long  Pulse,  of  course,  refers  solely  to  the  im- 
pression on  the  finger,  as  in  reality  one  Pulse  cannot  properly  be  said  to  be 
longer  than  another ;  but  when  a  person  is  lean  a  larger  portion  of  the  artery 
can  be  felt  under  the  finger  than  when  he  is  fat. 

The  character  deep  or  high  is  easily  understood,  and  is  evidently  produced 
by  a  free  dilatation  of  the  artery.  It  does  not  indeed  appear  evident  how 
there  can  be  a  difference  between  a  deep  and  a  hroad  Pulse,  if  the  dilatation 
of  an  artery  were  equal  on  all  sides ;  but  Galen  positively  affirms,  that  it  is  a 
feet  ascertained  by  ample  experience,  that  sometimes  there  is  a  free  dila- 
tation of  the  artery  upwards  with  a  contracted  one  laterally,  constituting  a 
fiigh  and  narrow  rulae ;  and,  on  tbe  other  hand,  that  there  is  often  a  free 
dilatation  laterally  with  a  contracted  one  upwards,  constituting  a  low  and 
ifroad  Pulse.  He  gives  directions  for  detecting  these  peculiarities  of  the 
artery.     De  Dif.  FuU.  iii.  2. 

The  eharacters  o£  quick  and  slow  are  derived  from  the  length  of  time  occu- 
pied in  the  actions  of  ssrstole  and  diastole.  They  seem  to  be  sufficiently 
well  marked,  and  yet  Fyens  denied  that  there  is  any  difference  between  fre^ 
pauy  and  quicknisi.  However,  many  of  our  late  authorities  in  medicine 
acknowledge  a  distinction  between  these  two  characters,  and  they  appear  to 
me  sufficiently  obvious. 

The  distinctions  of  strong  and  feeble  are  derived  from  the  force  with 
which  the  artery  strikes  the  finger.    No  one  can  possibly  mistake  them. 

The  relaxation  and  constriction  of  the  arterial  tube  give  rise  to  the  charac- 
ters of  soft  and  hard^  which  are  so  obvious  that  they  cannot  be  misunder- 
stood. 

The  next  class  of  Pulses  derive  their  characters  from  the  time  which  elapses 
^tween  two  diastoles  or  pulsations  of  the  artery.    They  are  called  dense  and 

N 


176  COMMBNTABT  ON  THB  SBGOND  BOOK. 

rarcy  in  the  ancteot  system,  being  uied  in  the  same  lense  thotyre^aini^  and 
tkw  are  in  modern  works. 

The  terms  equal  and  unequal  (or^  as  they  might  have  been  translated, 
equabU  and  unequable)^  arise  from  the  constancy  or  inconstancy  of  any  pe- 
culiar character  of  the  arterial  pulsation.  The  rtgular  and  irre^Uar  arc  ois- 
tinguished  from  these,  inasmuch  as  a  seiies  of  pulsations,  alth^igh  unequal 
mar  be  regnlar,  when  they  observe  a  certain  raUo,  as  when  four  strong  pul- 
sations are  succeeded  by  a  feeble  one,  and  this  series  goes  on  successiTely. 

An  inequality  may  take  place  in  respect  to  one  pulsation ;  for,  the  dilatation 
of  the  artery  may  be  interrupted,  and  then  completed,  when  it  is  called  dor- 
cadiiunUy  eaprixafUy  or  goat-leap;  or,  the  stroke  may  be  suddenly  repeated, 
when  it  is  called  dicrotosj  which  may  be  translated  the  double^  reverbenU* 
lag,  or  rebounding  Pulse.  The  term  dorcadissans  is  derived  from  dorcas^  an 
animal  generally  supposed  to  have  been  the  goat,  but  as  Harris,  in  his  Na- 
tural History  of  the  Bible,  remarks,  it  was  probably  the  Gaaelle;  and,  in 
the  Latin  translations  of  Avicenna  and  Haly  Abbas  it  is  rendered  GaMelUmt, 
It  is  said  that,  when  this  animal  leaps  upwards,  it  at  first  takes  a  short 
spring,  then  seems  to  make  a  sudden  stop,  and  afterwards  takes  a  much  larger 
and  swifter  bound.  This  character  was  applied  to  the  pulse  when  an  imper^ 
iect  dilatation  of  the  artery  is  succeeded  by  a  fuller  one.  It  is  thus  descrio«i 
by  Haly  Abbas : — **  Gazellans  pulsus  est  qui  cum  a  celeritate  indpiat  ante- 
quam  percussiat  stat,  dehinc  velociter  movetur :  vocatur  autera  hujusmodi 
gazelenus  suli  ex  similitudine  caprioli  saltu :  quum  capriolus  quern  Oazel  Ara- 
bic^ vocant  cum  saltum  dederit  pedes  toUit  et  suspensus  pauco  videtur  ten^ 
pore  atque  sic  ad  terram  velociiis  redit.*'  The  translator  of  Alsaharavins  renders 
It  by  Fusalis,  It  is  correctly  stated  by  Fouquet  that  the  second  pulsation  is  ne- 
cessarily larger  than  the  first.  The  Dicrotos  consists  of  two  pulsations,  follow- 
ing npon  one  another  so  rapidly  as  to  form,  as  it  were,  but  one  beat  of  the 
artery.  In  the  translation  of  AUaharavius  it  is  called  Maliearu,  and  is  thus 
defined : — **  Est  autem  pulsus  mallearis  qui  percutit  manum  etr8cedit,deiude 
redit  et  percutit  secundario.''  We  shall  have  occasion  presently  to  compare 
it  with  the  Pulsus  Dicrotos,  or  Redoubling  Pulse,  of  Solano  and  Nihell. 

When  there  is  a  succession  of  pulsations  which  diminish  in  magnitude  re- 
gularly, such  a  system  of  pulses  are  called  Myuri — that  is  to  say,  decurtaie 
or  sharp^ailed,  from  their  supposed  resemblance  to  the  tapering  tail  of  a 
mouse.  Those  who  are  acquainted  with  the  Scholiast  on  Hephcstion,  and 
the  other  ancient  writers  on  Prosody,  will  readily  recognise  a  term  with  which 
they  are  familiar.  Of  these  Pulses,  some  end  in  complete  Asphyxia,  and 
hence  are  called  swooning,  f ailing^  or  fainting  Myuri  (Le  Clerc  rendera  it  by 
le  Myurm  dtfaillant);  and  others  again  gradually  recover  their  foimer 
magnitude,  and  are  called  recurrent  Mjpwi,  Nearly  allied  to  these  are  the 
innucntcs  ct  circumnuentes,  for  which  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  find  any  ap- 
propriate term  in  English.  Le  Clerc  thus  renders  and  explains  this  pulse, 
in  French : — ^  Le  My  urns  qui  va  en  baisumt  de  chte  et  d^mUre^  €*est  a  dire 
qui  frappe  moins  sensiblement  le  premier  et  le  dernier  doigt  que  celui  on 
ceux  du  milieu.'*  It  consists,  in  fact,  as  Avicenna  explains,  of  a  double 
Myurus,  which  swells  out  in  the  middle,  and  diminishes  at  both  extreaiitiee. 
The  Myurus,  and  the  Innuens  et  Circumnuens,  are  thus  described  hf  Hake 
Abbas : — *'  Est  autem  et  in  hac  specie  unius  pulsationis  pulsus  qui  wmru 
Cauda  appellatur;  quique  inclinus  vocatur  pulsus.  £t  qui  muris  cauda  vo* 
catur  fit  cum  arteria  dilatatur  sub  primo  digito  qui  a  superioribus  est  grana, 
et  sub  secundo  minus  grossa,  sub  tertio  parva,  sub  quarto  minima.  Imclimm 
autem  pulsus  est  qui  sub  duobus  mediis  movetur  digitis  grossus  et  sub  ex- 
tremis nine  et  inde  sobtilis  et  tenuis ;  aut  medium  ejus  elatum  est,  et  extiemi- 
tatis  demissae,  videturque  tangenti  arterise  extrema  ad  infonora  declinari." 
Sprengel  appears  to  have  thought  that  the  pulsus  inclinus  of  Haly  Abbas  i 


COMMBNTART  ON  TBI  8BCOND  BOOK.  179 

one  6ril  deteribtd  by  him,  but  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  its  being  identical 
with  the  innuemei  eirctimimefu{petmtKmsKaifrtpaf€vevK»f)ofQ9Xen*9  System. 

Ib  the  Spasntodic  Pulse,  the  artery  is  said  to  convey  the  sensation  of  a  string 
or  cold  tigiitly  strelehed,  which,  When  touched,  starts  from  its  place.  It  seems 
to  be  the  Ptiktu  Torlvoiiif  of  Alsaharavius,  and  is  commonly  met  with  when 
oooTokooDS  w»  impending. 

The  Vikrmtmy  deriTes  its  name  from  an  imaginary  resemblance  to  the  mo- 
tions of  a  rod  or  dart  when  thrown  into  the  air,  and  it  can  only  take  place 
when  the  artery  is  haid^  and  the  strength  good.  Le  Clerc  renders  it  U  pauU 
dmrdtmi. 

The  Vndulaiory  derives  its  name  from  a  supposed  resemblance  to  the  roll- 
ing of  the  waves,  and  can  only  take  place  when  the  arteiy  is  particularly  soft, 
being  acoompaiiied  with  an  unequal  elevation  of  it  in  the  diastole,  it  is  thus 
described  by  iihases : — ^Undosus  veroestqui  secundum  latitudinem,  magnum 
digiti  occupat  locum,  cum  lenitate  et  tepletione,  cum  eo  tamen  non  est  mag- 
na elevatio  neqne  subita,  sed  videtur  quod  elevationem  ejus  una  post  aliam 
contingit,  donee  it  ut  undis  assimilatur,  quarum  una  aliam  sequitur."  Ije 
Clerc  rendeis  it  ontkwant. 

■Ob  rtrwmmlmliSen  from  the  last-mentioned  only  in  magnitude  and 
streDgtl^  being  soft,  small,  and  weak.  Nearly  allied  to  it  is  the  Formtcam 
or  awl^-lifcgpulBe,  which  is  one  of  the  last  degree  of  weakness,  smallness,  and 
densil|r.  They  are  thus  described  by  Khases : — **^  Verraicolosi  forma  est  ut 
forma  tmdosi,  in  elevatione  qu«  secundum  diastolem  eadem  invenitur,  non 
tamen  est  latus,  neque  plenus,  cujus  inundatio  existit  debilis,  qui  vermibus 
per  Ibnunen  avteris  discurrentibus  assimulatur :  formicans  vero  pulsus  adeo 
invenimr  in  ultimo  parvitatis,  et  spissitudinis  consistere,  ut  pulsui  pueri  re- 
cois  nati  assimnletur."  The  Chinese  compare  the  Formicans  to  a  silk 
thiead,  aeapiilary  tube,  or  a  hair. 

The  luUrmittcnt  and  Intercurrent  pulses  are  opposed  to  one  another,  there 
bfing  a  oamplete  £ukire  of  a  pulsation  in  the  one  case,  and  an  accessory  or 
superfluous  one  in  the  oth^ .  There  cannot  be  a  better  proof  of  the  imper- 
fection in  our  modem  systems  of  the  pulse,  than  that  there  should  be  no  men- 
tion in  them  ef  the  Intercurrent  pulse. 

The  Hectic  pulse,  it  is  well  known,  is  small  and  dense. 

The-Sorra^eri  is  hard,  quick,  and  unequal  in  its  feel.  Hhases  says  that  it  is 
principailj  observed  in  inflammations  of  tlie  Pleura  and  Diaphragm.  Le 
Clerc  fenders  it  It  pauk  -en  maniere  de  »cie.  Hi»t.  de  la  l^led.  p.  iii.  l.iii. 
c.  3.  It  appeaiB  to  correspond  with  the  pulse  called  harsh  in  the  works  of 
EagiiBh  writ/en  on  medicine. 

Berdea  speaks  af  the  terms ^/armiraiu,  rm/urus^  and  caprizam^  as  having 
been  jnatly  bMiished  from  our  modem  nomenclatures.  But  it  may  be  doubted 
whether  it  be  faam  superior  inifbrmation  or  from  ignorance  that  we  have  re- 
jected theae  nice  disdnctions.    Some  of  these  terms  were  in  use  long  before 
the  time  of  Galen  ^he  mentions  that  HerophiUis  used  the  term  dorcadUsa'M)^ 
and  ibr  mare  than  a  thousand  years  afterwards  the  characters  of  the  pulse  to 
which  they  were  applied  vrere  acknowledged  as  real;  and,  on  a  matter  de- 
pending-solely  upon  experience  and  observation,  the  concurring  sufTrages  of 
80  many  ages  must  be  admitted  to  be  entitled  to  some  considei'ation.    That 
maay  of  the  Gteek  and  Ajrabian  physicians  were  men  of  great  learning,  and 
<»f  nradi  fMracticalekill  in  medicine,  cannot  admit  of  a  doubt;  and  therefore  the 
opinions  of  such  men  ought  not  to  be  hastily  rejected  as  visionary  and  un- 
fomided.    Galen,  indeed,  expresses  in  strong  terms  the  difficulty  which  he 
^d  in  defining  accurately  the  states  of  the  artery  to  which  the  terms  we  are 
irvftting  of  are  applied,  and  warns  the  reader  that  such  characters  are  to  be 
<^t6cted  only  by  a  person  well  experienced  in  the  art  of  feeling  pulses,  which 
^  pronoonces  io  be  one  not  easily  attained .    It  is  worthy  of  remark,  further, 

n2 


180  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK. 

that  the  truly  learned  and  experienced  Prosper  Alpinus  recognized  and  de- 
scribed these  characters  of  the  pulse,  De  Pr.  Vit  et  Morte  .^Igrot, 

Whoever  will  consult  Galen  s  treatises  on  the  Pulse  will  find  discussed  in 
them  many  subtle  questions  which  are  now  seldom  thought  of.  For  example, 
he  enters  into  a  disquisition,  whether  or  not  we  can  perceive  the  systole  of  the 
artery.  He  informs  us  that  Agathinus  had  denied,  and  Herophilus  affirmed, 
the  possibility  of  this.  He,  after  having,  as  he  says,  exammed  the  matter 
fully,  agrees  with  the  latter. 

Psellus  gives  the  characters  of  the  Pulses  in  not  inelegant  Leonine  verses. 

The  causes  which  produce  all  these  varieties  of  pulse,  and  the  changes  of 
the  system  which  they  indicate,  are,  upon  the  whole,  pretty  clearly  explained 
by  our  author ;  and  the  reader  who  wishes  to  consult  other  abridgments  of 
the  doctrines  of  Galen  may  find  them  in  the  works  of  Rhases,  Haly  Abbas, 
and  Actuarius.  I  shall  merely  make  a  few  remarks  upon  some  of  the  more 
obscure  and  least  understood  parts  of  the  system,  and  compare  it  with  a 
celebrated  modem  Theory  of  the  Pulse. 

Respecting  the  Myuri,  Galen  states  that  they  all  indicate  a  prostration  of 
the  vital  powers,  but  differing  in  degree,  according  to  circumstances.  When 
the  pulse  gradually  becomes  smaller,  and  in  like  manner  recovers  its  magni- 
tude gradually,  and  so  on  alternately,  so  as  to  form  the  Recmrent  Myuri,  it 
indicates  an  inferior  degree  of  prostration ;  and,  when  the  diminished  state  of 
pulsation  continues  permanent,  a  greater  degree  of  oppression  is  indicated. 
In  the  former  case  the  powers  of  the  system  seem  able  to  struggle  against  the 
load,  but  in  the  latter  they  are  completely  overcome.  This  state  is  next  in 
danger  to  that  of  complete  Asphyxia.  These  three  are  the  worst  kinds  of 
pulse.  The  Intermitting  is  said  by  Him  to  be  allied  to  these,  being  indicative 
of  great  danger,  though  inferior  to  that  of  those  we  have  mentioned.  Next  to 
the  Intermitting  is  the  Intercurrent,  which  indicates  that  the  powers  of  the 
system  are  strong,  but  oppressed,  and  contending  against  some  great  load. 
Galen  was  particularly  apprehensive  of  the  Intermitting  pulse,  which  he  held 
to  indicate  that  the  system  is  struggling  against  some  urgent  cause.  He  re^ 
marks,  however,  that,  when  the  pulse  is  otherwise  strong  and  frequent,  it  in- 
dicates less  danger  than  when  it  is  weak  and  slow.  But,  upon  the  whole,  he 
considered  this  kind  of  pulse  so  full  of  danger,  that  he  affirms  he  liad 
never  known  a  person  recover  whose  pulse  intermitted  during  the  interval  of 
two  pulsations.  When  the  pulse  intermits  during  the  space  of  only  one  pul- 
sation, or  a  little  more,  he  says  he  had  often  seen  the  patient  recover.  He  also 
states,  that  an  Intermitting  pulse  is  less  dangerous  in  old  persons  than  in 
adults  or  children.  Some,  he  says,  affirm  that  they  have  seen  cases  of  inter- 
mission which  did  not  prove  dangerous,  but  he  believes  that  they  had  con- 
founded rarity  with  intermission.  The  Intermitting  is  to  be  distinguished 
from  the  Rare  by  the  length  of  the  time  of  rest,  and  by  the  latter  being  often 
equable,  whereas  the  former  is  always  unequable.  He  says  it  is  generally  oc- 
casioned by  frigidity  of  the  heart.  These  opinions  respecting  the  danger  in- 
dicated by  an  Intermitting  pulse  were  called  in  question  by  the  celebrated 
Solano  de  Luque,  who  maintained  that  it  is  always  indicative  of  a  Critical 
Diarrhnea.  Dr.  Nihell,  who  is  a  warm  abettor  of  Solano*s  doctrine,  while  be 
contends  that  the  Intermitting  pulse  often  indicates  a  Critical  Diarrhoea,  allows 
that  there  are  exceptions  to  this  rule,  for  that  it  often  arises  from  disorders  and 
impediments  of  the  heart  and  its  blood-vessels,  and  is  sometimes  brought  on 
by  spasms,  convulsions,  weakness,  or  repletion  of  the  heart.  According 
Bordeu,  the  pulse  which  is  indicative  of  a  Critical  Diarrhcea,  or  disorder  i 
the  bowels,  is  irregular,  unequal,  and  bounding,  as  well  as  intermitting;  an 
he  therefore  thinks  that  Solano  did  not  sufficiently  attend  to  its  other  charac 
ters  besides  its  intermissions.  Judging  from  my  own  experience,  I  woul 
say,  that  the  Intermitting  pulse  deserves  in  general  the  character  which  Gale 


COJIMBNTART  ON  TBS  SSCONO  BOOK.  181 

{^ives  it,  although  in  certain  cases  it  is  merely  indicative  of  Intestinal  irritation. 
I  also  think  it  not  improbable,  that  Solano  and  Nihell  may  have  sometimes 
confounded  the  Irregular  and  Unequable  pulses  with  the  Intermitting;  and 
Galen  decidedly  inculcates  that  the  former  indicate  the  presence  of  Bilious 
matters  in  the  primee  viae,  and  prognosticate  a  Critical  vomiting. 

Galen,  Rhases,  and  Haly  Abbas,  repeatedly  inculcate  that  the  Undulatory 
Pulse  indicates  an  approaching  crisis  by  a  sweat.  They  describe  it  as  being 
strong,  iiill,  soft,  bounding,  and  unequable.  This,  I  am  disposed  to  think,  is 
the  same  as  the  Pulsus  Inciduus  of  Dr.  Solano,  and  the  unequally  Rising 
Pulse  of  Dr.  Nihell,  which  they  represent  to  be  indicative  of  a  Critical  sweaty 
and  describe  as  consisting  of  two,  three,  or  four  pulsations,  rising  not  only 
above  the  rest,  but  also  gradually  as  they  proceed  aoove  each  other,  the  second 
above  the  first,  and  so  on.  Bordeu  represents  it  as  being  plein,  soupUf  deve- 
lope,  megaUf  &c.  and  holds  that  it  is  different  from  the  Undulatory  Pulse  of 
the  ancients.  It  seems  probable,  however,  that  they  are  identical.  Wetsch 
says  that  it  is  called  Pulsus  lledundans  in  the  Chinese  system  of  the  Pulse. 
Medic,  ex  Puis,  c.  7. 

The  Dicrotos  is  distinguished  by  a  smaller  pulsation  suddenly  succeeding 
to  a  larger  one.  Galen  compares  it  to  a  hammer,  which,  when  forcibly  struck 
against  the  anvil,  rebounds,  and  strikes  it  again.  The  artery  in  such  cases  is 
always  strong  and  vibratory.  Philaretus  describes  the  pulsation  as  being 
bard,  vehement,  and  rebounding.  Galen  says  it  can  only  occur  when  the 
powers  of  the  system  are  strong,  the  artery  hard,  and  the  body  oppressed 
with  a  redundance  of  humours.  He  repeatedly  inculcates  that  it  indicates  an 
approaching  crisis.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  is  the  Double  or  ite- 
bounding  pulse  of  Solano  and  Nihell,  which,  according  to  them,  is  always  in- 
dicative of  a  Critical  hemorrhage  at  the  Nose.  Whether  it  uniformly  pre- 
cedes this  crisis,  and  no  other,  I  cannot,  from  my  own  experience,  pretend  to 
determine.  Nihell's  statement  is  strong  in  favour  of  this  prognostic.  Of  one 
hundred  and  twenty-one  persons  in  whom  he  observed  tlie  Rebounding  pulse, 
seven  only  showed  no  tendency  to  hemorrhage ;  the  remaining  one  hundred 
and  fourteen  were  all  affected  either  with  bleeding  at  the  nose,  or  symptoms 
of  determination  to  the  head.  But,  according  to  Bordeu,  it  is  only  when  the 
pulse  is  hard,  full,  and  briskly  bounding,  that  it  indicates  a  hemorrhage  at  the 
nose;  for,  when  it  is  less  hard,  less  full,  and  less  briskly  and  steadily  rebound- 
ing, it  rather  indicates  a  discharge  of  mucus  or  phlegm  from  the  nose.  I 
lately  detected  the  Rebounding  pulse  in  a  case  of  Uterine  hemorrhage  during 
pregnancy. 

'Die  singular  pulse  called  dorcadissanSf  which  we  have  translated  Goat-leap, 
is  said  to  occur  most  frequently  in  affections  of  the  Heart  and  Inflammations 
of  the  parts  within  the  chest.    I  think  I  have  detected  it  in  such  cases. 

The  Vermicular  appears  to  have  been  the  same  as  that  which  is  now  some- 
times denominated  Creeping  in  modem  works,  and  is  said  by  the  ancient 
authorities  to  occur  in  cases  of  sudden  prostration  of  the  vital  powers,  pro- 
duced by  inordinate  evacuations,  such  as  hemorrhage,  cholera,  diarrhoea,  and 
the  like. 

The  pulse  called  innuens  et  circumnuens  is  said  to  occur  only  in  cases  of 
extreme  debility  and  danger. 

Galen  gives  the  following  ingenious  explanation  why  the  pulse  is  con- 
tracted and  frequent,  in  cases  of  acute  inflammations.  lie  remarks  that,  if  a 
person  have- an  inflammation  in  a  limb,  he  will  experience  most  ease  in  a 
state  of  complete  rest ;  but,  if  obliged,  by  some  urgent  necessity,  to  perform 
a  journey,  he  will  find,  that  he  can  accomplish  this  most  easily  by  taking 
short  and  frequent  steps.  In  like  manner,  when  any  part  is  inflamed,  it 
Would  afford  most  relief,  if  the  motion  of  the  arteries  could  be  altogether 
suspended  for  a  time;  but,  as  this  cannot  be,  nature  renders  the  dilatation 


1S2  COMMXNTART  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK. 

as  confined  as  possible,  and  makes  up  for  its  smallness  by  frequency. — He 
U$u  Respirationis. 

After  giving  this  exposition  of  the  Galenic  system  of  the  pulse,  we  may 
well  exclaim  with  Vander  Linden : — **  Si  qui  alii  de  pulsibus  post  Galenum 
scribunt,  ne  illi  videntur  actum  agere  T — Manuductio  ad  Medtcirunn, 


XIII.-^ON  THE  ALYINB  DI8CHAROB8* 

See,  in  particular,  Hippocrates,  Prognast,  and  Galenus,  de  CriiUmSf  c.  xi. 
Galen  remarks,  that  the  stomach  may  do  its  office  properly,  but  that,  owing 
to  the  heat  of  the  neighbouring  parts,  the  moisture  may  be  dissipated,  and 
the  contents  of  the  bowels  rendered  too  dry ;  or  that,  owing  to  an  imperfect 
distribution  of  the  chyle,  they  may  be  too  liquid.  When  the  alfine  discnarges 
are  soft  and  consistent,  we  are  certain,  that  both  the  digestive  and  distributive 
functions  are  properly  performed,  and  likewise,  that  no  part  within  the  belly 
is  in  a  state  of  inflammation.  He  afterwards  makes  many  other  ingenimis 
observations  on  this  subject,  the  importance  of  which,  towards  the  restoration 
of  health,  is  now  generally  admitted.  He  remarks,,  that,  agreeably  to  the 
description  of  Hippocrates  ( Prognost,)  the  proper  ailvine  evacuation  ought 
to  be  yellowish;  ibr,  if  very  yellow,  it  indicates  the  presence  ef  too  modi 
bUe,  or,  if  it  do  not  partake  of  that  colour  at  all,  it  indicates  that  the  passage 
of  the  bile  to  the  intestines  is  stopt.  Hhases  and  Avicenna  concur  in  tms 
remark.  Mr.  Abemethy,  by  the  way,  insists,  that  the  colour  of  the  fkces  de- 
pends principally  upon  the  bile. — (On  the  Comtitutional  Treatment  of  Local 
Viseases.)  Galen  describes  the  frothy  evacuation,  which  appears  to  be  the 
same  as  the  one  resembling  yeast  described  by  Dr.  Paris. — (On  Diet,  p. 
333.)  Hippocrates  (Progn,)  and  Galen  make  mention  of  a  discharge, 
which  consists  of  small,  hard,  and  convoluted  portions.  This  discharge  Is 
also  described  by  Dr.  Paris,  u.  s.  Galen  is  of  opinion,  that  it  is  occasioned 
by  constipation  and  heat  of  the  bowels. 

The  account  of  this  subject  given  by  Haly  Abbas  ( Theor,  vii.  16.  and 
X.  10.)  is  excellent,  although  principally  collected  from  the  Greek  wrHen. 
An  unctuous  discbarge,  he  remarks,  is  occasioned  by  a  melting  of  the  &t  If 
it  be  viscid  at  the  same  time,  it  indicates  also  a  wasting  of  the  principel 
members.  A  firothy  discharge  proceeds  from  heat  and  flatulence.  A  grees 
eracuation  indicates  immoderate  heat,  and  the  presence  of  bile.  Black  die- 
charges  consist  either  of  black  bile,  or  of  common  bile  blackened  by  im- 
moderate heat  This,  he  says,  is  the  worst  appearance  of  all.  If  blood  is 
discharged  after  the  fteces,  it  may  be  supposed  to  come  from  the  small  i»> 
testines;  but  if  before,  from  the  large;  and  if  mixed  with  the  freces,  it 
probably  comes  from  the  intermediate  parts. — See  also  Alsaharaviusi,  Theor, 
tr.  ix.  and  Rhases,  Cant,  xxxi.  Rhases  states,  that  white  faeces  arise  from 
jaundice.  When  the  discharges  are  watery,  the  nourishment  of  the  body  is 
stopt. 

The  opinions  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen  on  this  subject  are  conecdy 
stated  and  explained  by  Prosper  Alpinus.    De  Pressag,  Vita  et  Motte  JEgrot,^ 
lib.  vii.  c.  11. 


XIV. ON  THE  INDICATIONS  VROM  THE  URINE. 

See  Hippocrates,  Prognost,  lib.  ii.  et  de  Vict.  Acut.  c.  46. — Galeni 
Comment,  de  Crisibtis,  i.  12. — Celsus,  ii.  7. — ^Theophilus  de  Urinis, — ^A< 
tuarius  de  Urinis, — Aetius,  lib.  v. — ^Avicenna,  lib.  iv.  fbn  2.  tr.  1.,  Cantic, 
1. — Averrhoes,  Colliget,  iv.  21. — Haly  Abbas^  Tkeor,  iv.  12,  x.  10. — . 


OOMMSNTABT  ON  THE  SSOOND  BOOK.  188 

haraviusy  Theor.  tr.  viii. — Rhaseti,  ad  Mantor.  x.  30.  and  Contimuij  lib. 
xxxiw — Psellus,  Offut  Medicu$n. 

Of  the  ancient  authorities  who  have  treated  of  the  urinary  discharget, 
Theophilas  and  Actoarius  are  most  particularly  deserving  of  attention ;  out 
their  works  contain  so  many  minute  obsenrations,  that  I  cannot  do  justice 
to  them  within  the  limits  to  which  I  am  obliged  to  restrict  myself.  I  must  b« 
content,  therefore,  with  making  a  few  remarks.  Besides  the  watery  portion, 
the  ancients  distinguished  three  dbtinct  substances  in  the  urine, — 1st,  TImi 
hypostasis  or  sediment,  which  is  the  part  that  falls  to  the  bottom,--*2d.  The 
ensBorema,  or  substances  which  float  m  the  watery  part,  but  have  not  weight 
to  subside,— 3d,  The  nubeculs,  or  cloud-like  appearances  seen  floating  on  the 
snr&ce.  They  state,  that  the  urine  of  sedentary  persons  has  more  sedi- 
ment than  that  of  persons  who  pursue  an  active  course  of  life ;  that  the  urine  of 
womm,  ffom  this  cause,  has  generally  more  sediment  than  that  of  men ;  that  of 
children,  more  than  that  of  adults ;  and  that  of  persons  who  live  grossly, 
than  the  arine  of  temperate  persons.  Of  the  varieties  of  sediment,  Uie  fari- 
naceous and  furfiiraceous,  are  said  to  be  particularly  unfavourable  in  febrile 
complaints,  but  that  sometimes  they  merely  indicate  local  affections  of  the 
kidneys. 

As  a  specimen  of  the  doctrines  of  the  Arabians,  although,  in  fact,  entirely 
borrowea  from  the  Greeks,  I  shall  select  a  few  of  the  observations  of  Haly 
Abbas  and  Alsaharavius.  According  to  Haly,  thinness  of  the  urine  in- 
dicates deficient  digestion.  Thickness,  on  the  other  hand,  is  the  product  of 
excessive  digestion,  or  arises  from  the  presence  of  pituitous  humours  in  the 
body.  When  the  sediment  is  white,  it  is  a  favourable  symptom ;  when 
yellow,  it  is  from  yellow  bile ;  when  red,  it  is  from  a  sanguineous  plethora 
and  imperfect  digestion ;  and  if  of  long  continuance,  it  roust  proceed  from 
in^mmation  of  the  liver.  If,  after  intense  redness,  the  urine  become  black, 
it  is  a  most  fiUal  symptom.  When  the  urine  is  moderately  fetid,  it  is  con- 
nected with  indigestion ;  but  when  very  fetid,  with  putrefaction.  Alsal»* 
ravins  delivers  the  characters  of  the  different  kinds  of  urine  in  nearly  the 
same  terms.  He  properly  cautions  the  physician  not  to  allow  himself  to  be 
imposed  upon  by  the  colour  of  the  urine,  which  may  sometimes  acquire  a 
tinge  from  the  patient's  having  taken  saffron,  cassiarlistula,  or  the  like. 
Such  tficks,  he  says,  are  often  practised  upon  water  doctors.  According  to 
Rhaiee,  it  is  ao  un^vourable  symptom  when  the  urine  does  not  become 
tmrbid  ki  the  course  of  the  fever.  Yellow  urine  without  sediment  is  said  to 
be  unfevovrable. 

Prosper  Alpinus  has  stated  correctly  the  doctrines  of  Hippocrates  and 
Galen,  but  is  entirely  silent  respecting  those  of  Tbeophilus  and  Actuarius, 
u.  f . 

Besides  the  ancient  authors  referred  to  by  us  in  this  chapter,  the  works 
of  the  following  writers  de  Urhus  exist  in  manuscript,  but  have  never  been 
publisiied : — 1 .  Abicianus,  quoted  by  Labbeus. — 2.  Athenaeus,  quoted  by 
Ou  Cange,  ex  Cod.  Colbert^  3614. — 3.  Constantinus  Africanus,  in  Bibl. 
Cdsiorea. — 4.  Joannes  Episcopus,  Cod.  Reg,  3497. — 5.  Maximus  Planudes 
ftnd  Meletins  Monadius,  Cod,  Reg,  3175. — 6.  Nicephorus  Blemmydes^  ia 
Bibl.  C^sarea, — 7,  Anonyraus,  &c.  Cod,  Colb,  3614  and  4230,  et  in  Bibi. 
Qtesar,''^.  Piropulus  in  Bibl,  Corsliniandy  p.  448. — See  Fabricii  Bibl. 
Grac.  t.  xiii.  p.  779. 


XV. ON  THB  INDICATIONS  PROM  THE  SPUTA   OR  XXPBCTORATIONS. 

Galen  has  treated  fully  of  this  subject  in  his  work,  de  CrisibttSy  ii.  10. — 
See  also  Hippocrates,  Frognost.9nd  Coaca,  and  Celsiis,  ii.  0.    Aetius  is 


> 


184  COMIiXNTART  ON  THK  SKCOND  BOOK. 

somewhat  fuller  than  our  author,  ▼.  52. — See  Avicenna,  lib.  iv.  fen.  2.-*- 
Averrhoes,  Cantk.  p.  i.  tr.  2. — Ilaly  Abbas,  Theor.  vii.  and  x.  10. — Rfaases 
ad  Mansor.  x.  24. 

We  shall  be  content  with  giving  a  few  of  the  observations  of  the  Arabians, 
of  wh€>in  Haly  is  the  most  full  and  accurate  upon  this  head.  The  lungs  and 
the  other  parts  within  the  chest  being  the  organs  of  life,  when  affected*  they 
occasion  inflammation  of  the  heart.  Expectoration  indicates  some  affection 
of  those  parts.  When  the  expectoration  is  thin  and  small  in  quantity,  the 
disease  is  not  concocted ;  when  the  sputa  are  of  moderate  consistence  and 
equable,  the  disease  is  at  its  acm^  ^  when  thick,  it  is  certainly  on  thedecline. 
Thinness  indicates,  that  the  humour  which  occasions  the  coinplaint  is  of  a 
subtle  nature ;  thickness,  tlie  contrary.  Blackness  indicates  vehement  beat. 
Green  sputa  are  indicative  of  the  presence  of  green  bile,  white  of  phlegm, 
and  redness  of  blood.  When  fetid,  they  proceed  from  putrefoction.  Black 
sputa  indicate  great  danger. 

Prosper  Alpiniis  makes  many  ingenious  remarks  on  the  chaiacters  of  the 
sputa.     De  Vita  tt  Marte  JEgrot,  lib.  vii.  19. 


XVI. — ON  THB  DIAGNOSIS  AND  CURB  OF  BPHBMBRAL  FBVERS. 

Among  all  the  records  of  medicine,  there  is  not,  perhaps,  any  thing  more 
valuable  than  the  reports  of  febrile  diseases,  contained  in  the  Epidemics  of 
Hippocrates,  illustrated,  as  they  fortunately  are,  by  the  learned  Commentaries 
of  Galen.  Many  of  them  are  histories  of  Ephemeral  Fevers,  brought  on  by 
certain  exciting  causes,  and  frequently  terminating  in  Synochous.  The 
Procatarctic  causes  generally  assigned  are,  fatigue,  excessive  debavcbery, 
exposure  to  extreme  heat  or  cold,  and  the  like. 

Of  no  disease  has  Galen  treated  so  frequently  and  fully  as  of  Ferer. — 
See  de  Diff.  Febriumy  Meth.  Med.  viii.  and  ix.,  Therap,  ad  Giauc^  de 
CrisibuSf  ii.  13.  et  alibi.  He  everywhere  inculcates,  that  Ephemeral  Fevers 
are  affections  of  the  SpiritSy  by  which  he  seems  to  have  understood  the  heat 
and  gases  contained  in  the  blood.  The  exciting  or  remote  causes  of  them, 
according  to  him,  are,  want  of  sleep,  indigestion,  sorrow,  fear,  anger,  anxiety, 
tlie  application  of  heat  and  cold,  excessive  fisitigue,  tumour  of  the  groin,  and 
the  like.  He  remarks,  that  the  heat  in  these  fevers  is  not  offensive  on  the 
first  application  of  the  fingers,  but  conveys  an  acrid  sensation  after  a  short 
time.  (By  the  way.  Sir  John  Pringle  makes  the  same  remark  respecting  the 
Jail  Fever.)  He  has  particularly  stated  constriction  as  a  proximate  cause  of 
fever ;  and  this  evidently  is  the  same  as  the  spasm  of  the  extreme  vessels  in 
the  Cullenian  Theory  of  Fever.  In  this  variety,  he  approves  of  venesection, 
unless  the  patient  be  a  child  or  a  very  old  man.  In  the  other  cases,  his 
most  approved  remedy  is  the  Bath ;  but  his  treatment  is  judiciously  varied, 
according  to  circumstances.  For  example,  when  the  Fever  arises  from  the 
depressing  passions,  he  forbids  to  use  hard  friction  and  frequent  baths,  and 
merely  directs  to  pour  tepid  oil  over  the  patient's  body.  When  it  is  pro- 
duced by  exposure  to  heat,  he  forbids  to  use  much  oil,  or  to  have  recourse  to 
hard  friction,  and  directs  to  pour  upon  the  head  water  which  has  been 
cooled  by  means  of  ice,  and  to  put  the  patient  into  a  cold  bath.  Alexander, 
however,  finds  fault  with  him  for  giving  heating  medicines,  such  as  pepper,. 
and  using  hot  applications  over  the  stomach  in  such  cases.  Alexander  s  ac — 
count  of  the  nature  and  treatment  of  these  fevers  cannot  be  perused  with  to<^ 
liiuch  attention.  They  arise,  he  says,  from  many  and  various  causes,  sucl^ 
as  repletion,  want,  watchfulness,  fatigue,  disorder  ofthe  belly,  apostemes;  and  .9. 
in  a  uord,  from  all  the  procatarctic  causes.  When  the  fever  is  occasioned  b_ 
f xcessive  fatigue,  the  indication,  he  slates,  is  to  supply  mobture  to  the  bod^ 


COMJISNTAET  ON  THB  8BC0ND  AOOK.  186 

ratlier  ilian  take  from  it.  Ilence,  all  friction  with  discutieot  oiU  ouglit  to  be 
avoided ;  and  what  is  used  for  rubbing  the  body  should  be  mixed  with 
much  water ;  but  the  principal  dependence  is  to  be  put  upon  the  tepid  bath. 
Here,  again,  he  thinks  that  Galen  erred,  in  not  directing  that  the  oil  used  for 
rubbing  the  body  should  be  diluted  with  water. 

Oribasius  and  Aetius  treat  of  Ephemeral  Fevers  in  much  the  same  terms  as 
our  author. 

Palladius  says,  that  Ephemerals  are  affections  of  the  spiritt,  arising  from 
some  external  exciting  cause,  such  as  fatigue,  intoxication,  anxiety,  watchftil- 
oess,  or  from  a  tumour  of  the  groin.  Celsus  ^ves  a  similar  enumeration  of 
the  causes,  but  in  briefer  terms : — *'  Febris  ex  uguine,  Tel  ex  lassitudine,  vtl 
ex  spstu,  aUi&ve  simili  re  est.**  Almost  all  the  authorities  ftx>m  Hippocratet, 
downwards,  mention  enlargement  of  the  glands,  especially  those  of  the  groin, 
among  the  causes  of  fever.  Agathias  the  historian  remarks,  that  Pestilential 
Fever  is  attended  with  enlargement  of  the  inguinal  glands,  but  does  terminate 
fiivoorably  in  one  day,  like  the  Ephemerals.    Hitt,  lib.  v. 

Nonnus  enumerates  nearly  the  same  causes  of  these  fevers  as  our  author, 
whom  he  appears  to  have  followed  closely.  He  remarks,  that  Ephememk 
are  sometimes  protracted  to  the  third  or  fourth  day,  from  which  it  appears 
that  the  term  is  not  to  be  taken  in  too  strict  a  sense. 

Synesius  treats  of  Ephemeral  Fevers  with  great  accuracy,  so  that  we  have 
reason  to  regret  that  the  text  of  this  author  should  be  so  corrupt.  Like  pre> 
ceding  author^  he  enumerates,  among  the  exciting  causes,  abscess  of  the 
glands  of  the  groin,  neck,  and  armpits,  the  beat  of  which,  he  says,  being  de» 
tennined  to  the  heart,  kindles  a  fever.  In  this  case  he  recommends  discu- 
tient  and  emollient  applications,  such  as  mallows,  linseed,  and  the  like.  The 
account  given  by  Constantinus  Africanus  is  exactly  similar  to  his. 

Actuarius  mentions  the  same  causes,  and  briefly  recommends  the  same 
treatment  as  our  author. 

Haly  Abbas  gives  a  most  distinct  and  accurate  account  of  the  phenomena 
of  Ephemeral  Fevers,  according  to  the  nature  of  their  remote  causes.    The 
Isi  Class  are  produced  by  external  causes,  such  as  exposure  to  the  heat  of 
the  sun,  hot  baths,  or  astringents  which  occasion  constriction  of  the  pores  of 
the  skin.    He  also  inculcates  that  these  causes  may  likewise  nve  rise  to  Sy« 
nochous,  or  Putrid  Fevers.  The  2d  Class  are  prod  uced  by  calemcient  food  and 
medicines.    The  3d  Class  are  occasioned  by  immoderate  exercise,  or  violent 
passions,  such  as  anger,  fear,  and  the  like.    The  4th  are  sympathetic  affec- 
tions proceeding  from  inflammatory  swellings  of  the  glands.    He  remarks, 
thai  in  certain  kinds  of  fever  the  increase  of  heat  is  not  felt  upon  the  first  ap- 
plication of  the  hand,  owing  to  constriction  of  the  pores.     Theor.  viii.  3.     l£s 
treatment  merits  attention.    When  tlie  fever  arises  from  a  hot  cause,  he  di- 
rects to  pour  refrigerant  liquids,  such  as  vinegar,  rose  oil,  and  the  like,  upon  the 
beady  and  to  apply  to  tlie  forehead  a  cloth  moistened  with  the  same.     When 
tlie  fever  is  produced  by  cold,  he  recommends  the  warm  bath,  with  friction, 
in  order  to  promote  perspiration ;  after  which  caleiacients  may  be  given ;  but 
he  forbids  wine,  if  the  exciting  cause  be  great,  lest  it  should  occasion  a  con- 
version of  the  complaint  into  a  Putrid  Fever,  which,  as  he  remarks,  Galen 
stales  not  to  be  an  uncommon  occurrence.    To  prevent  this,  he  recommends 
to  have  recourse  to  venebection  and  the  liberal  administration  of  diluents. 
The  next  class  of  Ephemerals  of  which  he  treats  are  Intestinal  Fevers  origi- 
nating in  errors  of  food  and  drink.     For  these  he  recommends  cooling 
drink,  cooling  articles  of  food,  clysters,  eccoprotics,  and  the  like.    When 
the  fever  is  brought  on  by  violent  labour,  he  recommends  the  tepid  bath, 
(gentle  friction  with  emollient  oils,  light  food,  and  a  spare  allowance  of  wine, 
provided  the  patient  has  been  habituated  to  it.     When  the  fever  is  produced 
by  violent  emotions  of  the  mind,  he  recommends  the  tepid  bath,  refrigerant 


186  comfBHTAmr  on  tbx  sbcond  booi^. 

ibody  camphor,  and  the  like.  When  it  ari8<^  firom  sorrow,  he  directs  to  have 
recourse  to  treatment  of  an  exhilarating  nature,  the  bath,  wine,  and  so  forth. 
For  fever  brought  on  by  vrant  of  sleep,  he  recommends  soothing  treatment, 
the  atfiision  of  tepid  water,  and  wine,  if  the  patient  has  been  accustomed  to 
it.  In  fevers  arising  from  glandular  swellings,  he  directs  to  have  recourse  to 
venesection,  and  forbids  the  use  of  the  bath  and  of  wine.  This  is  somewhat 
different  from  our  author's  treatment.  The  account  of  the  causes  and  treatment 
of  ephtmerals  given  by  Alsaharavius  is  so  like  that  of  Haly  Abbas,  that  I  shall 
not  enter  particularly  upon  it.  *Serapion,  Averrboes,  and  Avenzoar,  give  sensible 
expositions  of  the  causes  and  cure  of  these  fevers;  but  there  is  little  in  them 
worthy  of  attention  that  is  not  derived  from  the  Greeks.  Avensoar  states 
distinetlTy  that,  if  neglected  or  mismanaged,  they  are  apt  to  be  converted  in- 
to potrio,  or  synochous  fevers.  For  ephemerals  occasioned  by  labour,  he  re- 
comrncods  the  tepid  bath,  and  friction  with  the  pulp  of  melons.  Avicenna 
remarks,  that  if,  in  ephemerels,  the  blood  become  inflamed,  the  fever  is  apt 
to  be  converted  into  sjmochous,  or,  if  it  become  putrid,  into  putrid  fever. 
This,  he  says,  is  particularly  the  case,  when  the  ephemeral  fever  is  connected 
with  obstruction  of  the  pores  of  the  skin.  For  the  cure  of  this  species,  he 
approves  of  venesection.  He  recommends  the  same  remedy,  when  the 
disease  arises  from  drinking  too  much  wine,  or  from  aposteme  of  the  groin, 
armpits,  or  neck.  His  expositor,  Syrasis,  particularly  commends  the  tepid 
affusion  in  ephemerals.  Ithases  joins  in  enforcing  the  same  practice  as 
Avioenna.  He  gives  a  most  comprehensive  account  of  the  causes  of  these 
fevers.  Like  all  the  other  authorities,  he  decidedly  inculcates  this  important 
feet,  that,  although  ephemeral  fever  be  in  itself  neither  serious  nor  ratal,  it 
may  be  converted  into  a  vehement  and  acute  fever,  when  any  error  is  com- 
mitted in  the  regimen  or  method  of  cure.  Constriction,  he  says,  may  take 
place,  either  in  the  pores  of  the  skin,  or  in  the  internal  parts,  and  is  gene- 
rally occasioned  by  cold  or  astringents.  This  is  one  of  the  causes  of  fever. 
The  others  are,  immoderate  exercise,  the  application  of  heat,  food  of  a  heat^ 
ing  nature,  and  putridity. 

A  "^cording  to  Prosper  Alpinus,  the  Methodists  held,  that  the  proximate 
cause  of  fever  is  constriction.  Galen,  as  we  have  stated,  held  this  to  be  one 
ofnhe  causes,  but  not  the  sole  one.  The  Methodists,  like  our  Cullen  and 
Hoffman,  seem  to  have  generalised  too  much.  Their  most  approved  re- 
medies were  the  warm  bath,  and  friction  with  emollient  oils.  De  Mediema 
Methodica,  lib.  v. 

The  earlier  modem  writers  on  medicine  give  the  same  account  of  ephe- 
merals as  their  ancient  masters,  whose  views  in  all  cases  they  servilely  adopt. 
— nSee  Rogerius,  Tract,  iii.  and  Platearius  de  FebrUmt,  Rogerins  correctly 
remarks,  Uiat  ephemeral  fever,  from  enlargement  of  the  glands,  is  merely 
symptomatic.  The  causes  of  ephemerals,  as  enumerated  by  him,  are,  ex- 
posure to  extremes  of  heat  and  cold,  food  and  drink  of  a  heating  nature, 
strong  exercise,  violent  passions  of  the  mind,  and  the  like.  Platearius  re- 
marks that,  if  an  ephemeral  be  prolonged  beyond  the  third  or  fourth  day,  it 
is  apt  to  be  converted  into  a  putrid  fever. 

XVII.— ON  PUTRID  FBVBES. 

Tnis  chapter  is  mostly  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synop,  vi.  7.  Many  of  the 
histories  in  the  £pidemics  of  Hippocrates  are  Synochous  Fevers,  accom- 
panied with  putrefaction  of  the  nuids.  Galen  remarks,  that  they  occur 
principally  in  persons  of  a  plethoric  and  gross  habit  of  body.  Meik,  Med, 
nb.  viii.  According  to  him,  Putrid  Fevers  may  either  arise  from  the  con- 
version of  ephemerals,  or  originally  from  putrefaction  of  the  fluids  within  the 


COMMSIITAET  ON  THB  SSCOND  BOOK.  187 

vessels.  De  Dijf,  Feh»  i.  9.  Aetius  steles,  that  they  arise  from  coDstrictioo 
of  the  skilly  or  viscidity  of  the  humoure,  whereby  the  perspiration  is  st«pt, 
and  the  quality  of  the  Titai  heat  so  altered,  as  to  give  rise  to  putrefactioB, 
first  of  tlra  fluids,  and  afterwards  of  the  &t  and  solid  parts.  When  these 
corrupted  fluids  are  oootained  within  the  vessels,  they  occasion  Synochoos 
Fevers ;  but,  when  distributed  over  the  body,  they  give  rise  to  Intermittenls. 
lib.  V,  74.  Synesius  and  Constantinus  AfHcanus  give  a  similar  accoanl. 
Alexander  gives  an  interesting  and  ingenious  disquisition  on  the  origin  and 
nature  of  Putrid  Fevers,  one  of  the  most  common  causes  of  which  be  holds  to 
be  the  conversion  of  Ephemeral  Fevers.  This  is  the  account  of  them  given 
by  moet  of  the  other  authorities,  both  Greek  and  Arabian,  so  that  I  need  not 
enter  into  any  very  circumstantial  exposition  of  their  views.  I  shall 
merely  give  the  brief  account  of  them  nimished  by  Palladius.  There  are, 
he  says,  two  kinds  of  Synochous  Fevers,  the  one  being  occasioned  by  e^ 
ferve&cence,  and  the  other  by  putrefaction  of  the  blood ;  of  these,  the  latttr 
are  the  more  protracted  and  dangerous.  In  them  the  pulse  is  contracted, 
the  heat  pungent,  and  the  urine  white  and  putrid.  Among  the  Arabiaiis, 
see,  in  particular,  AJsaharevius,  lib.  xxxii.  §.  6. — Haly  Abbas,  Theor,  viiL  5. 
and  Rhasee,  Conthensy  lib.  xxx.  Rhases  states,  that  Putrid  Fevers  art 
often  engendered  by  eaung  too  much  fruit,  such  as  peaches.  He  says,  they 
generally  b^n  with  depression  of  the  pulse,  horripilation,  torpor,  aod 
sonmolaicy. 


XyiII.*^-*ON  THB  CVBB  OF  PUTBID  FBVBB8. 

All  subsequent  writers  on  this  subject  are  indebted  to  Galen,  for  laying 
down,  in  the  most  satisfiurtory  terms,  the  principles  upon  which  the  treat- 
ment of  Putrid  Fevers  ought  to  be  conducted.  He  particularly  recommends 
bleeding  ad  deliquium.  When  this  evacuation  is  neglected,  the  patient's 
only  chance  of  safety  is  from  a  spontaneous  hemorrhage,  or  profuse  perspin^ 
tio«.  He  is  so  confident  in  the  remedial  powers  of  venesection,  that  he  di- 
rscts  it  to  be  performed  as  late  as  the  seventh  day,  and  even  later,  if  the 
strength  of  the  patient  permit.  He  particularly  directs,  likewise,  to  allow 
the  patient  to  drink  as  much  as  he  chooses  of  the  coldest  water,  whidi,  Im 
says,  when  seasoasd^y  administered,  is  most  efficacious  in  extinguishing  the 
febrile  heat.  This  remedy,  however,  he  says,  is  to  be  used  with  becoming 
caution.  But,  upon  the  whole,  he  strenuously  inculcates,  that  the  safety  of 
the  patient  depends  upon  the  free  use  of  phlebotomy  and  cold  drink.  When 
the  fever  abates,  he  allows  wine.  Alexander,  although  sufficiently  disposed  to 
difii&r  ftom  Galen,  entirely  concurs  with  him  in  opinion  respecting  the 
treatment  of  Putrid  Fevers,  for  which  he  particularly  commends  bleeding 
and  cold  driak.  When  venesection  is  contraindicated  by  the  weakness  of 
the  patient,  he  is  to  be  treated  by  a  refrigerant  and  diluent  regimen. 

Aetius  and  Oribasius  follow  Galen,  and  their  treatment,  fiierefore,  agrett 
perfectly  with  our  author's.  Synesius  and  Constantinus  Africanus  agree  la 
recommending  bleeding  and  cold  drink.  But,  when  the  patient  is  very 
weak,  they  forbid  to  have  recourse  to  the  former,  and,  in  that  case,  direct  to 
use  gentle  aperients,  and  medicines  of  a  refrigerant  and  diluent  nature,  socb 
as  prunes,  ittjufoes,  pur^ain,  and  the  like. 

Although  Avicenna  lays  little  claim  to  originality,  his  plan  of  treatment  io 
diis  case  is  deserving  of  attention,  as  being  directed  by  the  soundest  iudfp^ 
ment.  He  begins  with  venesection,  if  the  patient's  strength  permit,  and  thmi 
opens  the  belly  genlly,  but  cautions  against  violent  purging.  He  then  gvn$ 
first  diuretics,  and  afterwards  sudorifics.  Unless  vrnen  the  stomach  is  loaded 
with  crudities^  he  approves  very  much  of  cold  drink.    Though  fevourable  to 


188  COMMSNTART  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK. 

the  seasonable  practice  of  venesection,  he  forbids  it,  except  at  the  commence- 
ment ;  and  directs  to  proportion  the  loss  of  blood  to  the  strength  of  the  pa- 
tient, lie  also  forbids  to  interfere  with  the  crisis  by  bleeding,  purging,  or 
giving  gross  food  at  that  season.  Further,  with  regard  to  venesection,  he 
does  not  approve  of  abstracting  much  blood  at  once,  which  may  occasion  a 
dangerous  prostration  of  strength ;  but  prefers  taking  a  moderate  quantity, 
and  repeating  the  operation,  if  necessary.  The  pui*gatives  which  he  most 
commends  are  tamarinds  and  myrobalans;  but,  when  these  are  not  suf« 
ficiently  strong,  he  permits  to  give  scammony,  aloes,  and  colocynth.  He  also 
directs  to  give  camphor  as  a  refrigerant.  It  is  to  be  kept  in  mind,  that  the 
Arabians  held  the  action  of  camphor  to  be  frigorific,  that  is  to  say,  narcotic. 
He  is  most  minute  \n  his  directions  about  the  diet.  For  drink,  he  gives 
barley-water,  with  a  small  proportion  of  wine  or  vinegar. 

Haly  Abbas  lays  down  the  rules  of  treatment  with  great  precision.  He 
recommends  venesection  at  the  commencement,  provided  the  fever  be  of  a 
sanguineous  type ;  but,  if  the  patient  be  debilitated,  he  is  to  be  treated  with 
refrigerants. 

Averrhoes  treats  of  Putrid  Fevers  at  great  length,  and  with  more  than  his 
usual  judgment ;  but,  as  he  differs  but  little  from  Avicenna,  we  shall  not  at- 
tempt to  give  an  abstract  of  his  practice.  Collig,  vii.  9.  Rhases  gives  a  full 
account  of  the  practice  of  the  Greeks.  When  the  extremities  are  cold,  and 
the  pulse  weak,  he  directs  to  rub  them,  in  order  to  draw  off  the  blood  from 
the  mternal  parts. 

The  practice  of  Dr.  Robert  Jackson  in  Putrid  Fever  was  very  similar  to 
that  of  Galen  and  other  ancient  authorities.  He  approved  of  bleeding,  of 
rubbing  the  body  with  stimulant  and  antiseptic  substances,  and  afterwsirds 
of  giving  grateful  wines,  such  as  the  Rhenish  and  Champaigne. 

Alexander  Aphrodisieus  inquires  how  it  happens,  that  wine,  which  is  of  a 
hot  nature,  proves  useful  in  fever.  The  amount  of  his  speculations  upon  this 
matter  is  this,  that  the  wine  acts  by  strengthening  the  powers  of  the  system. 
Probl. 

All  the  ancient  authorities  disapprove  of  the  bath,  except  in  the  decline  of 
the  fever. — See  Ugulinus  de  Balneis,  Rabbi  Moyses  says,  that  the  use  of 
it  is  to  be  regulated  by  three  circumstances: — 1st,  That  no  rigor  be  pre* 
sent. — 2d,  That  no  important  member  be  affected. — 3d,  That  there  be  no 
crudities  in  the  veins.    These  appear  to  be  very  judicious  regulations. 


XIX. THE  DIAGNOSIS  OF  TERTIANS. 

Hippocrates  relates  many  interesting  cases  of  Tertian  Fevers  in  his  Epi- 
demics.   He  attributes  their  origin  to  bile.     De  Natura  Humana^  c.  29, 

Celsus  describes  two  kinds  of  the  Tertian,  the  one  beginning  with  shivering, 
and  being  succeeded  by  heat,  the  paroxysm  returning  every  alternate  day; 
and  the  oth6r  constituting  the  Semi-tertian,  of  which  we  will  have  to  treat 
afterwards. 

Galen  treats  of  these  Fevers  in  different  parts  of  his  works,  as,  in  Hippo- 
crat.  Epideni.  Comment,,  Therap,  ad  Glattc.,  de  Different,  Feb.  ii.  3.,  de 
TypiSf  c.  3.  The  symptoms  of  tne  Tertian  are  thus  described  by  him: — It 
is  attended  with  intense  thirst,  heat,  acrid  and  bilious  vomitings,  loss  of  ap- 
petite, and  restlessness.  For  the  most  part,  these  symptoms  are  preceded  by 
rigors,  or  sometimes  by  extreme  coldness.  The  pulse  in  Tertians  b  small 
and  dense.  At  first,  the  night  preceding  an  attack  is  past  in  a  restless  state, 
but  after  the  disease  is  prolonged  this  is  not  the  case.  The  urine  is  yellow. 
In  many  parts  of  his  works,  he  announces  it  as  his  decided  opinion,  that  the 
Quotidian  Intermittent  is  produced  by  phlegm ;  the  Tertian  oy.  yellow  bile ; 


COMMBNTART   ON  THB  8KC0ND  BOOK.  189 

and  the  Quartan  by  black  bile.  This  theory  of  Interraittents  was  adopted,  in 
a  word,  by  all  his  successors. — See  Oribasius,  Synop.  vi.  9. — Aetius,  v.  80. — 
Nonnus  de  FebribuSy  c.  6. — Palladius  de  Febr,  c.  6.*-Alexander,  lib.  xii.  6. 
-nSynesiuSy  c.  iii. — ^Avicenna,  lib.  iv.  fen.  1.  tr.  2. — Haly  Abbas,  Theor. 
lib.  viii. — Serapkm,  vi.  13. — Avenzoar,  iii.tr.  I.e.  2. — ^Averrhoes,  CoUig. 
iv.  28. 

Sprepgel  informs  us,  that  Professor  Eisner  adopted  the  ancient  theory  of 
Intermittents,  according  to  which  the  Tertian  is  supposed  to  arise  from  bile, 
the  Quotidian  from  phlegm,  and  the  Quartan  from  black  bile.  Hitt.  de  la 
Medic, 

Mr.  Cleghorn's  observations  on  the  bodies  of  more  than  a  hundred  per- 
sons who  died  of  Tertians  confirm  the  accuracy  of  the  ancient  tlieory  with 
regard  to  them.  He  mentions,  that  he  constantly  found  tlie  Vesica  FeUea 
full  and  turgid,  and  the  stomach  and  intestines  overflowing  with  bilious 
matter.     Dit,  of  Minorca, 


XX.-— ON  THB  CURB  OF  TERTIANS. 

Hippocrates  recommends  generally  purgatives  at  the  commencement, 
and  afterwards  the  hot  bath,  and  trifoly,  assafoetida,  and  wine,  to  promote 
perspiration.    De  Morbis,ii.39. 

Celsus  informs  us,  that  Cleophantus  treated  Tertians,  by  pouring  warm 
water  upon  the  patient's  head,  and  giving  him  wine  before  the  accession  of  a 
paroxysm.  This,  however,  he  considers  to  be  precarious  practice.  Upon 
the  whole,  his  great  dependence  is  upon  these  three  remedies,  vomits, 
purgatives,  and  wine,  of  which  the  first  is  to  be  tried  on  the  third  day,  the 
second  on  the  fifth,  and  the  third  on  the  seventh. 

Galen's  practice  is  exactly  detailed  by  our  author.  He  evacuates  the  bile 
upwards  and  dovmwards  at  the  commencement,  and  also  with  the  same  in- 
tention administers  diuretics  and  sudorifics.  After  these,  he  reposes  great 
confidence  in  wormwood,  which,  indeed,  all  the  ancients  held  to  be  a  power- 
ftil  cholagogue.  He  also  approves  much  of  the  tepid  bath  of  common  water. 
He  forbids  wine  until  after  the  fever  is  concoctea,  but  afterwards  allows  a 
small  quantity  of  a  thin  watery  wine.  The  food  is  to  be  refrigerant  and 
diluent.     Every  thingot  a  heating  and  acrid  nature  is  to  be  abstained  firom. 

Aetius,  Oribasius,  and  Nonnus,  conduct  the  treatment  upon  the  principles 
laid  down  by  Galen.    Actuarius  directs  to  bleed  at  the  commencement. 

Alexander  discusses  the  established  principles  of  treatment  freely  and 
fiilly.  He  disapproves  of  Galen's  practice  of  giving  the  decoction  of  worm- 
wood in  the  Genuine  or  True  Tertian,  after  the  seventh  day,  and  confines 
the  administration  of  it  to  Spurious  Tertians,  when  he  mixes  it  with  oxymeL 
His  own  remedies  are  of  a  diluent  and  refrigerant  nature.  He  approves 
very  much  of  the  bath.  He  speaks  highly  of  die  good  efiects  of  grapes  and 
peaches,  and  still  more  of  water-melons  given  with  cold  water  before  the  fit. 
He  approves  of  gentle,  but  not  of  strong  purgatives. 

Synesius  recommends  cooling  articles,  such  as  damascenes,  gourds,  &c.but 
says  nothing  of  wormwood.  Constantinus  Africanus  also  omits  to  make 
mention  either  of  wormwood  or  the  tepid  bath.  He  permits,  however,  to 
pour  water  on  the  head,  and  to  put  the  feet  into  hot  water. 

Serapion  directs  to  give  emetics,  if  the  matters  are  determined  to  the 
stomacn,  and  clysters,  or  gentle  purgatives,  if  to  the  bowels.  He  recommends 
to  give  myrobalans  afterwards,  and  then  wormwood,  but  not  until  the  mor- 
bific matter  is  concocted.    Tr.  vii.  13. 
Hhases  recommends  gentle  and  cooling  purgatives,  with  refrigerant  and 


190  COMMKMTABT  ON  THB  SBCONB  BOOK. 

diluent  drinks,  containing  sorrel,  cucumber,  camphor,  &c.    Ad  Mansor, 
z.  4. 

Avicenna*8  directions  are  exceedingly  minute,  and  seemingly  very  judi- 
oious.  He  cautions  against  using  drastic  porgatives,  and  expresses  himself 
doubtfully  of  the  effect  of  ?enesectioo.  His  practice  consists  principally  in 
the  administration  of  gentle  purgatives,  diluent  and  refrigerant  medicines. 
He  approves  of  pomegranates,  plums,  and  water-melons.  Averrhoes  lays 
down  the  same  princijSes  of  practice.  CoUiget,r\i.  It.  ilaly  Abbas  states, 
that,  as  it  is  the  nature  of  these  fevers  to  occasion  heat  and  dryness  of  the 
body,  they  are  to  be  treated  with  diluents  and  refrigerants.  Agreeably  to 
these  principles,  he  directs  to  give  clysters  and  gentle  laxatives,  to  use  the 
tepid  affusion,  and  the  like.  Pract,  i\i.  12.  Alsaharavius  recommends  si- 
milar treatment.  Uhases,  like  Haly,  recommends  refrigerants  and  diluents. 
He  approves  of  cooling  purgatives,  such  as  a  combination  of  myrobalans  and 
scammony,  or  a  draught  made  from  prunes  and  manna.  He  speaks  favour- 
ably of  emetics.  Several  of  his  authorities  recommend  the  bath,  and  others 
approve  of  wormwood.     ContinenSy  lib.  xxx. 

It  will  be  remarked,  that  many  of  the  ancient  authorities  recommend  the 
tepid  baih  for  the  cure  of  Tertian  Intermittents.  Prosper  Alpinus  informs 
us,  that  he  had  seen  this  practice  successfully  pursued  by  the  Egyptian  physi- 
cians.   De  Med.  Mgypt. 


XXI.— -ON  SPURIOUS  TXBTIANS. 

Galen  explains,  that  Tertians  are  called  Spurious  or  Bastard,  when  the 
symptoms  assume  ao  anomalous  character.  He  states  correctly,  that  they 
are  generally  connected  with  disease  of  the  spleen.  His  practice,  which  is 
consistent  with  his  views  of  the  nature  of  the  attack,  is  similar  to  our  author's, 
that  is  to  say,  he  recommends  venesection  and  fomentations  at  the  com- 
ntencement,  and  afiterwards  things  of  a  hot  penetrating  nature,  such  as  worm- 
wood and  pepper,  which  he,  no  doubt,  gives  with  the  intention,  that  they 
sbcrald  act  as  deobstruents.  Here,  again,  Alexander  cautions  against  the  indis- 
criminate adoption  of  Galen's  practice,  affirming  that  these  calefacient  medi- 
cines sometimes  proves  dangerous,  by  increasing  the  inflammatory  action. 
Almost  all  the  other  authorities,  however,  adopt  the  views  of  Galen. — ^See,  in 
particttlar,  Oribasius,  Synop*  vi.  11. — Aetius,  v.  81. — Nonnns<fe  FebrUmty  c. 
5.  Avicenna,  in  like  manner,  recommends  at  first  venesection  and  clysters; 
and  afterwards  deobstixient  medicines,  such  as  wormwood  and  pepper.  Haly 
Abbas  directs  to  treat  Spurious  Tertians  like  True,  at  the  comnofebcement. 
After  their  acm6,  he  strongly  recommends  wormwood,  but  forbids  to  give  it 
eariier.  It  acts,  he  says,  by  increasing  the  strength  of  the  stomach,  opening 
the  pores,  increasing  the  urine,  and  promoting  the  secretion  of  bile.  He  ap« 
proves  of  wine  in  the  decline  of  the  Fever,  with  the  view  of  supporting  the 
strength,  and  of  promoting  the  urinary  and  cutaneous  secretions.  He,  there- 
fore, directs  that  the  wine  be  white,  and  not  too  old.    Prttct.  iii.  13.' 

From  the  account  of  the  ancient  practice  in  cases  of  Tertians,  as  given  in 
this  and  the  preceding  chapter,  it  will  be  seen,  that  the  use  of  bitters  in  these 
diseases  was  well  understood  formerly.  Their  beneficial  effects  are  now  ge- 
nerally acknowledged.  Dr.  Cullen  says, — "  1  hold  it  to  be  established  as  a 
ftu:t,  that  both  astringents  and  bitters,  in  their  simple  and  separate  state,  have 
proved  often  sufficient  to  prevent  the  recurrence  of  the  paroxysms  of  inter- 
mittent fevers ;  and  that  tney  more  certainly  do  so  when  combined  together.'' 
Materia  Medica,  ii.  92. 

Dr.  Thomas  informs  us,  that  he  had  known  many  cases  of  intermittent 
fevers  which  yielded  to  quassia,  after  having  resisted  the  powers  of  cinchona. 


COMMINTABT  OM  THE  8KC0MD  BOOK.  191 

•  * 

He  agrees  with  the  aqcieiito  in  recommend  ing  stonacbic  biuers  and  dii^ 
retics  for  removing  scirrhosity  of  the  liver  and  spleen,  brought  on  by  ioier- 
mitteat  foveiB.  The  use  of  pepper  for  intennittents  has  been  much  cried  up 
by  the  American  and  Italian  physicians  of  late.  They  affirm  that  it  is  mofft 
eiiicacious  than  cinchona. 


XXII. ON  THB  OIAONOBIB  OF  dUABTANS. 

Wjb  mentioned  in  the  18th  chapter,  that  the  ancients  held  Quartans  to  be 
occasioned  by  an  accumulation  of  black  bile,  lience,  says  Hippocrates^ 
tb^  prevail  most  in  autumn,  and  attack  persons  between  the  ages  or  twenty.- 
five  and  foity-five.  De  ^at.  Hum,  c.  29.  lie  recommends  principally  for  theoB 
emetics,  purgatives,  and  the  warm  bath.  De  Affect,  c.  1 9.  By  wandering  feven^ 
of  whidi  mention  is  made  by  our  author,  is  meant  fevers,  the  paroxysms  of 
which  return  after  an  interval  of  many  days. — See  llippocr.  Epidem. — Rhases 
ad  Mamor,  z.  8. 

Our  author*s  description  is  condensed  from  Galen  (Tkerap.  ad  Glauc, 
lib.  i.)y  or  probably  copied  direct  from  Oribasius  {St^nop.  vi.  12.)  Galen 
states,  that  Quartans  are  of  a  less  inflammatory  nature  than  Tertians,  and 
hence  the  pulse  is  slower  and  smaller.  liuf!us  (Ap.  Aetii  lib.  v.  c.  83.)  rfr* 
fers  the  origin  of  certain  Quartans  to  the  spleen ;  and,  no  doubt,  it  is  fre- 
quently diseased.  Alexander  says,  that  Quartans  arise  from  yellow  bile 
overheated,  or  from  feculent  blood,  these  humours  being  lodged  either  in  the 
vessels  or  in  the  spleen.  Palladius,  Nonnus,  Synesius,  and,  in  a  word,  all 
the  Greek  authorities,  give  a  similar  account  of  the  nature  of  Quartans.  Con*- 
stantinus  Africanus  says,  that  a  paroxysm  lasts  for  24  hours,  and  is  succeeded 
by  an  interval  of  48  hours.  The  urine  is  at  first  white  and  watery,  but  is 
the  decline  becomes  black.  Ue  mentions,  that  it  is  connected  with  induitr 
tion  of  the  spleen. 

As  there  is  nothing  original  in  the  theory  and  descriptions  which  the 
Arabians  give  of  Quartans,  we  shall  not  enter  upon  them  minutely.  Avenw 
hoes  states,  that  the  fever  invades  with  a  great  sense  of  cold,  so  that  tlie  par 
tient's  teeth  chatter.  The  colour  of  the  urine  at  first  inclines  to  green,  or  is 
somewliat  white;  but  afterwards  it  becomes  gross,  black,  or  reddish.  The 
interval  between  the  paroxysms  is  two  days.  The  most  of  those  affected  with 
Quartans  have  disease  of  the  ^leen.  AJsaharavius  gives  exactly  the  sam^ 
account  of  these  fevers.  Avicenna*s  description  is  most  ample  and  coiiipre>- 
bensire,  batcootaim  no  additional  facts  to  those  we  have  already  mentioned. 
Ualy  Abbi%  Aventoar,  and  Rhases,  in  like  mannner,  adopt  the  views  of  the 
Greeks. 


XXIU.— ON  THE  CUBS  OP  QUARTANS. 

Tbis  chapter  is  copied  from  Oribasius,  Synop,  vi.  13.    Galen,  however,  is 
the  great  authority  upon  this  subject.    With  respect  to  venesection,  he  directs 
to  have  recourse  to  it  only  when  there  is  a  plethora  of  blood ;  but  recom- 
mends, when  a  vein  has  been  opened,  and  the  blood  found  to  be  black  and 
thick,  especially  in  the  case  of  diseased  spleen,  to  abstract  blood  until  it 
change  its  colour.    He  approves  of  laxatives,  and  clysters,  at  first  emollient, 
*^iid  afiberwards  acrid.    He  forbids  to  use  those  things  which  were  supposed 
to  engender  black  bile,  and  recommends  a  thin  white  wine.    He  speaks  fa- 
vourably of  pepper.    When  the  disease  is  come  to  its  acm6,  he  recommends 
^o  rectify  the  state  of  the  viscera  by  fomentations  and  cataplasms,  and  by  ad- 
<^inislering  melanogogues,  especially  hellebore,  in  such  quantity  as  to  operate 


^.o-""' 


COMMXNTARY  ON  THS  8SC0MD  BOOK.  193 

Fe?er,  is  at  great  pains  to  explain  the  manner  in  which  putrid  extra?asated 
Phlegm  gives  rise  to  Quotidian,  lie  represents  the  heat  as  being  smothered 
and  concealed  like  that  of  moist  fuel.  Celsus  describes  all  the  varieties  of 
the  disease  very  minutely.  Constantinus  Africanus  gives  an  accurate  de- 
scription of  this  intermittent.  He  says  that  the  paroxysm  lasts  for  24  (18  ?) 
hours,  and  is  followed  by  an  interval  of  6  hours.  First,  old  persons,  and 
then  boysy  are  said  to  be  peculiarly  subject  to  the  disease,  which  is  apt  to 
make  its  attack  in  cold  countries  and  at  cold  seasons  of  the  year.  It  is  at- 
tended with  a  great  degree  of  cold,  especially  of  the  extremities,  the  face  is 
swelled,  the  colour  pale,  and  no  thirst  is  present. 

As  the  Arabians  give  the  same  account  of  the  origin  and  symptoms  of 
Quotidians,  we  need  not  enter  upon  a  detail  of  their  descriptions.  All  agree 
that  they  are  connected  with  Phlegm  as  an  exciting  cause,  and  that  the  Fever 
is  less  ardent  and  well  marked  than  in  the  case  of  Tertians. 


XXV. — ON  THE  CURE  09  QUOTIDIANS. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Syn^pn.  vi.  14. 

Celsus  enjoins  abstinence  for  three  days;  after  which,  food  is  to  be  taken 
every  alternate  day.  After  tl>e  fever  has  subsided,  he  recommends  the  bath 
and  wine. 

€ralen*s  treatment  is  exactly  the  same  as  Our  author's.  Alexander,  as  usual, 
makes  nice  distinctions  as  to  the  circumstances  under  which  each  of  the 
neroedies  ought  to  be  applied.  In  general,  he  approves  of  incisive  and  at- 
tenuant  medicines,  but  blames  Galen  for  recommending  the  latter  too  in- 
discriminately. He  forbids  cataplasms  and  embrocations  at  the  commence- 
ment, lestihey  should  occasion  a  determination  of  the  humours  to  the  affected 
part. 

Synesius  appears  to  have  proceeded  upon  much  the  same  principles  as  our 
author,  but  he  makes  mention  of  some  additional  medicines,  such  as  camphor, 
wormwood,  and  the  like. 

Nooous  recommends,  at  first,  things  of  an  incisive  and  attennant  nature, 
and  then  emetics,  after  which,  the  phlegm  is  to  be  purged  by  means  of  colo- 
cynth  and  agaric,  and  cataplasms  and  fomentations  are  to  be  applied  to  the 
pit  of  the  stomach. 

Avicenna  lays  down  the  rules  of  treatment  with  so  great  minuteness,  that 
I  cannot  venture  upon  an  abridgment  of  them.  His  prracipies,  however, 
seem  to  be  the  same  as  those  of  Galen.  Averrboes  recommends,  for  the  6rst 
seven  days,  medicines  of  an  incisive,  attenuant,  and  deobstruent  nature.  He 
then  directs  to  give  cathartics  which  evacuate  phlegm,  such  as  turbith, 
agaric,  and  hiera  picra,  but  forbids  the  use  of  colocynth.  He  approves  very 
much  of  friction,  the  mode  of  applying  which  is  minutely  described  by  him. 
Bhases  recommends  much  the  same  treatment.  He,  in  particular,  directs  to 
give  turbith  and  agaric  along  with  wormwood  and  mastich.  Haly's  remedies 
are  mostly  diluents  and  attenuants.  Alsaharavius  recommends  the  same 
remedies  as  Rhases. 


XXVI. ON  THB  HBPIALUS,  AND  RIGOR  WITHOUT  HEAT. 

Hippocrates  applies  the  term  Hepialus  to  a  Fever  occasioned  by  Ame- 
norrfacea.  Galen  enters  minutely  into  the  consideration  of  the  nature  and 
^^ises  of  the  Hepialus,  which  appears  to  be  a  variety  of  the  Quotidian  In- 
^fmittent.    He  says  the  fever  derives  its  origin  from  the  putiefaction  of  a 

o 


9» 


„«»»<"*  W**i lis"  "«>•'" 


':*^^. 


*^»S3.3?.s;^=-'- 


"^«««:it«»" 


*s: 


COMMENTARY  ON  THB  8BCONO  BOOK.  195 

symptoms.    He  also  remarks  their  tendeDcy  to  terminate  in  Dysenteries, 
Lienteries,  and  Tenesmus. 

Gralen  marks  a  distinction  between  the  Continual  Terer  (<rw€xos)  and  the 
Synochus,  which  it  is  necessary  that  the  reader  should  particularly  attend  to. 
He  remarks  that  there  are  three  varieties  of  Intermittents — the  Quotidian, 
which  arises  from  putrid  phlegm ;  the  Tertian,  from  yellow  bile ;  and  the 
Quartan,  from  black  bile.  Of  Continual  Fevers,  arising  from  yellow  bile, 
there  are  two  species,  the  one  being  called  Synochi,  and  consisting  of  one 
paroxysm  from  oeginning  to  end,  and  the  other,  to  which  the  generic  appellap 
tion  Continual  (<jvp€xut)  is  particularly  applied,  and  which  consists  of  a 
number  of  particular  paroxysms.  Of  the  Continual  Fevers,  some  assume  the 
Tertian  type,  having  a  remission  of  the  fever  every  alternate  day ;  some  the 
Quotidian,  and  have  a  remission  every  day ;  and  others,  of  rare  occurrence, 
resemble  the  Quartans,  in  having  remissions  after  an  interval  of  three  days. 
De  Diff.  Feb.  ii.  2.  In  another  place,  he  says  of  Synochous  Fevers  that  they 
consist  of  two  varieties,  the  one  arising  from  an  ebullition  of  the  blood,  and 
being  produced  by  the  conversion  of  Ephemerals,  and  the  other  arising  from 
putrefaction  of  the  blood  in  persons  who  are  gross  and  plethoric.  Metk* 
Med.  lib.  ix. 

Aetius  treats  of  Continual  Fevers  (avv€xfis)  in  nearly  the  same  terms  as 
our  author,  and  distinguishes  them  from  the  Synochi. 

Alexander  states  that  the  Continual  Fevers  (oxfyc^^ts)  differ  from  the  In- 
termittents, solely  from  the  humours  which  occasion  the  former  being  of  a 
thicker  nature. 

Our  author's  account  is  nearly  copied  word  for  word  from  Oribasius. 

Actuarius  remarks,  that  the  Synochus  proceeds  from  an  ebullition  of  the 
blood,  and  the  Continual  Fever  {avv€xr}s)  from  putrefaction  of  the  different 
humours. 

Nonnus  states  very  distinctly  tlie  difference  between  the  Synochus  and 
Continual  Fever.  In  the  latter,  he  says,  there  is  an  incomplete  remission  of 
the  febrile  symptoms,  but  in  the  former  there  is  no  remission  at  all. 

Synesius  and  Constantinus  Africanus  adopt  the  distinction  between  the 
Synochus  and  Continual  Fever,  as  stated  by  Galen. 

Celsus,  although  he  does  not  describe  the  Febres  Continue  very  particu- 
larly, seems  to  allude  to  them  in  his  account  of  the  Quotidians : — *'  Rursus 
aHs  sic  desinunt,  ut  ex  toto  sequatur  integritas;  alise  sic,  ut  aliquantum 

3uidem  minuatur  ex  febre,  nihilominus  tamen  qusdam  reliquiae  remaneant, 
onec  altera  accessio  accedat ;  ac  saepe  alias  vix  quidquam  aut  nihil  remit- 
tant,  sed  ita  ut  continuent." 

In  the  works  of  Rhases,  the  distinction  between  the  Continual  and  Sy- 
nochous Fevers  is  clearly  pointed  out.  lie  states  that  the  Synochus,  or  Con- 
tinenSf  is  a  Fever  which  consists  of  one  paroxysm  from  beginning  to  end, 
whereas  the  Continual,  called  awexrjs  by  the  Greeks,  and  F.  Contimui  by 
the  Romans,  is  allied  to  the  Intermittents. 

In  the  barbarous  translation  of  Alsaharavius,  there  is  some  difficulty  in 
recognising  this  distinction.  He  first  describes  a  Fever,  which  he  denomi- 
nates Synocha,  which  arises,  he  says,  from  iDflammation  of  the  blood,  and  is 
marked  by  redness  of  the  face,  headach,  and  difficulty  of  breathing.  2d, 
Nearly  allied  to  it  is  the  Synochus  or  Febris  Continua  (it  ought  to  be  JP. 
Continens),  which  arises  from  putrefaction  of  the  blood.  3d,  The  Febris 
Quotidiana  Continua,  the  Febris  Tertiana  Continua,  and  the  Febris  Quar- 
tana  Continua,  which  are  distinguished  from  their  corresponding  Intermit- 
tents by  being  attended  with  a  partial  remission  and  not  a  complete  inter- 
mission of  the  Febrile  symptoms. 

Avicenna  describes  the  Tertian  Intermittent  by  the  name  of  Febris  Ter- 
tiana Periodica,  and  the  Continual  Tertian  by  that  of  Tertiana  Continua ; 

o2 


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XXV1« 


'"""-""-SS^SSStssS?^s: 


COMMENTARY  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK.  197 

Therap,  ad  GUiuc,  lib.  i.    He  forbids  the  Bath  when  inilammatioD  is  pre- 
sent,    ifyg. 

Aetius  conducts  the  treatment  upon  the  same  principles  as  Galen,  and  the 
directions  which  he  gives  for  the  application  ot  the  different  remedies  are 
most  important,  lie  states  most  decidedly,  that,  unless  venesection  is  had 
recourse  to,  the  patient  will  be  in  the  utmost  danger,  and  can  only  be  saved 
by  tlie  strength  of  his  constitution,  or  some  critical  evacuation.  When  the 
stomach  is  loaded,  however,  he  forbids  depletion,  because,  by  emptying  the 
veins,  the  distribution  of  the  crudities  in  the  prima  via  will  be  accelerated. 
When  the  Menstrual,  or  Hemorrhoidal  discharge  is  expected,  be  directs  to 
bleed  less  profusely  than  otherwise.  Persons  of  a  hard,  san^ine,  and  com- 
pact habit  of  body,  are  said  to  bear  bleeding  best.  In  practising  venesection, 
he  directs  the  physician  to  pay  more  attention  to  the  strength  of  the  patient 
than  to  the  period  of  the  Fever.  He  is  particularly  earnest  in  recommend- 
ing the  use  of  cold  drink.  He  directs  to  give  it  at  the  acm^  of  the  disease^ 
but  not  at  the  commencement.  He  forbids  to  administer  it  freely  when  there 
is  obstruction  or  inflammation  of  an  internal  viscus ;  and  states  many  serious 
evils  which  may  arise  from  the  unseasonable  administration  of  cold  water^ 
although  it  be  an  excellent  remedy  when  given  at  the  proper  time.  With  re- 
gard to  diet,  he  directs  to  give  nothing  but  ptisan  for  tiie  first  three  days. 
On  the  fourth,  he  recommends  to  use  the  bath.  Through  the  whole  course 
of  the  fever,  the  food  is  to  be  light,  unless  the  powers  of  the  patient  be  very 
feeble. 

As  the  other  Greek  authorities  differ  in  no  material  respect  from  the  prin- 
ciples of  treatment  laid  down  by  Galen  and  Aetius,  we  need  not  enter  upon 
any  minute  exposition  of  their  views  of  practice.  As  a  specimen,  however, 
of  the  practice  of  the  later  authors,  we  shall  briefly  mention  that  of  Synesius 
and  CoBstantinus  Africanus.  They  approve  of  bleeding,  unless  the  stomach 
be  loaded  with  crudities;  in  which  case,  they  forbid  the  operation  until  these 
are  concocted  or  discharged.  They  recommend  diluents ;  and,  if  the  belly  is 
constipated,  clysters,  with  decoctions  containing  tamarinds,  damascenes, 
manna,  and  the  like.  To  remove  the  remains  of  the  Febrile  excitement  in 
the  decline  of  the  fever,  they  direct  to  give  medicines  of  a  refrigerant  nature, 
such  as  camphor,  the  seeds  of  melons,  cucumbers,  gourds,  and  the  like. 

Celsus  jecommends  venesection  in  all  Fevers  at  the  commencement,  pro- 
vided the  patient  is  not  very  young,  weak,  or  has  crudities  in  his  stomach ; 
but  af^er  the  fourth  day  he  does  not  approve  of  it.  He  also  makes  some  in- 
genious remarks  on  the  contrary  methods  of  giving  water  and  wine  in  cases 
of  Fever.  He  recommends  the  latter,  when  there  is  cold,  torpor,  and  rest- 
lessness. He  likewise  mentions  the  affusion  of  cold  water  and  oil,  with  the 
intention  of  changing  the  morbid  state  of  action. 

In  an  Epistle  of  Vindicianus,  physician  to  the  Emperor  Valentinian,  there 
is  an  interesting  history  of  a  Fever,  arising  from  indigestion  and  obstruction 
of  the  bowels,  brought  on  by  excess  in  eating  and  drinking.  In  this  case, 
Vindicianus,  in  opposition  to  the  advice  of  the  other  professional  attendants, 
would  not  administer  a  clyster,  and  gave  his  patient  nothing  but  salt  and 
^ater,  which  procured  first  copious  perspirations,  and  afterwards  free  evacu- 
ations of  the  bowels.  He  then  directed  him  to  use  the  bath,  and  completed 
the  cure  by  giving  wormwood  to  remove  obstructions.  This  is  a  well-marked 
case  of  Intestinal  Fever.     Fabricii  BibL  Grac.T.  xiii. 

Haly  Abbas,  during  the  first  three  days,  strongly  recommends  venesection, 
^bich,  he  says,  will  either  have  the  effect  of  cutting  short  the  Fever  at  once, 
<)r  of  rendering  it  milder.  His  other  remedies  are  altogether  refrigerant,  con- 
sisting of  acidulated  drinks,  and  gentle  purgatives,  such  as  prunes,  tamarinds, 
'"^nd  the  like.  Alsaharavius,  in  like  manner,  recommends  depletion,  and  the 
refrigerant  plan  of  treatment. 


198  COMMKNTART  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOM. 

Serapion  strongly  recommends  bleeding  ad  deliquium  animi,  which,  he 
says,  will  probably  have  the  effect  of  procuring  discharges  from  the  bowels, 
and  of  promoting  perspiration.  He  admits  of  venesection  even  after  the 
sixth  or  seventh  day,  when  other  circumstances  indicate  it.  He  further  directs 
to  administer  refrigerant  remedies,  such  as  tamarinds,  cassia-fistula,  and  the 
like. 

Averrhoes,  although  he  approves  of  venesection,  condemns  Galen's  direc- 
tion to  carry  it  the  length  of  bringing  on  deliquium  animi.  He  also  cautions 
against  carrying  the  administration  of  cold  drink  too  far. 

Avenzoar  strongly  recommends  bleeding  ad  deliquium.  Avicenna  like- 
wise approves  of  this  practice.  When  the  strength  does  not  permit  to  carry 
depletion  so  far,  he  directs  to  open  the  Temporal  veins,  or  to  abstract  blood^ 
by  cupping.  In  such  cases,  he  also  recommends  purgatives  and  refrigerant 
medicines.  Towards  the  conclusion  of  the  Fever,  be  directs  to  give  the  Tro- 
chisks  of  Camphor. 

Rhases  gives  an  excellent  account  of  Synochus.  His  remedies  are  bleed- 
ing, gentle  purgatives,  acidulated  drinks,  restricted  diet,  and  complete  absti- 
nence from  wine.  He  particularly  recommends  Aloes  as  a  purgative.  See^ 
in  particular,  Continens.  lib.  xxx.  tr.  v.  c.  2.  He  approves  of  the  bath,  but 
prefers  delaying  the  use  of  it  until  the  decline  of  the  Fever.  He  is  very  de- 
cided in  recommending  bleeding,  unless  the  patient  be  of  a  weak  constitu- 
tion, or  his  system  loaded  with  crudities.  Alter  the  Fever  is  concocted,  be 
approves  of  giving  cold  water  freely  for  drink. 

XXIX. ON  ARDENT  FEVERS. 

Our  author's  description  of  the  Camus,  or  Ardent  Fever,  is  taken  from 
Hippocrates,  de  Ratione  Victus  Acut,  where  the  Commentary  of  Galen  is 
worth  consulting.  According  to  Hippocrates,  the  Causus  is  generally  pro- 
duced in  the  summer  season,  owing  to  the  veins  becoming  dry  and  attracting 
Bilious  humours.  In  other  parts  of  his  works,  he  gives  an  account  of  seve- 
ral varieties  of  the  disease,  differing  considerably  in  character  from  that  de- 
scribed in  the  above-mentioned  work.  For  example,  one  variety  mentioned 
in  his  Epidemics  was  distinguished  by  the  absence  of  thirst  and  delirium,  and 
by  the  paroxysms  occurring  on  the  even  days.  See  Galen's  Commentary, 
Operay  Ed,  Basil,  T.  v.  p.  424.    Also,  de  Morhis,  i.  27. 

Aretseus  delivers  a  most  striking  description  of  Ardent  Fevers,  which  I  re- 
gret that  my  limits  prevent  me  from  giving  at  full  length.  The  following  are 
some  of  the  most  important  symptoms : — the  heat  acrid  and  subtile,  especial- 
ly in  the  internal  parts,  desire  of  cold  air  and  of  cold  things,  the  extremities 
cold,  the  pulse  dense  and  small,  the  eyes  clear,  bright,  arid  reddish;  and,  if 
the  Fever  go  on  increasing,  delirium,  oblivion  of  every  thing,  lividity  of  the 
nails,  frequent  respiration,  profuse  perspiration  about  the  forehead  and  neck, 
coldness  of  the  body,  and  at  last  a  complete  collapse  marked  by  a  return  of 
,the  powers  of  reason  and  certain  indications  of  a  prophetic  spirit.  This  is 
but  a  meagre  outline  of  his  matchless  delineation  of  the  phenomena  of 
Causus. 

As  all  the  Greek,  Latin,  and  Arabian  writers  treat  of  Causus  in  nearly  the 
same  terms  as  Hippocrates,  we  shall  be  very  brief  in  noticing  their  descrip- 
tions.— According  to  Alexander,  there  are  two  varieties  of  Cansus,  the  True 
and  the  Spurious,  the  former  being  marked  by  intense  thirst,  bilious  stools,  . 
tongue  rough  and  black ;  and  the  latter,  by  the  thirst  being  moderate,  the  i 
tongue  not  black,  and  the  stools  consisting  not  of  bilious  matters  but  rather 
of  corrupted  food.  The  former  kind  is  said  to  be  occasioned  by  a  Bilious, 
and  the  latter  by  a  Pituitous  humour.    Aetius  describes  the  disease  in  Xhm 


COMMBNTART  ON  THB  8BC0ND  BOOK.  199 

same  terms  as  our  author.  He  says  that  it  is  produced  by  putrefaction  of 
yellow  bile.  Palladius  says  that  Ardent  Fevers  are  occasioned  by  an  Erysi- 
pelatous inflammation  of  the  Lungs,  or  by  the  putrefaction  of  Bilious  hn- 
mours  which  have  become  immoderately  heated.  The  Arabians  describe  it 
exactly  as  the  Greeks.  According  to  Avicenna,  there  are  two  varieties  of 
the  disease,  the  Bilious  and  the  Pituitoas.  The  inseparable  symptoms  of  the 
disease  are,  he  says,  concealed  heat,  roughness,  and,  at  last,  blackness  of  the 
tongue.  There  is  no  perspiration  until  after  the  Crisis.  For  the  most  part 
the  heat  is  not  strong  in  the  external  parts,  but  is  particularly  so  in  the  in- 
ternal. Rhases  states,  that  the  Ardent  Fever  called  /on/o-or  by  the  Greeks 
belongs  to  the  class  of  Tertians,  only  that  in  the  former  the  heat  is  more  in- 
tense, and  the  paroxysms  do  not  terminate  in  a  complete  intermission  of  the 
Febrile  symptoms.  The  symptoms,  he  adds,  bear  a  considerable  resem- 
blance to  those  of  the  Tertian  Intermittent,  but  are  more  strongly  marked. 
According  to  Alsaharavius,  the  Causus,  or  Ardent  Fever,  is  occasioned  by 
heated  bile  collected  in  the  veins  adjoining  to  the  heart,  stomach,  or  liver, 
and  its  symptoms  resemble  those  of  Tertians,  but  are  more  intense. 

From  the  above  exposition  of  the  opinions  of  the  ancients  regarding  the 
Causus,  or  Ardent  Fever,  the  medical  reader  will  readily  recognise  its  iden- 
tity widi  the  Bilious  Remittent  Fever  of  Sir  John  Pringle  and  other  English 
authors.  The  ingenious  Dr.  Robert  Jackson  thus  describes  the  symptoms 
of  the  Fever,  as  they  were  manifested  in  his  own  person  during  a  severe  at- 
tack of  it : — ^**  It  had  scarcely  any  remission,  though  it  was  fundamentally  of 
the  remitting  type ;  the  anxieties  at  the  prscordia  were  inexpressible;  the 
distress  scarcely  supportable  ;  the  sensation  of  internal  heat  was  great,  the 
external  heat  little,  if  in  any  degree  increased ;  the  abdomen  was  collapsed 
and  lank ;  the  pulsation  of  the  descending  aorta  strong  and  vibrating ;  the 
pulsation  at  the  wrist  moderate  in  force,  perhaps  weak,  and  not  much  more 
frequent  than  natural ;  the  tongue  was  parched  and  stiff;  and  together  vrith 
tiiis  there  was  an  abhorrence  of  drink,  which  appeared  nauseous  and  oppres- 
sive. The  sensations  were  uncomfortable,  the  sense  of  burning  was  torments 
ing,  yet  the  surface  was  frequently  damp,  and,  as  judged  by  the  touch,  not 
hot.  The  desire  of  something  moist  and  cool  was  most  urgent.''  On  Tever^ 
p.  403. 

Some  late  writers  have  confounded  the  Causus  of  the  ancients  with  Syno- 
cha,  or  Inflammatory  Fever.  But,  as  is  correctly  stated  by  Baccius,  the 
Cansns  was  decidedly  of  the  Continual  or  Remittent  type,  and  nearly 
allied  to  the  Tertian  Intermittent. — De  Thermis,  Hoffman  remarks,  that  it 
Seldom  appears  in  the  more  temperate  parts  of  Europe,  but  is  very  common 
in  Asia,  Greece,  and  Italy ;  and  hence  the  frequent  mention  of  it  in  the 
Works  of  Hippocrates,  Galen,  and  Aretxus.     Oper,  T.  ii.  §  2,  c.  2. 

Homer  says  that  the  Dog-star  brings  many  Fevers  upon  unhappy  mortals 
(^Iliad.  xxi.  31 .);  and  his  Commentator,  Eustathius,  remarks  that  the  poet  cor- 
rectly refers  the  origin  of  Ardent  Fevers  to  the  heat  of  the  Dog-days. 


XXX. — ON  THB  CURB  OF  ARDBNT  FBYERS. 

Our  author's  directions  respecting  the  treatment  are  mostly  taken  from 
Xiippocrates,  de  "Rat,  Vict,  Acut.  Hippocrates  allows  venesection  only 
Mrhen  the  attack  is  violent.  He  approves  of  the  application  of  cold  water  to 
tbe  surface.  Archigenes,  as  Aetius  informs  us,  sponged  the  head  and  chest 
with  cold  water  during  the  acm^  of  Ardent  Fevers.  Lib.  iii.  169.  His  own 
treatment,  which  is  borrowed  from  Philumenus  and  Galen,  consisted  of  cool- 
ing remedies  internally  and  externally,  such  as  drinking  cold  water  and 
other  things  of  a  refrigerant  nature,  using  cold  applications,  and  the  cold 


,,.co«» 


500 


s^SS^^Ssri^ 


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woo* 


„  Syi""?'"  I 


COMMENTARY  ON  THK  gBCOND  BOOK*  201 

ovdinary  cases,  he  approves  of  giving  cold  water  to  extinguish  the  Fever, 
but  says  that  he  has  seen  patients  brought  to  imminent  danger  by  the  uiv- 
seasonabie  application  of  cold  cataplasms  and  clysters. 

Aetitts  states  that  Fevers  are  kindled  by  the  parts  about  the  bowels,  liver^ 
and  lungs,  being  attacked  with  £rysipelas.  Like  our  author,  he  approves  of 
cold  drink,  cool  air,  and  cold  applications  to  the  part  affected. 

The  acute  affection  of  the  Vena  Cava,  which  is  minutely  described  by 
Aretsus,  ought  probably  to  be  ranked  with  the  diseases  which  we  are  now 
treating  of.  De  Morb,  Acut,  iii.  8.  He  recommends  for  it  venesection 
and  the  refrigerant  plan  of  treatment.  Cur.  Marb,  Acut.  ii.  7.  We  have 
stated  in  the  preceding  chapter  that  Palladius  refers  one  variety  of  Ardent 
Fever  to  Erysipelas  of  the  Lungs. 

A  similar  account  of  these  affections  is  given  by  Avicenna,  lib.  iv.  fen.  i« 
tr.  4,  c.  13,  14, 15 ;  and  by  Rhases,  ad  Mansor.n.  15,  alib\que. 

I  can  draw  no  information  from  modern  works  to  illustrate  the  opinions  of 
the  ancients  respecting  the  Febrile  affections  treated  of  in  this  chapter.  It  does 
not  seem  to  be  suspected  now  that  Erysipelas  ever  attacks  the  Lungs  or 
Bowels ;  and  yet,  as  this  disease  when  it  occurs  externally  is  known  to  be  seated 
principsdly  in  the  Epidermis,  and  as  the  Epithelium,  or  membrane  which  lines 
the  internal  cavities,  is  admitted  to  be  a  prolongation  of  it  (see  Kaau  Boer- 
haave,  Perspiratia  Dicta  Hippocrati),  it  would  seem  probable  a  priori^ 
that  the  diseases  of  both  portions  of  it  should  be  alike.  That  Fevers  are 
often  complicated  with  Ardent  affections  of  the  Lungs  and  Bowels,  and 
bilious  appearances,  we  all  adroit ;  and  it  might  be  worth  while  to  inquire 
whether  such  diseases  be  of  an  Erysipelatous  nature. 


XXXIL DIAGNOSIS  OF  HBCTIC  FBVBRS. 

Ou&  author  has  copied  froro  Oribasius  (JSynop.  vi.  21.),  who  in  his  turn  is 
indebted  to  Galen.    (De  Diff,  Feb,  i.  11.)    A  similar  account  is  given  in 
Somewhat  fuller  terms  by  Aetius,  v.  92. — See  also  Alexander,  xii.  4.     We 
shall  merely  give  his  explanation  of  the  characters  of  the  pulse.    It  is  hard 
^nd    small,  because  the  vessels  have  become  dry  and  contracted; — it  is 
<^eDse  (frequent  ?)  because  the  necessities  of  the  system  required  it  to  be  so, 
(namely  in  order  to  make  up  for  the  reduced  expansion  of  the  artery) ; — it  is 
^eeble,  owing  to  the  weakness  of  the  vital  powers ; — and  slender,  because  die 
Vessel  does  not  admit  of  being  stretched  in  breadth.    Nonnus  and  Actuarius 
<]erive  their  views  from  Galen.    Palladius  states,  that  the  Hectic  is  an  un- 
ceasing Fever,  wasting  and  consuming  the  natural  humidity  of  all  the  mem- 
bers,  and  supervening  for  the  most  part  upon  acute  and  ardent  Fevers,  but 
Sometimes  arising  from  syinpathy  with  some  vital  organ.    He  states  it  as  a 
characteristic  of  the  Hectic  Fever,  that  food  increases  the  febrile  heat,  in  like 
^xianner  as  water  poured  upon  unslacked  lime  unkindles  heat.    This  com- 
parison is  borrowed  from  Galen,  and  is  repeated  also  by  Alexander  and 
Nonnus.    Palladius,  like  our  author,  represents  Marasmus  as  the  termination 
of  the  Hectic  Fever.    It  is  distinguished,  he  says,  by  prostration  of  the  na- 
tural faculties,  aridity,  and  wasting  of  the  body,  whicn  becomes  dried  and 
parched  like  a  tree  deprived  of  its  juices  by  exposure  to  excessive  heat. 

According  to  Haly  Abbas,  Hectic  Fevers  commonly  arise,  either  from  the 
i^onversion  of  Semi-tertians,  or  from  abscesses  of  the  lungs,  whence  heat  is 
^ent  to  the  heart,  and  from  it  is  diffused  over  the  system.  Theor,  viii.  7. 
•A^lsaharavius  states,  that  Hectic  Fevers  arise  firom  protracted  Ephemeral  ot 
Putrid  Fevers,  or  from  sympathy  of  the  system  with  ulceration  of  the  Lungs, 
bladder,  or  Liver,  or  from  any  chronic  and  prolonged  disease.  Tract.  xxxtL 
A.verrhoes  represents  the  Hectic  as  supervening  upon  Ephemeral  and  Putrid 


202  GOMMBNTART  ON  THB  8BC0ND  BOOK. 

Fevers.  He  ridicules  the  comparison  of  the  effects  of  food  on  the  Febrile 
Heat  to  those  of  water  poured  upon  lime.  Colliget.  iv.  33.  Avenzoar 
gives  the  same  account  of  Hectic  as  our  author.  Lib.  iii.  tr.  3.  c.  13. 
Serapion*s  account,  although  borrowed  from  the  Greeks,  is  distinct  and 
curious.  Tr.  vi.  11. — See  also  Rhases,  ad  Maruor,  x.  3,  alihique.  He  and 
Haly  Abbas  repeat  the  graphic  delineation  of  a  person  in  the  last  stage  of 
Hectic  Fever,  borrowed  by  our  author  from  Galen,  who  seems  to  have  had 
in  view  a  similar  description  of  a  person  sinking  of  consumption,  given  by 
Aretaeus.  De  Morb,  Chon.  i.  8.  Avicenna*s  account  of  the  nature  and 
causes  of  Hectic  Fevers  is  so  ample,  that  I  regret  my  limits  will  not  permit 
me  to  do  justice  to  it.  The  principal  causes  of  them  which  he  enumerates 
are  Ephemeral  and  Putrid  Fevers,  and  abscesses  of  the  Lungs  and  Liver. 
The  pulse,  he  says,  is  hard,  small,  frequent,  and  weak,  and  may  become 
myurusy  if  the  fever  pass  into  the  state  of  marasmus.  He  gives  principally 
from  Galen  (de  Marasmo)  an  interesting  description  of  what  he  calls  the 
Hectic  of  old  age,  but  which  Galen  calls  old  age  from  disease.  Its  symp- 
toms, as  described  by  these  authors,  are  coldness  and  aridity  of  the  body ; 
the  pulse  slow,  small,  and  rare,  unless  very  weak ;  the  urine  white,  thin, 
and  watery.  Lib.  iv.  fen.  1.  tr.  3.  Frauciscus  de  Pedemontio,  a  writer  of 
the  fourteenth  century,  in  like  manner  pronounces  the  Hectic  of  old  age 
to  be  a  dry  intemperament  of  the  system,  and  recommends  to  treat  it  with 
a  cale&cicnt  and  moistening  regimen. 


XXXin. ON  THB  CURB  OF  HBCTIC  FEVERS. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synop.  vi.  22.  It  will  be  remarked, 
that  our  author's  treatment  consists  of  diluents  and  refrigerants  internally, 
with  cold  applications  and  baths.  It  is  entirely  derived  from  Galen.  Galen 
defends,  in  very  strong  terms,  the  use  of  the  cold  bath,  which  had  been  con- 
demned by  a  celebrated  physician  of  the  name  of  Philip.  Meth,  Med,  lib. 
X.  He  admits,  indeed,  that  an  inflammatory  or  erysipelatous  affection  of  a 
vital  organ,  and  a  redundance  of  crude  and  putrid  humours  in  the  body,  may 
compel  us  to  abstain  from  the  bath ;  but,  in  all  other  circumstances  of  Hectic 
Fever,  he  insists  that  it  is  the  remedium  unicum.  He  also  recommends  cold 
drink  and  cold  applications  to  the  part  primarily  affected.  He  speaks  ^- 
vourably  also  of  the  internal  administration  of  renigerants,  such  as  lettuces, 
which  may  also  be  applied  externally.  De  Marasmo,  For  diet,  he  recom- 
mends articles  of  a  diluent  and  cooling  nature,  such  as  ptisan,  bread  steeped 
in  cold  water,  and  the  milk  of  asses.     Meth,  Med,  u,  s, 

Aetius,  in  like  manner,  recommends  the  bath,  unless  the  use  of  it  be  con- 
traindicated  by  the  inflammation  of  some  vital  organ,  or  a  fever  enkindled 
by  the  putrescency  of  the  humours.  He  gives  minute  directions  for  the  ap- 
plication of  the  bath,  the  amount  of  which  is  this,  that,  under  certain  circum- 
stances, it  will  be  most  prudent  to  use  the  tepid  bath  before  the  cold.  In 
all  cases,  he  directs  to  rub  the  body  with  oil  before  going  into  the  bath,  and 
to  get  it  gently  rubbed  with  towels  after  coming  out  of  it.  He  greatly  praises 
the  milk  of  asses,  which  he  recommends  to  be  drunk  warm. 

Alexander  also  forbids  the  use  of  the  bath,  when  inflammation  of  any  vital 
part  is  present.  He  approves  greatly  of  the  milk  of  asses  for  food.  He  al- 
lows wine  only  when  the  patient  is  of  a  cold  and  dry  intemperament.  I  need 
not  go  over  the  practice  of  the  subsequent  Greek  authors,  as  they  follow 
servilely  the  doctrines  of  Galen. 

According  to  Avicenna,  the  great  indications  of  cure  are  dilution  and  re- 
frigeration. To  the  class  of  refrigerant  remedies,  he  refers  barley  wat^,  the 
milk  of  asses,  and  trochisks  of  camphor,  with  cooling  epithemes  and  ointments. 


COMMSNTART  ON  THX  SECOND  BOOK.  203 

To  the  class  of  diluents  he  refers  the  bath,  about  the  administration  of  which 
he  is  Tcry  particular.  He  directs  to  use  ihe  tepid  bath  at  first,  and  gradually 
bring  the  patient  to  bear  the  cold.  When  it  can  be  borne,  he  says,  the  cold 
bath  should  be  taken  immediately  after  the  hot.  He  also  speaks  favourably 
of  the  afiusion  of  tepid  water.  (The  late  Dr.  Currie  of  Liverpool  found,  thai 
the  tepid  afifusion  mitigated  the  paroxysms  of  Hectic  Fever.  )--~See  Avicenna, 
lib.  iv.  fen.  1.  tr.  3. 

Haly  Abbas  directs,  when  the  symptoms  of  consumption  are  fairly  set  in, 
to  administer  before  sun-rise  trochisks  containing  camphor,  poppies,  &c.  to 
mitigate  the  cough.  like  most  of  the  other  authorities,  he  speaks  favour- 
ably of  the  milk  of  asses  and  of  women  for  food.  But,  upon  the  whole, 
his  greatest  dependence  seems  to  have  been  upon  camphor.    Tr,  iii.  26. 

Alsaharavius  directs,  first  to  make  the  patient  go  into  the  warm  bath, 
and  immediately  afterwards  to  plunge  him  into  the  cold.  Pract.  tr. 
xixii. 

What  Avenzoar  most  particularly  recommends  is  the  tepid  bath  of  fresh 
water,  which  he  directs  to  be  taken  several  times  in  the  day.  He  speaks  &- 
vourably  of  goat*s  milk.    Lib.  iii.  tr.  1.  c.  13. 

Averrhoes  recommends  nearly  the  same  practice;  but  he  says  that  the 
bath  ought  to  be  gradually  applied.  He  approves  of  the  milk  of  women, 
asses,  and  goats,  and  also  of  refrigerant  herbs.     Colliget,  vii.  15. 

Serapion  is  very  minute  in  his  directions  about  the  asses'  milk.  He  says, 
the  animals  should  be  fed  upon  juicy  and  cooling  herbs,  such  as  grow  by  the 
side  of  rivers.  He  also  directs  to  medicate  the  bath,  by  previously  boiling- 
in  it  refrigerant  herbs,  such  as  gourds,  barley,  and  violets.    Tr.  vi.  11. 

Khases*  directions,  although  they  possess,  perhaps,  little  originality,  are  in 
the  highest  degree  interesting.    He  recommends  for  food  fishes,  cooling 
herbs,  such  as  mallows,  lettuces,  citrons,  cucumbers,  &c.  and  the  milk  of 
asses  or  of  goats.     He  especially  commends  the  tepid  bath,  and  directs  to . 
rub  with  oil  afterwards.    He  also  speaks  of  applying  to  the  chest  cloths 
soaked  in  rose-water  which  has  been  cooled  in  snow.     When  these  cold  ap- 
plications bring  on  shivering,  he  directs  to  have  them  somewhat  warmed. 
He  forbids  copious  draughts  of  cold  water.    He  recommends  cool  and 
humid  air,  and  cautions  to  'avoid  smoke.    When  the  belly  is  constipated,  he 
<iirects  to  give  opening  medicines,  such  as  prunes  and  manna.    When,  on 
the  other  hand,  the  belly  is  loose,  he  recommends  astringents.    He  particu- 
larly commends  trochisks  of  camphor,  which,  he  says,  will  cool  the  heat  of 
the  heart,  liver,  or  chest.    Ad  Mansor,  x.  3. — See  also  Ckmtin.  lib.  xxxi. 
In  the  latter  work,  he  informs  us,  that  physicians  were  divided  in  opinion  re- 
garding the  use  of  the  bath  in  Hectic  Fever.    He  forbids  the  cold  bath  and 
cold  drink,  when  the  patient  is  much  wasted,  because  the  cold  penetrates  to 
the  vital  organs  and  impairs  them. 

Baccius,  the  great  modem  authority  on  the  use  of  the  bath,  strongly  in- 
sists, that  in  Hectic  Fever  it  is  indispensably  necessary  that  the  patient  go 
first  into  the  warm  bath,  and  then  immediately  after  into  the  cold.  This  ac- 
cords exactly  with  the  rules  laid  down  by  Galen  and  the  best  of  the  ancient 
authorities.  De  Themiis,  lib.  vii.  c.  22.  Platearius,  Rogerins,  and  other  of 
the  earlier  modem  authors,  make  mention  of  the  bath  for  the  cure  of  Hectic 
Fever.  Barzizius  directs  not  to  remain  long  in  the  bath,  and  to  drink  asses' 
milk  afterwards.    De  Balneis,  p.  225. 


XXXIV. — ON  THB  SEMI-TBRTIAN8. 

The  reader  may  find  histories  of  the  Semi-tertian  in  the  Epidemics  of 
Hippocrates,  where  see  the  Commentary  of  Galen.    Our  author's  account 


204  COMIIBNTART  ON  THK  SECOND  BOOK. 

is  condensed  from  Galen,  de  Diff,  Febr.  ii.  2.  and  de  Typisy  c.  4.— ^See 
AetiuSy  V.  81. — Actuarius,  Morb.  l)ig,  ii.  1. — Nonnus,  c.  142. — Celsus,  iii. 
8. — Palladius,  c.  21.  Ceisus  describes  it  as  the  second  species  of  Tertian  in 
the  following  terms : — *'  Alterum  longe  pemiciosius,  quod  tertio  quidem  die 
revertitur,  ex  octo  autem  et  quadraginta  horis  fere  sex  et  triginta  per  ao- 
cessionem  occupat,  interdum  etiam  vel  minus,  vel  plus ;  neque  ex  toto  in 
remissione  desistit,  sed  tantum  levius  est.  Id  genus  plerique  medici 
^furpiraiov  appellant.''  He  approves  of  bleeding  at  the  commencement  and 
of  a  diet  that  is  nutritive  without  being  heating. 

Palladius  says,  that  the  Semi-tertian  is  compounded  of  a  Tertian  inteiw 
mittent  and  a  continual  Quotidian,  the  Quotidian  paroxysm  taking  place 
every  day,  and  the  Tertian  every  alternate  day.  He  ascribes  their  origin  to 
a  mixture  of  putrid  bile  and  phlegm.  C.  21.  Haly  Abbas  gives  a  similar 
account  of  it  He  calls  it  a  Fever  compounded  of  a  Tertian  and  Quotidian, 
and  remarks  that  it  has  a  tendency  to  pass  into  Hectic.  He  treats  it  with 
diluents  and  refrigerants.  Fract,  iii,  17.  Avicenna  gives  a  very  detailed 
account  of  the  symptoms  and  cure  of  the  Semi-tertians.  He  remarks  that 
the  Fever  is  apt  to  be  protracted  and  to  pass  into  the  Hectic.  Lib.  iv.  fen. 
1 .  tr.  4. — See  Khases,  ContinenSy  lib.  xxxi.  All  his  authorities  agree  in 
describing  it  as  a  compound  of  the  Tertian  and  Quotidian,  having  a  severe 
paroxysm  the  one  day  and  a  slighter  the  following.  It  is  said  to  be  gene- 
rally protracted  to  the  fortieth  day. 

Platearius,  and  the  other  earlier  modem  writers,  describe  the  Semi-tertian 
in  nearly  the  same  terms  as  the  ancients.  They  in  general  recommend  bleed- 
ing for  Uie  cure  of  it.  The  Semi-tertian  is  minutely  described  by  Mr.  Cl^- 
horn,  (Diseases  of  Minorcay  chap,  iii.)  and  by  Hoffman,  (Oper.  t.  ii.  §.  1 .  c. 
5.)  The  latter  does  not  in  general  recommend  venesection,  and  trusts  prin- 
cipally to  gentle  purgatives  and  diaphoretics. 


XXXV. — ON  EPIDEMIC  DISEASES. 

This  chapter  is  mostly  taken  from  Oribasius,  Sj/nops,  vi.  24.  and  Euporist. 
c.  1. 

The  works  of  Hippocrates  contain  many  interesting  remarks  on  the  origin 
and  nature  of  Epidemics.  He  states  that  diseases  in  general  may  be  said 
to  arise  either  from  the  food  we  eat  or  the  air  we  breathe.  When,  therefore, 
a  disease  seizes  on  a  multitude  of  persons  of  different  ages,  sexes,  and  habits, 
he  justly  infers  that  it  must  arise  from  the  latter  cause.  See  de  FUttibta^ 
Epidem.  cum  Commentariis  Galeni,  It  is  reported  of  Hippocrates,  that,  like. 
Acron  of  Agrigentum,  he  changed  the  morbific  state  ot  the  atmosphere  at 
Athens  by  kindling  fires.  (Galenus,  Therap.  ad  Fison. — Aetius,  v.  94.) — • 
Acron*s  method  of  purifying  the  atmosphere  is  mentioned  by  Plutarch,  de 
hide  et  Osiride.  For  an  account  of  Acron,  see  Fabricii  Biblioth,  Grac. 
tr.  xiii.  p.  32. — Conringii  Introduct,  and  Mangeti  BibL  Med,  Pliny  says 
of  Fire  as  a  corrective  of  the  state  of  the  atmosphere — ''  Est  et  ipsis  ignibos 
medica  vis.  Pestilentiae,  qus  solis  obscuratione  contrahitur,  ignis  suffitu 
multiformiter  auxiliari  certum  est.  Empedocles  et  Hippocrates  id  demon- 
stravere  diversis  locis.''  H.  N.  xxxvi.  69.  With  the  same  intention,  Simeon 
Seth  proposes  fumigations  with  frankincense.  The  historian,  Herodian,  re- 
lates, that  fumigations  with  aromatics  were  recommended  as  a  preventive  of 
the  Plague.  Lib.  i.  The  merits  of  the  Hippocratic  method  of  purification  are 
amply  and  candidly  discussed  by  Van  Swieten. — Comment,  in  Boerh.Aph, 
§  1407.  Paulinus  properly  directs  to  regulate  it  by  the  season  of  the  year 
and  other  circumstances.  Fralect.  Marc.  p.  393.  It  did  not  answer  in  the 
Plague  of  London,  A.D.  1666. 


COMMBNTART  ON  THE  SKCONB  BOOK.  205 

Galen,  in  like  manner,  attributes  the  origin  of  Epidemics  to  the  state  of 
the  atmosphere  in  a  great  measure,  but  also  holds  that  the  nature  of  the 
country  may  contribute ;  as,  for  example,  its  vicinity  to  a  gulf  like  the  Cha» 
ronian,  from  which  miasmata  are  exhaled  that  taint  the  air  and  occasion  dis- 
eases. In  many  passages  of  his  Commentary  on  the  Epidemics  of  Hippo- 
crates, be  states  that  Epidemical  diseases  arise  from  the  condition  ot  the 
country  in  which  they  prevail.  It  will  be  recollected  that  our  Sydenham 
advanced  a  similar  doctrine.  He  says,  *'  And  thus  it  happens,  that  there 
are  many  constitutions  of  years  that  arise  neither  from  heat  nor  cold,  nor 
moisture  nor  drought,  but  proceed  from  a  secret  and  inexplicable  alteration 
in  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  whereby  the  air  is  contaminated  with  such  effluvia 
as  dispose  bodies  to  this  or  that  disease  as  long  as  the  constitution  prevails, 
which,  at  length,  in  a  certain  space  of  time,  withdraws  and  gives  way  to  an- 
other." This  theory,  although  I  have  seen  it  much  ridiculed  of  late,  seems  to 
me  very  plausible.  The  philosophical  poet,  Lucretius,  accounts  for  the  pre- 
valence of  Epidemical  diseases  upon  similar  prrociples : — 

''  Atqne  ea  vis  omnis  morbomm,  pestilitasque, 
Aat  extrinsicus,  at  nubes  nebulseque  supeme 
Per  codtun  veniunt,  aut  ipsft  sspe  coorta 
I  Dtf  terrd  gurmmtt  nbi  potrorem  htunida  nacta  est, 

IntempestiviB  pluviisque,  et  solibos  icta." 

DeRerum  Natvra,    Lib.  vl.  1100. 

Syllius  Italicus  appears  to  refer  an  Epidemical  Fever  to  the  same  cause. 

Lib.  xiv. 
If  we  reject  this  theory  of  the  origin  of  Epidemics,  I  do  not  see  how  we 

can  account  for  the  Malarious  prevailing  in  certain  districts  of  Italy,  nay,  iii 
Certain  streets  of  the  city  of  Rome,  while  the  surrounding  country  is  wholly 
exempt  from  its  ravages.     But  we  must  return  to  our  exposition  of  the  doc- 
trines of  Galen.   In  his  work  on  the  Varieties  of  Fever ^  he  expresses  his  opi- 
nions on  this  subject  very  fully.    He  remarks,  that  an  atmosphere  of  a  hot 
constitution,  such  as  generally  prevails  at  the  time  of  the  rising  of  the  Dog- 
star,  having  been  inhaled  by  the  heart,  increases  the  heat  in  it,  from  which  it 
is  diffused  all  over  the  system,  and  enkindles  a  Febrile  affection.    lu  pesti- 
lential constitutions,  he  adds,  it  is  principally  by  the  respiration  that  the  dis- 
ease is  contracted,  although  sometimes  it  may  arise  from  the  fluids  of  the 
body  being  disposed  to  putrescency,  which  is  increased  by  the  condition  of 
the  atmosphere ;  but  for  the  most  part  Epidemical  complaints  derive  their 
origin  from  the  atmosphere  being  tainted  with  putrid  exhalations.    The  pu- 
tridity of  the  atmosphere  may  be  occasioned  either  by  a  multitude  of  dead 
bodies  which  have  not  been  burnt,  as  is  apt  to  happen  in  wars,  or  it  may 
^rise  from  the  exhalations  of  certain  marshes  or  lakes  in  the  summer  season, 
or  sometimes  the  inordinate  heat  of  the  atmosphere  may  give  rise  to  them,  as 
bappened  in  the  case  of  the  Athenian  plague,  according  to  the  testimony  of 
"Thucydides.    And  here  again  I  must  digress  to  remark,  that  Homer  evidently 
Ascribes  the  plague  which  attacked  the  Grecian  army  to  the  great  heat  of  the 
sun. — (See  the  Commentary  of  Eustathius  on  the  beginning  of  the  Iliad,  Am- 
mianus  Marcellinus,  lib.  xix.,  Heraclides  Ponticus,  Allegor.,  and  Macrobius, 
Sutumaliay  vii.  5.)    Galen,  however,  inculcates  that  the  constitution  of  the 
atmosphere  alone  is  not  sufficient  to  produce  disease  without  a  peculiar  dis- 
position of  the  body  to  admit  it ;  for  that,  otherwise,  all  without  exception 
^would  be  seized  with  the  prevailing  epidemic.    This  leads  him  to  give  di- 
rections to  correct  the  intemperament  of  the  body  when  it  is  such  as  disposes 
it  to  be  readily  affected  by  the  constitution  of  the  atmosphere.    His  directions 
^re  similar  to  those  of  our  author.    Besides  tlie  causes  of  Epidemical  dis- 
eases which  we  have  mentioned,  he  states  that  unwholesome  food  and  drink 

may  sometimes,  though  rarely,  give  rise  to  them.     Of  this  he  relates  a  striking 


206  COMMENTARY  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK. 

instance.  De  Rebu$  Boni  et  Mali  Succi^  c,  1.  He  remarks,  that  the  most  com- 
mon Epidemical  diseases  are  Pestilential  Fevers.  We  shall  have  occasion 
to  state  his  opinion  of  them  in  the  next  chapter. 

Of  the  Greek  authors  posterior  to  Galen,  Oribasius  and  Aetius  give  tlie 
same  account!of  Epidemical  diseases  as  our  author ;  and  the  others  either  do 
not  treat  of  them  at  all,  or  class  them  with  the  subject  of  our  next  chapter. 

Avenzoar  has  given  us  a  separate  treatise  on  Epidemical  complaints.  The 
first  cause  of  them  which  he  mentions  is  a  humid  and  warm  state  of  the  at- 
mosphere, such  as  that  to  which  Hippocrates  ascribed  the  Pestilence  which 
afflicted  Thason  in  his  time.  {Epidem,  iii.)  The  other  causes  enumerated  by 
him  are,  the  effluvia  from  dead  bodies,  stagnant  air,  the  miasmata  from  stag- 
nant and  corrupted  waters,  and  unwholesome  food.    Lib.  iii.  tr.  3.  c.  1. 

On  the  origin  of  Epidemical  diseases,  especially  the  Pestilence,  see,  in  par- 
ticular, Haly  Abbas,  Theor.  v.  1 1 .  The  principal  causes  of  the  change  of  the 
atmosphere  to  a  pestilential  state,  according  to  Haly,  are  the  nature  of  the 
country  and  the  season  of  the  year.  The  former  cause  operates  owing  to  the 
putrid  effluvia  arising  from  corrupted  fruit,  pot-herbs,  &c.  or  the  miasmata 
from  marshes,  cloacs,  or  dead  bodies,  whether  of  men  or  cattle.  It  was  from 
such  causes,  he  remarks,  that  the  Plague  of  Athens  derived  its  origin.  The 
nature  of  the  season,  as  it  produces  diseases  in  the  vegetable,  so  does  it  also 
in  the  animal  creation.  As  Epidemical  complaints,  he  mentions  Ephemerals, 
Cynanche,  Small-pox,  Acute  Fevers,  and  other  fatal  diseases. 

Avicenna's  account  of  the  origin  of  Pestilential  and  Epidemic  diseases  is 
taken  almost  entirely  from  Galen ;  he  therefore  enumerates  as  causes  of  them 
a  humid  and  warm  state  of  the  atmosphere,  the  stagnant  air  of  caverns,  the 
miasmata  of  lakes  and  marshes,  and  the  effluvia  from  dead  bodies.  Lib.  iv. 
fen.i.tr.4.  Alsaharavius  enumerates  exactly  the  same  causes.  Tr.  32.  Rhases' 
account  is  mostly  taken  from  Hippocrates  and  Galen.     Contin,  lib.  xxx. 

The  Latin  historian,  Ammianus  Marcellinus,  gives  an  ingenious  disquisi- 
tion on  the  origin  of  these  diseases ;  but  the  distinction  which  he  endeavours 
to  establish  in  the  following  passage  is  not  acknowledged  by  the  medical 
authors  in  general : — <<  Prima  species  luis  Pandemus  appellatur,  quae  efficit 
in  aridioribus  locis  agentes  caloribus  crebris  interpellari ;  secunda,  Epidemus, 
quee  tempore  ingruens  acies  hebetat  luminum,  et  concitat  periculosos  humores ; 
tertia,  Lamodes,  quae  itidem  temporaria  est,  sed  volucri  velocitate  letabilis.'' — 
Lib.  xix.  c.  4.  The  causes  of  these  complaints,  as  enumerated  by  him,  are, 
excessive  heat,  cold,  drought,  or  moisture,  effluvia  from  putrid  bodies,  and 
exhalations  from  the  earth. 

According  to  Diodorus  Siculus,  the  causes  which  gave  rise  to  the  Pesti- 
lential Epidemic  which  attacked  the  Carthaginian  army  in  Sicily  were,  the 
marshy  nature  of  the  country  in  which  they  were  encamped,  the  bodies  of 
the  dead  lying  unburied,  and  the  excessive  heat  of  the  season.  Lib.  xiv.  He 
ascribes  the  Plague  of  Athens  to  similar  causes.    Lib.  xii.  58. 


XXXVL ON  THE  PLAGUE. 

By  the  Plague,  as  Galen  explains,  in  his  Commentary  on  Hippocrates,  is 
to  be  understood  an  Epidemical  Fever  of  a  fatal  nature.  Hippocrates  has 
related  several  histories  of  diseases  which  come  under  this  description,  in  his 
Epideviics,  but  they  present  such  variety  of  symptoms,  that  I  cannot  under* 
take  to  give  their  general  characters.  I  shall,  therefore,  begin  my  exposi- 
tion of  the  ancient  opinions  regarding  the  Plague,  with  a  brief  notice  of  the 
celebrated  description  of  it  given  by  Thucydides,  the  Greek  historian,  with 
which  the  cases  related  by  Hippocrates  agree  very  well  on  the  main.  The 
more  prominent  symptoms  mentioned  by  him  are  the  following : — Strong 


COMMENTARY  ON  THB  SECOND  BOOK.  207 

beat  of  the  head,  redness  and  inflammation  of  the  eyes ;  the  mouth  and  inter- 
nal fauces  turgid  with  blood,  breath  fetid ;  sneezing,  hoarseness,  and  after- 
wards violent  cough,  vomiting  of  bile,  singultus,  and  convulsions ;  the  heat 
of  skin  not  much  increased,  but  the  internal  parts  glowing  with  heat;  the 
skin  reddish,  or  livid,  and  covered  with  minute  phlyctsne  and  ulcers;  de- 
spondency, restlessness,  and  intense  thirst ;  and,  towards  the  conclusion, 
diarrhcea,  ulceration  of  the  bowels,  and  various  symptoms  of  putrefaction. 
Those  who  survived  the  Febrile  attack  were  subject  to  blindness,  fatuity,  ami 
mortification  of  the  testicles  and  extremities.  The  disease  generally  proved 
fdiaX  on  the  ninth  or  seventh  day.  The  historian  affirms  that  the  plague  never 
attacked  the  same  penon  more  than  once.  This  opinion  has  been  advocated 
in  modem  times  by  Massarius,  Diomedes  Amicus,  Heumius,  and  Sir  Wil- 
liam Pym,  but  general  experience  seems  to  be  against  it.  Evagrius  relates 
of  the  plague  which  prevailed  in  the  reign  of  Justinian,  that  many  persons 
who  recovered  from  the  first  attack  sunk  under  a  second.  Ficinus,  Montisi- 
anus,  Joubertus,  and  many  late  authorities,  hold  this  opinion.  Thucydides' 
celebrated  description  of  the  Plague  is  given  in  a  poetical  form  by  Lucretius, 
de  Remm  Natwa,  apudfineniy  and  by  Ovid,  Metamorphoseon  lib.  vii.  1.528. 
Sophocles,  the  tragedian,  appears  also  to  have  had  it  in  view.  Oedip,  Tyram, 
ap.  initium.  The  Latin  poet,  Silius  Italicus,  evidently  copies  his  images  from 
it.  Lib.  xiv.  See  also  Lucanus,  Fhartul.  lib.  vi.  and  Manilius,  A$tronom, 
lib.  i. 

Our  next  great  authority  on  this  subject  is  Celsus.    In  his  account  of  the 
Plague,  weJiave  to  regret  however,  that,  although  he  dwells  rather  minutely  on 
the  Prophylaxis  and  Treatment,  he  has  omitted  to  give  us  a  description  of  the 
disease;  and  it  is  not  easy  to  perceive  the  principles  upon  which  some  of 
his  directions  as  to  the  Prophylaxis  are  given.    He  recommends  a  journey  to 
a  distant  place,  or  a  sea  voyage;  when  this  cannot  be  accomplished,  gesta- 
tion and  gentle  exercise  in  the  open  air,  but  he  forbids  all  excess.    He  also 
Ibrbids  early  rising,  exercise  with  naked  feet  after  a  meal  or  the  bath,  also 
emetics,  laxatives,  and  sudorifics.    He  directs  to  drink,  by  turns,  first  water 
stnd  then  wine.  Lib.  i.  c.  10.  It  would  appear  to  have  been  his  wish  that  all 
depletion  should  be  avoided,  lest,  by  emptying  the  vessels,  absorption  should 
be  accelerated.    With  regard  to  the  Treatment,  he  disapproves,  in  general,  of 
abstinence  and  purgative  medicines,  recommends  bleeding,  if  the  strength 
permit,  more  especially  if  the  Fever  be  attended  with  pain ;  but,  if  veneseo- 
lion  cannot  be  practised,  he  directs  to  give  Emetics.    At  an  earlier  period 
than  in  ordinary  £evers,  the  patient  is  to  be  put  into  the  bath,  and  is  after- 
^vards  to  get  hot  undiluted  wine,  and  every  thing  of  a  glutinous  nature,  and 
flesh  of  this  description.    In  the  case  of  young  persons,  he  directs  to  admi- 
nister these  remedies  with  great  caution.    Lib.  iii.  c.  7. 

The  historian  Appian,  Lucian,  and  Plutarch,  mention  wine  as  an  antidote 
to  the  Plague.  Livy  and  other  ancient  writers  say  that  the  Plague  is  some- 
times occasioned  by  excessive  cold.     Histor.  lib.  v. 

It  is  greatly  to  be  regretted  that  Galen  has  given  us  no  description  of  the 
dreadful  Plague  which  prevailed  in  his  time.    It  appears  that  he  fled  from 
Home  for  fear  of  infection.    lie  alludes  to  it,  indeed,  in  several  parts  of  his 
works,  but  in  very  brief  terras,  only  mentioning  that  it  put  on  the  appear- 
ance of  Dysentery ;  and  in  one  place  he  strongly  commends  the  celebrated 
Tberiac  as  a  most  efficacious  remedy  for  the  prevention  and  cure  of  Pestilen- 
tial disorders.    Of  the  writers  on  medicine  posterior  to  him,  Oribasius  and 
Aetius,  like  our  author,  give  no  further  information  on  this  important  subject 
than  what  is  contained  in  the  brief  extract  from  the  works  of  Ruffus ; — and 
the  others,  with  the  exception  of  Nonnus  and  Psellus,  do  not  treat  of  the  dis- 
ease at  all,  unless  in  an  incidental  manner.    Nonnus,  after  briefly  stating  the 
causes  of  the  Plague,  proceeds  to  lay  down  the  principles  for  conducting  the 


208  COMMENTARY  ON  THB  SBCONO  BOOK. 

treatment.  He  recommends  clysters,  and,  if  the  stomach  be  loaded  wHh 
phlegm,  emetics :  if  there  be  a  fulness  of  blood,  he  approves  of  venesection ; 
and  also  speaks  well  of  giving  diuretics.  When  symptoms  of  ardent  fever 
are  present,  he  directs  to  give  cold  drink  freely,  in  order  to  extinguish  the 
Febrile  heat.  He  also  recommends  apomel,  the  water  of  ptisan  with  the  seed 
of  bastard  saffron,  or  Armenian  bole,  or  lapis  lazuli.  Psellus  merely  men- 
tions, in  very  general  terms,  a  few  of  the  common  symptoms  of  the  Plague. 
Opus  Medicum. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  Arabian  authorities,  I  shall  give  a  brief  ab- 
stract of  Procopius*  description  of  the  dreadful  Plague  which  desolated  the 
Roman  Empire  in  the  reign  of  Justinian.  Its  usual  precursors  were  certain 
delirious  phantasies  and  disturbed  dreams,  after  which  the  fever  made  its  at- 
tack suddenly.  The  early  symptoms,  however,  ware  not  well  marked,  for 
there  was  neither  increased  heat  nor  discoloration  of  the  skin,  nor  did  the  pa- 
tient apprehend  danger.  Generally  on  the  first  or  second  day,  but  in  a  tevr 
instances  somewhat  later,  buboes  appeared  not  only  in  the  groin  but  also  in 
the  arm-pits  and  below  the  ears.  S<Ane  were  affected  with  deep  coma,  and 
others  with  wild  delirium.  Some  died  from  sphacelus  of  the  buboes,  which, 
when  inspected  by  the  physicians  after  death,  presented  the  appearance  of  a 
coal  or  carbuncle  (anthrax.)  Some  died  at  the  commencement,  and  others 
after  the  lapse  of  several  days.  In  certain  cases  the  skin  was  covered  over 
with  black  phiyctaenae  of  the  size  of  a  lentil,  which  were  usually  succeeded  by 
sudden  death.  Others  were  unexpectedly  cut  off  by  a  discharge  of  blood. 
To  women  in  the  puerperal  state  it  proved  particularly  fatal.  When  the 
buboes  came  to  a  proper  suppuration,  they  generally  proved  a  favourable 
crisis,  but  when  they  did  not  suppurate  they  were  commonly  followed  by  a 
wasting  of  the  thigh.  One  of  the  common  consequences  of  the  fever  was  an 
affection  of  the  organs  of  speech.  All  the  usual  prognostics  proved  fallacious, 
and  the  effects  of  the  common  remedies  were  uncertain.  In  some  cases  the 
bath  proved  beneficial,  and  in  others  it  had  a  contrary  effect.  At  one  time 
the  amount  of  deaths  in  Constantinople  ranged  from  five  to  ten  thousand  each 
day.  This  Pestilence  is  described  likewise  by  Agathias,  lib.  v.  and  by  £va- 
grius.    It  resembled  the  Plague  of  Avignon,  described  by  Guy  of  Cauliac. 

The  symptoms  of  the  plague,  as  enumerated  by  Avicenna,  are  as  follows: — 
Heat,  and  strong  inflammation  within,  but  which  are  not  perceived  out- 
wardly; respiration  large,  fetid,  and  frequent,  intense  thirst,  dryness  of  the 
tongue,  with  nausea  and  loss  of  appetite,  such  as  if  not  contended  against 
will  prove  fatal ;  enlarged  spleen,  great  anxiety  and  restlessness,  dry  cough, 
prostration  of  the  powers  approaching  to  syncope;  delirium,  retraction  of 
the  hypochondria,  insoranolency,  with  tepid  heat  of  the  body.  Sometimes 
there  are  yellow,  whitish,  or  red  eruptions  on  the  skin  which  are  of  short 
continuance ;  or  else  aphthae  and  ulcers  in  the  mouth.  The  pulse  is  gene^ 
rally  frequent,  small,  and  becomes  stronger  towards  night.  Occasionally 
there  are  dropsical  swellings.  The  discharges  from  the  bowels  are  bilious, 
mixed,  fetid,  unnatural,  and  sometimes  contain  black  bile;  at  other  times  they 
are  frothy  and  fetid,  or  unctuous,  being  produced  by  melting  of  the  fat.  The 
urine  is  watery,  bilious,  and  melanchulic.  There  is  sometimes  vomiting  of 
black,  but  more  frequently,  of  yellow  bile.  There  are  often  fetid  sweats. 
The  disease  usually  terminates  with  syncope,  coldness  of  the  extremities, 
lethargy,  spasms  and  convulsions.  Some  of  the  most  fatal  varieties  of  the 
plague  are  not  marked  by  any  striking  symptoms,  neither  the  heat,  pulse,  nor 
urme  being  much  affected.  Fetid  breath,  as  indicating  putrefaction  about 
the  heart,  is  a  most  mortal  symptom.  The  treatment  must  commence  with  ve- 
nesection, if  there  be  a  plethora  of  blood,  or  with  purging,  if  the  body  be  loaded 
with  other  humours.  The  apartments  of  the  sick  are  to  be  cooled,  and  the 
air  of  them  corrected :  they  are  to  be  cooled  by  cold  odoriferous  fruits, 


COMMBNTAKT  ON  THE  8BC0NO  BOOK.  209 

camphor,  rose-water,  or,  if  possible,  by  introducing  a  stream  of  water  into 
them.  The  fetid  air  may  be  corrected  by  fumigations  with  camphor,  myrtles, 
quinces,  ebony,  &c.  by  sprinkling  the  apartments  with  vinegar  and  assa- 
fcetida,  and  correcting  the  putridity  with  lignum  aloes,  frankincense,  musk, 
storax,  sandarach,  mastich,  juniper,  bays,  and  the  like.  (It  may  be  proper  to 
mention,  that  arsenical  fumigations  are  approved  of  by  Muratori,  Lind,  and 
Russel,  but  Condemned  by  Mead.)  As  a  preservative  from  the  Plague,  he 
recommends,  in  particular,  exercise  and  restricted  diet,  llaly  evidently 
copies  liis  description.     Theor.  v.  1 1 . 

kluises  agrees  with  Hippocrates  in  stating,  that  Pestilential  Fevers  are  dis- 
tinguished by  great  heat  internally,  while  the  surface  of  the  body  is  cool. 
The  symptoms,  as  detailed  by  him,  are,  vomiting  and  diarrhoea,  pain  and 
distension  of  the  belly,  coldness  of  the  extremities,  urine  showing  a  tendency 
to  putrefaction,  discharge  of  blood  from  the  nose,  heat  about  the  breast, 
singultus  tendinum,  blackness  of  the  tongue,  bulimia,  &c.  He  particularly 
states,  that  a  black  discharge  from  the  bowels  is  a  most  fatal  symptom.  Like 
Avicenna,  he  gives  directions  to  perform  fumigations  with  camphor,  musk, 
myrrh,  bdellium,  frankincense,  and  the  like.  He  mentions  that,  dur- 
ing the  prevalence  of  a  certain  pestilence,  it  was  found  that  hunters  escaped 
the  contagion.  Like  Avicenna,  he  approves  of  blood-letting — (See  Continetvt, 
lib.  XXX.)  He  also  recommends  cold  drink  and  the  cold  bath.  Calefacients 
and  wine,  unless  diluted  with  much  cold  water,  he  disapproves  of.  Ad  MaU' 
ior,  iv.  25. 

While  explaining  the  symptoms  and  treatment  of  the  Plague,  as  detailed 
in  the  works  of  the  ancient  authors,  I  have  purposely  omitted  to  notice  its 
contagious  nature,  as  I  wished  to  give  one  connected  view  of  the  ancient 
opinions  regarding  Contagiok.  Before  entering  upon  this  disquisition,  I 
think  it  proper  to  acknowledge  the  assistance  which  I  have  derived  from  the 
writings  of  Fracastorius,  Paulinus,  Mead,  Marx,  Omodei,  and  Winterbottom, 
leaving  it  to  the  reader  to  determine,  after  comparing  my  humble  attempt 
with  their  learned  labours,  whether  or  not  my  industry  and  research  have 
contributed  in  any  wise  to  throw  additional  light  upon  this  important  sub- 
ject. 

The  earlier  ancient  authors  appear  to  have  entertained  no  suspicions  of 
Contagion  as  a  cause  of  Febrile,  or  of  other  complaints.  Homer,  as  formerly 
stated,  evidently  refers  the  origin  of  the  Plague  which  prevailed  in  Uie 
Grecian  army  during  the  siege  of  Troy  to  the  heat  of  the  sun.  The  works 
of  the  Fathers  of  History  and  of  Medicine  have  likewise  been  ransacked  in 
vain,  for  any  traces  of  the  doctrine  of  Contagion.  Tfmcydides,  therefore, 
appears  to  be  the  first  author  (if  we  except  the  Mosaic  description  of  Leprosy) 
yi\io  makes  any  positive  allusion  to  the  contagious  nature  of  diseases.  From 
his  description  of  the  Plague  of  Athens,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  he 
wishes  it  to  be  understood,  that  the  disease  was  transmitted  from  one  person 
to  another ;  for  he  mentions  that  physicians  were  more  attacked  by  it  than 
any  others,  as  having  most  intercourse  with  tlie  sick  ;  and  he  afterwards 
describes  the  terror  which  the  citizens  felt  to  approach  those  labouring  under 
the  disease,  and  intimates  that  it  was  often  contracted  by  such  intercourse^ 
The  language  of  Lucretius,  who  copies  his  description,  and  gives  it  a  poetical 
form,  is  still  more  precise : — 


li 


nullo  cessabant  tempore  apisc 


Ex  aliis  alios  avid!  contagia  morbi.'* 

L.  1236. 


And  afterwards, — 


*'  Qui  fderant  autem  prsesto  contagibus  ibant.** 

L.  1241. 


210  COMMSNTART  ON  TH8  SECOND  BOOX« 

Ovid,  in  like  manner,  says  of  the  dead  bodies :-« 

**  Afflatuque  nocent  et  agont  oontagia  latd." 

Metam,    lib.  y.  551. 

And  so  also,  Silius  Italicus : — 

<*  Et  posnere  avidae  mortis  contagia  pestes." 

lAb.  xiy. 

The  historians  we  must  dismiss  in  a  few  words,  with  stating  that  allusions 
to  the  infectious  nature  of  certain  diseases  are  to  be  met  with  in  Livy,  Dio- 
nysius  the  Ualicamassian,  Diodorus  Siculus,  Appiao,  Plutarch,  Qnintus 
Curtius,  Dio  Cassius,  Eusebius,  Gregory  of  Nyssa,  and  Evagrius.  Procopius 
was  a  non-contagionist. 

The  philosopher  Aristotle,  in  one  of  his  Problems,  makes  it  a  question 
why  the  Plague  is  the  only  disease  which  infects  those  who  approach  the 
sick.  Probl.  §.  1 .  The  Elder  Pliny  mentions  the  contagion  of  the  Pesti- 
lence. 

Virgil  mentions  the  infectious  nature  of  certain  diseases  of  cattle.  Eel.  i. 
Georg,  iii.  464.  The  ancient  writers  on  Veterinary  Surgery  and  Agricul- 
ture, in  like  manner  state  that  the  Plague  and  Scabies  m  cattle  are  infec- 
tious.— See  Columella,  vi.  5.  Vegetius,  Mulomed.  iii.  23. 

The  philosopher  Marcus  Antoninus,  alludes  to  the  Plague  as  being  con- 
tagious. Lib.  ix.  §.  2.  Chrysostom  does  the  same.  In  Joan,  Orat,  Itii. 
The  language  of  Seneca  is  very  precise  : — "  Itaque  ut  in  pestilentid,  caven- 
dum  est  ne  corruptis  jam  corporibus  et  morbo  flagrantibus  assideamus,  quia 
pericula  trahemus,  afflatuque  ipso  laborabimus." — De  Tranquil,  c.  vii.  To 
these  we  may  join  Isidorus  Hispalensis,  a  much  later  writer : — *^  Pestilen- 
tia  est  contagium  quOd  quum  unum  apprehenderit  celeriter  ad  plures 
transit.''  And,  in  another  place : — '*  Pestilentia  est  morbus  latb  vagans  et 
contagio  suo  quae  contigerit  interimens.'' — ^Alexander  Aphrodisieus  intimates 
that  Pestilential  Fevers  are  contagious,  but  Common  Fevers  not  so.  ProbL 
ii.  42. 

Aretseus  appears  to  be  the  first  medical  author  who  alludes  to  Contagion  in 
unequivocal  terms.  He  says  of  Elephantiasis,  that  it  is  as  infectious  as  the 
Plague,  being  communicated  by  respiration.  Coelius  Aurelianus,  who  was 
probably  nearly  cotemporary  with  him,  mentions  as  contagious  diseases  the 
Plague,  Incubus,  Hydrophobia,  and  Elephantiasis.  Gralen  expresses  his 
sentiments  on  the  Contagious  nature  of  certain  diseases  in  the  following 
terms ; — "  That  a  Pestilential  state  of  the  atmosphere  produces  Fever,  is  un- 
known to  no  one  possessed  of  good  understanding ;  and,  also,  that  it  is 
dangerous  to  associate  with  persons  having  the  Plague,  for  there  is  a  risk 
of  catching  it,  like  the  Itch  and  Ophthalmy.  It  is  dangerous  also  to  live 
with  those  labouring  under  Consumption,  and,  in  a  word,  with  all  those  hav- 
ing a  putrid  respiration  of  such  a  nature  as  to  render  the  houses  in  which  they 
lie  fetid.*'  De  Diff,  Febr.  i.  3. — Aetius  (lib.  xiii.  120.),  and  our  author 
(lib.  iv.  i.)  state  their  decided  opinion  of  the  infectious  nature  of  the  Plague 
and  Elephantiasis.  Oribasius,  Alexander,  Synesius,  Palladius,  Actuarius, 
and  all  the  Latin  Medical  authors,  with  the  exception  of  Coelius  Aurelianus, 
have  omitted  to  make  any  allusion  to  the  Contagious  nature  of  diseases. 

Of  the  Arabians,  Khases  mentions,  as  diseases  "  which  are  transmitted 
from  one  person  to  another,''  Lepra  (Elephantiasis  ?),  Itch,  Consumption, 
and  Pestilential  Fever.  These,  he  says,  prove  infectious,  when  one  is  shut 
up  in  a  narrow  house  along  with  those  labouring  under  them,  or  when  one 
sits  in  the  wind  blowing  from  them.  He  states  afterwards,  that  Ophthalmy 
and  malignant  Pustules  are  sometimes  contagious.  Ad  Mansor.  iv.  24. — 
See  also   Contin.  lib.  xxxiii.  tr.  5.     By  malignant  Pustules  he  means  the 


COMMENT  ART  ON  THK  8BC0ND  BOOK.  211 

Small  Pox.  Avicenoa  and  Haly  Abbas  give  the  same  list  of  Contagious 
diseases.  Avicenna  says  that  Small  Pox  and  Measles  are  'of  all  diseases  the 
most  contagious.  Of  the  other  Arabians,  Avenzoar  alone,  while  treating  of 
Elephantiasis,  alludes  to  the  doctrine  of  Contagion. 

naving  now  done  with  the  ancient  authorities,  I  shall  only  give  further 
the  declaration  of  the  celebrated  Boccacio  regaixling  the  Plague  of  Florence : 
— '*  £  fu  questa  pestilenza  di  maggior  forza,  percio  che  essa  dagF  infermi  di 
quella  per  io  communicare  insieme  s'  avventava  a'  sani  non  altramenti  che 
faccia  il  fuoco  alle  cose  secclie  o  unte,  quando  molto  gli  sono  avvicinate.*'— 
Decameron^  Introduzione, 

The  result  of  my  investigations  into  the  opinions  of  the  ancients  on  this 
subject  leads  me  to  the  conclusion,  that  all,  or  at  least  the  most  intelligent 
of  the  medical  authorities,  held  that  the  Plague  is  communicated,  not  by  any 
specific  virus,  but  in  consequence  of  the  atmosphere  around  the  sick  being 
contaminated  with  pntrid  effluvia.  Hence,  they  maintained,  that  mild 
fevers  (jTvmjB^is)  which  show  no  tendency  to  putrescency,  are  not  communi* 
cable  from  one  person  to  another. — (See  Alexander  Aphrodisieus,  u.  s.)  It 
would  appear,  therefore,  that  their  sentiments  agreed  pretty  much  with  those  of 
the  more  moderate  Macleanites  of  the  present  day,  who  admit  that  the  Plague 
is  Contaminative,  allthough  not,  properly  speaking,  Contagious. — (See  Tkc 
Westmimter  Remewy  No.  vi.  Art.  10.)  Fracastorius,  in  like  manner,  consi- 
dered putrefaction  as  the  source  of  all  Contagion  (X)e  Contag.  lib.  i.);  and 
nearly  the  same  opinion  was  maintained  by  the  learned  Fernel,  and  Fran- 
ciscus  de  Pedemont,  Ingrassias,  Ficinus,  and  others.  V.  Fralect.  Mar,  p. 
77.  Although  Galen  several  times  speaks  of  a  poison  being  formed  in  the 
human  body,  he  means  that  the  animal  fluids  are  so  altered  as  to  become 
deleterioos,  and  does  not  bold  that  there  is  any  specific  virus  transmitted 
iirom  one  person  to  another.  De  Lac.  Affect*  v.  7.  vi.  5.  Epidcm,  iii. 
Cent.  r. 


XXXVII. ON    FEYSRS    COMPLICATED   WITH    SYNCOPE    OCCASIONED 

BY  THICK  HUMOURS. 

This  chapter  is  taken  either  from  Oribasius,  Sj/nop.  vi.  27,  or  Aetius,  v. 
97.  These  authors,  however,  merely  abridge  the  account  of  this  subject 
which  is  g^ven  by  Galen.  Meth.  Med.  xii.  5,  and  Therap.  ad  Glauc.  lib,  i. 
Syncope,  according  to  the  explanation  of  Galen,  is  a  sudden  prostration  of  the 
vital  powers,  without  suspension  of  the  respiration,  as  in  deliquium  animu 
Our  author  has  given  a  very  correct  account  of  Galen's  treatment.  He  states 
that,  the  system  labouring  under  a  load,  the  great  indication  is  evacuation, 
but  that  venesection  cannot  be  borne  in  such  cases.  In  short,  he  insists 
that  our  great  dependence  must  be  placed  on  friction,  for  the  application 
of  whidi  he  gives  very  excellent  directions.  When  the  pulse  suddenly  sinks 
and  becomes  irregular,  he  directs  to  administer  wine,  unless  there  be  inflam- 
mation of  the  stomach  or  liver.  In  cases  complicated  with  crude  humours, 
he  pronounces  the  bath  to  be  most  prejudicial,  and  also  disapproves  of  very 
cold  or  very  warm  air.  He  is  most  particular  in  his  directions  for  the  selec- 
tion of  the  most  proper  wine  to  be  used,  and  gives  some  interesting  observa- 
tions on  the  principal  Greek  and  Roman  wines  used  in  his  time.  He  con- 
cludes his  remarks  with  stating  that  thick  wines  ought  to  be  avoided  as  in- 
jurious, and  such  as  are  watery  and  thin,  as  ineflectual,  whereas  those  of  a 
middling  kind  are  to  be  selected.  He  particularly  praises  the  Arvisian  and  the 
Lesbian.  The  Falemian  he  condemns,  as  being  too  fragrant  and  austere, 
vrhich  qualities  render  it  injurious  to  the  head. 
Alexander  disagrees  with  Galen  as  to  several  of  the  points  of  treatment 

p2 


212  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  SBCOND  BOOK. 

laid  down  by  him.  He  insists  that  Galen*s  rigid  rules  for  applying  strong 
friction,  at  the  same  time  that  abstinence  is  enjoined,  are  such  as  no  ordinary 
powers  of  constitution  could  bear  up  under;  and,  therefore,  he  recommends 
to  rub  first,  and  then  to  give  some  light  nourishment,  such  as  thin  ptisan, 
oxymel,  and  bread  soaked  in  wine,  when  the  strength  is  greatly  overpowered. 
Nay,  when  the  powers  of  the  constitution  are  in  danger  of  sinking  under  the 
weight  of  the  load,  he  suggests  the  propriety  of  having  recourse  to  venesec- 
tion ;  and  accounts  for  the  benefit  derived  from  this  evacuation,  upon  the 
same  principle  that  a  fire  which  is  like  to  be  extinguished  by  an  excessive 
load  of  green  fiiel  burns  brighter  when  part  is  taken  off.  This  is  an  in- 
genious explanation  of  the  manner  in  which  bleeding  proves  useful  in  cases 
of  Congestive  Fevers.  Respecting  the  use  of  wine  and  the  bath,  his  views  are 
similar  to  those  of  Galen.  He  approves  very  much  of  administering  a  light- 
coloured  diffusible  wine,  when  the  powers  of  the  system  ai*e  much  sunk. 

Avicenna  adheres  closely  to  the  principles  of  treatment  laid  down  by 
Galen ;  and,  therefore,  says  nothing  of  venesection.  Lib.  iv.  fen.  1 .  tr.  2l 
c.  58.  Rhases  treats  this  complication  of  Fever  in  like  manner.  He  calls  it 
**  Febris  syncoptica,  ex  humorum  copi&  et  cruditate  nata.''  Ad  Mansor,  x. 
14.  He  mentions  Emetics,  but  approves  most  particularly  of  Friction.- 
Continens,  lib.  xxx. 

Averrhoes  contends  that,  in  such  a  case,  it  is  lawful  for  a  Mussulman  to 
drink  wine,  although  forbidden  by  the  Prophet.  He  approves  also  of  Fric- 
tion.    CoUiget.  vii.  16. 

Prosper  Alpinus  informs  us  that  the  Methodists,  in  such  cases,  gave  wine 
and  aromatics,  and  used  every  means  to  rouse  the  system.  Med,  Method, 
vi.  9. 

Dr.  Robert  Jackson  describes  a  variety  of  Fever  occurring  in  warm 
climates,  which  appears  to  have  been  very  similar  to  the  Febrile  state  treated 
of  in  this  chapter.  He  represents  it  as  being  distinguished  by  a  particular 
dullness,  sluggishness,  obscure  weak  pulse,  nausea,  and  deep  respiration. 
Like  Alexander,  he  approves  of  bleeding,  which  he  directs  to  be  performed 
with  the  extremities  immersed  in  hot  water ;  and  they  are  afterwards  to  be 
scrubbed  with  stimulant  applications. — On  Fever ,  p.  193.  Having  too  often 
had  occasion  to  lament  the  inefficacy  of  the  treatment  usually  followed  in 
such  cases,  I  cannot  but  think  that  the  plan  recommended  by  Alexander 
and  Dr.  Jackson,  is  well  deserving  of  a  trial. 


XXXVIIL ON  SYNCOPE  PROM  THIN  HUMOURS. 

This  is  taken  from  Galen.  Meth.  Med,  xii.  6. — See  also  Oribasius, 
Synop.  vi.  27.  Aetius,  v.  98.  In  this  case,  Alexander  recommends  nearlv 
the  same  plan  of  treatment  as  Galen.  He  recommends  for  food  things  which 
are  incrassant  and  anti-discutient,  such  as  the  juice  of  halica,  succory,  let- 
tuces, apples,  pomegranates,  pears,  &c.  They  must  be  administered,  how- 
ever, in  small  quantities.  He  approves  of  giving  a  weak  watery  wine,  not 
very  old.  He  recommends  friction  with  tonic  and  incmssant  oils,  such  as 
the  oil  of  apples,  and  other  applications  of  a  like  nature. 

Avicenna,  Averrhoes,  and  Rhases,  treat  the  case  exactly  as  our  author. 


XXXIX. ON  THE  OTHER  CAUSES  OP  SYNCOPE. 

See,  in  like  manner,  Galen.     Meth,  Med.  xii.  7. — ^Oribasius,  Synop,  fi. 

28.— Aetius,  v.  99. 


COMMBNTART  ON  THE  8KC0ND  BOOK*  218 


XL, — ON  PAIN. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synup.  vi.  29,  or  Aetius,  v.  100. 
All  these  authors,  however,  merely  abridge  the  account  given  by  Galen. 
Meth,  Med,  xii.  8,  and  de  Locis  Affect,  lib.  ii.  In  the  latter  work,  he  gives 
a  most  ingenious  dissertation  on  the  different  kinds  of  pain,  and  the  states  of 
the  body  in  which  they  occur;  but,  as  our  author  has  given  a  summary  of 
his  observations,  I  think  it  unnecessary  for  me  to  go  over  the  same  ground. 
I  shall,  therefore,  merely  notice  some  of  his  remarks  on  the  treatment,  as  de- 
livered in  the  other  work.  When  the  pain  is  connected  with  flatulence,  it  is 
to  be  removed  by  food,  drink,  cataplasms,  and  fomentations  of  an  attenuant 
nature.  When  pungent  humours  are  the  cause  of  the  pain,  they  are  to  be 
treated  by  evacuants,  diluents,  or  narcotics.  When  occasioned  by  thick  and 
viscid  humours,  he  forbids  to  give  narcotics,  the  action  of  which,  being  frigo* 
rific,  renders  them  thicker,  and  the  containing  parts  more  compact.  In  all 
such  cases,  therefore,  he  holds  that  opium  and  hyoscyamus,  although  they 
afford  a  temporary  relief  from  pain,  act  prejudicially.  lie  also  directs  to 
avoid  things  of  a  very  hot  nature,  both  internally  and  externally,  and  recom- 
mends to  give  attenuants,  or  tilings  of  an  incisive  nature.  He,  m  particular, 
commends  Garlic,  which  he  calls  the  Theriac  of  rustics.  As  to  external  ap^ 
plications,  he  directs,  in  Febrile  cases,  to  use  first  a  dry  fomentation  of  millet 
seeds,  and,  if  it  is  not  successful,  to  apply  friction  with  subtile  or  attenuant 
oils,  and  the  fat  of  fowls. 

Aetius  defines  pain  to  be  a  sensation  produced  by  a  sudden  change  of 
temperament,  or  a  solution  of  continuity.  In  illustration  of  the  former 
cause,  he  remarks  that  sUl  sudden  changes  from  heat  to  cold,  or  vice  versa,  oc- 
casion severe  pains.  To  the  latter  he  refers  rupture,  contusion,  and  erosion 
of  the  parts.  Kupture  is  produced  by  tension,  contusion  by  weight,  and 
erosion  by  some  pungent  quality.  These  causes  of  pain  ought  to  be  particiH 
larly  attended  to,  and  the  treatment  modified  accordmgly.  His  subsequent 
account  is  exactly  the  same  as  our  author*s. 

The  different  kinds  of  pain  are  fully  treated  of  by  Avicenna,  lib.  i.  fen. 

^-  doct.  3.  c.  20,  and  by  Ilaly  Abbas,   TIteor.  vi.  16.    Averrhoes  has  de-> 

^'^ered  the  treatment  of  this  complication  of  Fever,  in  nearly  the  same 

^rms  as  Galen.     When  the  pain  is  occasioned  by  warm  air  or  fiatulence,  he 

Particularly  commends  cupping  applied  with  great  heat.     He  agrees  witli 

^'^len  in  condemning  narcotics,  when  the  exciting  cause  is  of  a  cold  nature. 

^e  also  joins  him  in  condemning  hot  fomentations  and  clysters,  when  the 

P^in  of  the  bowels  is  occasioned  by  a  hot  humour.     CoUiget,  vii.  18. — See 

Phases,  Cont,  xxxiii. 

X^or  an  account  of  the  ancient  opinions  on  this  subject,  the  reader  is  re- 
ferred to  Prosper  Alpinus,  de  l^nes.  Vita  et  Morte  Ajgrot.  lib.  ii.  18. 


XLI. ON  COLLIQUATIVB  DIARRU(£A,  OR  MBLTING. 

Galen  mentions  that  a  colliquative  discharge  from  the  bowels  was  a  cora- 
'^^ii  symptom  of  the  fatal  Plague  which  prevailed  in  his  time.  He  adds, 
JtJ^t:  the  faces  were  generally  of  a  deep  yellow  colour,  and  always  fietid. 
.^^nment,  in  Hippocrat.  Epidem.  lib.  iii.  In  another  place,  he  states  that 
^i^is  a  fatal  practice  to  bleed  or  purge  in  cases  of  Fever  complicated  with 
^i^rrhcea.     Therap,  ad  Glauc.  lib.  i. 

Our  author  borrows  from  Oribasius,  Si/nop,  vi.  30,  or  Aetius,  v.  91 . 
The  Arabians  direct  to  treat  Febrile  melting  upon  general  principles,  as 
^^^lained  under  the  head  of  Diarrhoea. 


214  COMMENTARY  ON  THK  SBCOND  BOOK. 

Although  cold  applications  for  the  Colliquative  Diarrhaa  of  Fever  are  not 
now  generally  approved  of,  we  are  informed  by  Dr.  Robert  Jackson,  that  he 
had  found  them  highly  beneficial  in  such  cases. — On  Fever. — See  Book  iii. 
c.  42. 

On  the  Colliquative  Diarrhcea  in  Fevers — see,  further,  Prosper  Alpinus, 
de  Pras.  Vita  et  Morte  jEgrot.  lib.  vii.  11,  and  Fabii  Paulini  Fralect. 
Marc.  p.  343. 


XLII. ON  WATCHFULNS8S  IN  FEYBRS. 

We  are  informed  by  Cetsus,  that  Asclepiades  trusted  almost  entirely  to 
gentle  friction  in  such  cases.    Lib.  iii.  c.  18. 

Our  author,  as  usual,  copies  freely  from  Oribasius. — See  iSywop.  vi.  3t. 
Nearly  the  same  directions  are  given  by  Aetius.  Lib.  v.  c.  116.  Those  in 
the  beginning  of  the  chapter  are  from  Galen ;  the  remaining  part  is  from 
Herodotus  and  Philumenus. 

Nonnus  gives  a  correct  account  of  the  established  rules  of  treatment  m 
such  cases.  Thus,  he  directs  to  use  ligatures,  and  apply  friction,  to  the  ex- 
tremities ;  and,  if  this  treatment  have  not  the  desired  effect,  to  have  recourse 
to  soporific  decoctions,  or  liniments  prepared  with  poppies,  opium,  mandra- 
gora,  &c.  or  even  to  give  internally  an  infusion  of  poppy  heads.  Epitome^ 
c.  145. 

The  directions  given  by  Avicenna  are  so  like  oiir  author's  that  we  mast 
suppose  them  copied  from  him.  He  directs  first  to  try  the  effect  of  fatiguing 
the  patient,  by  talking  loud  to  him,  placing  many  candles  in  his  chamber, 
and  applying  ligatures  to  his  extremities.  When  this  method  does  not  suc- 
ceed, he  recommends  the  soporific  applications  mentioned  by  our  author. 
When  there  is  nothing  to  forbid  the  use  of  it,  he  permits  to  give  the  syrup  of 
poppies.  Lib.  iv.  fen.  i.  tr.  2.  c.  20.  Haly  Abbas  likewise  recommends 
poppies  externally  and  internally.  Tract,  iii.  23.  Averrhoes  briefly  directs 
to  use  food  and  applications  of  a  soporific  nature.  Colliget.  yi\.  2.  Rhases 
mentions  our  author's  plan  of  treatment,  and  further  seems  to  approve  of 
liniments  made  of  mandragora,  opium,  henbane,  and  the  juice  of  lettuces. — 
Cont.  lib.  xxxi. 

Coelius  Aurelianus  remarks,  that  the  indiscreet  use  of  soporifics  may  bring 
on  lethargy.  According  to  Prosper  Alpinus,  the  Methodists  approved  of  fo- 
mentations, consisting  of  soporific  medicines,  such  as  lettuces,  opium,  and 
the  like.     Med.  Meth.  vi.  8. 

Sydenham  and  Van  Swieten  agree  in  condemning  the  early  use  of  Nar- 
cotics. 

The  earlier  of  the  modem  writers  on  Medicine  direct  to  apply  to  the  nose 
a  sponge  soaked  in  a  soporific  liniment  prepared  from  opium,  henbane,  man- 
drake, cicuta,  lettuce,  and  the  like. — See  Theodoricus,  lib.  iii.  c.  8. 


XLIIL — ON  CATAPHORA,  OR  SOMNOLENCT. 

The  treatment  mentioned  by  our  author  is  recommended  by  almost  all  the 
other  authorities  both  before  and  afler  his  time. — See,  in  particular,  Oribasius, 
Syn,  vi.  33. — Aetius,  v.  117. — Nonnus,  Epitome^  c.  146. — Avicenna,  lib.  iv. 
fen.  1.  tr.  2.  c.  18. — Haly  Abbas,  Pract.  iii.  23. 

Prosper  Alpinus  gives  an  excellent  account  of  the  practice  of  the  Metho- 
dists. It  consisted  of  painful  friction,  tight  ligatures,  rubefacients  applied  to 
the  extremities  or  head,  sternutatories,  and,  in  short,  every  thing  calculated 
to  rouse.     Med.  Mcth.  vi.  7. 


COMMENT  ART  ON  THB  SECOND  BOOK.  215 

Somnolency,  or  a  Coroatous  disposition,  is  a  common  symptom  of  Pesti- 
lential Fevers. — See  Russel  on  the  PlaguCf  p.  83,  and  Assalini,  Observatiom 
on  the  Plague,  p.  34. 

XLIV. ON  HEADACH  IN  FEVERS. 

Part  of  the  directions  delivered  by  Celsus  for  the  treatment  of  headach 
deserves  to  be  given  in  his  own  language : — ^  Si  capitis  doiores  sunt,  rosam 
cum  aceto  miscere  oportet,  et  in  id  ingerere :  deinde  habere  duo  pittacia,- 
quse  frontis  latitudinem  longitudiuemque  squent :  ex  his  invicem  alteram 
in  aceto  et  ros&  habere,  alterum  in  fronte ;  aut  intinctam  iisdem  lanam  suo- 
cidam  imponere.  Si  acetum  offendit  pur&  rosH  uterdum  est,  si  rosa  ipsa 
Isedit,  oleo  acerbo.'"  If  this  does  not  succeed,  he  directs  to  use  other  more 
refrigerant  applications  prepared  with  iris,  poppies,  ceruse,  litharge,  &c. — 
Lib.  iii.  c  10.  p.  112.     Ed,  MUligan. 

When  headach  occurs  towards  the  beginning  of  Fever,  Galen  directs  to> 
bleed  once  and  again,  if  there  be  nothing  to  contra-indicate  depletion,  and 
more  especially  if  the  patient  be  plethoric.  He  then  directs  to  attend 
whether  it  arise  from  fumes  proceeding  from  the  stomach,  or  constipa- 
tion of  the  bowelsy  and  to  correct  these  conditions  accordingly.  If  it  make 
its  attack  after  the  seventh  day^  he  recommends  first  to  evacuate  the  bowels 
by  clysters,  then  to  cup  the  back  part  of  the  head  or  neck,  or  to  use  paregoric 
applications,  such  as  rose  oil,  with  some  vinegar,  if  in  summer ;  but,  if  in  win- 
ter, especially  in  persons  of  a  cold  temperament,  the  oil  of  camomile,  with 
a  fifth-part  of  vinegar. — See,  further,  de  Med.  sec.  Locos,  lib.  ii. 

Aetius  likewise  recommends  bleeding,  purging,  and  vomiting,  when  not 
contrarindicated ;  and  gives  very  proper  directions  about  the  local  applica- 
tions. He  directs  to  soak  a  hand^l  of  wool  in  some  cooling  fluid,  and,  hold* 
ing  it  above  the  head,  to  squeeze  out  the  fluid,  so  that  it  may  fall  upon  the 
bead  from  a  height.    Lib.  v.  100. 

Palladius  says,  that  headach  in  Fevers  is  occasioned  by  repletion  and  dis* 
tention  of  the  veins,  owing  to  fumes  arising  from  the  stomach.  De  Febribui, 
c.  13.     Nonnus  merely  abridges  our  author's  account.     Epit.  c.  147. 

Ayicenna's  directions  about  the  local  applications  are  brief,  but  similar  to 
those  of  the  Greeks.  Lib.  iv.  fen.  i.  tr.  2.  c.  19.  Haly  Abbas  recommends  bleed- 
ing and  attention  to  the  state  of  the  stomach,  for  the  relief  of  which  he  in  cer- 
tain cases  permits  the  use  of  wine.  Pract.  iii.  20.  Rhases  joins  preceding  au- 
thorities in  recommending  to  pour  vinegar  and  rose  oil  upon  the  head.  They 
are  to  be  used  cold  in  summer,  but  hot  if  in  winter. — Cont.  lib.xxx. 

We  have  seen  that  Celsus  approved  of  cold  and  astringent  applications  to 
the  head.  The  Methodists  condemned  this  practice,  and  recommended  to 
pour  hot  water  upon  the  open  of  the  head.  Hippocrates  seems  to  allude  to 
tii^is practice,  when  he  says:  '*  Much  hot  water  poured  upon  the  head  re- 
nnoves  Fever.'^  Aphor.  vii.  42.  Prosper  Alpinus  gives  an  excellent  account 
of  the  Methodical  treatment.     Med.  Meth.  ii.6. 

It  appears  to  be  a  proper  view  of  the  case  which  Rogerius  takes  up, 
t^9i.iDely,  to  foment  the  head  with  hot  decoctions  when  the  headach  is  critical, 
irt  order  to  encourage  evacuation  by  sweating  or  bleeding  at  the  nose,  and, 
if  otherwise,  to  use  cold  applications.    Tr.  iii.  c.  19. 

XLV*— ON  THE  CARE  OP  STOMACH  AFFECTIONS. 

Celsus  notices  these  affections.    When  there  is  pain  and  inflammation 
about  the  prtecordia,  he  recommends  to  use  at  first  repellent  cataplasms,  and. 


216  COMMKNTARY  ON  THB  SECOND  BOOK. 

when  the  inflammation  abates,  to  exchange  these  for  hot  fomentations,  where- 
by the  remains  of  the  complaint  will  be  removed.  Pain  without  inflamma- 
tion requires  no  application,  as  it  will  be  carried  off  by  the  Tever  itself.  Lib. 
iii.  c.  10. 

Galen  treats  of  all  sorts  of  applications  for  affections  of  the  stomach  in  his 
work,  de  Med.  sec.  Locos,  lib.  viii.     Our  author  follows  Aetius,  V.  95. 

For  atony  of  the  stomach,  Alexander  recommends  the  applications  men- 
tioned by  our  author.  When  there  is  aidor  of  the  stomach,  a  seasonable 
draught  of  cold  water,  he  says,  may  do  much  good,  whereas  if  unseasonably 
given  it  will  prove  highly  dangerous.  For  atony  of  the  stomach,  he  also  recom- 
mends hot  wine,  if  not  contra-indicated ;  and  most  especially  friction  of  the 
extremities.  When  it  can  be  borne,  the  bath,  he  says,  proves  beneficial  in 
cases  of  atony.  When  there  is  a  sense  of  cold,  he  recommends  poppies  and 
wormwood.  When  the  stomach  is  loaded  with  offensive  humours,  he  directs 
to  give  an  emetic  of  oil  and  water.  This  remedy,  he  adds,  sometimes  ope- 
rates downwards  with  the  best  effects,  and  he  directs  to  promote  its  purga- 
tive operation  by  giving  suppositories.  He  concludes,  with  recommending 
to  strengthen  the  stomach  by  giving  a  decoction  of  wormwood  with  wine,  but 
forbids  to  give  this  medicine  until  the  Fever  be  abated.    Lib.  xii.  3. 

Of  the  Arabian  authors,  Serapioifs  account  is  the  fullest,  but  it  is  taken 
almost  word  for  word  from  Alexander,  tr.  vi.  19.  iihases  states,  that  he  had 
often  seen  bad  consequences  arise  from  evacuation  having  been  practised 
before  attending  to  the  stomach.     Contin.  lib.xxv. 


XLVL — ON  INORDINATE  CHILLS  AND  RIGORS  IN  FETERS. 

« 

These  Febrile  symptoms  are  treated  of  by  Celsus  at  considerable  length. 
Lib.  iii.  11,  12.  Ue  properly  recommends  fomentations  of  a  hot  and 
dry  nature,  and  friction  with  calefacient  oils.  When  produced  by  a  bilious 
delluxion  upon  the  stomach,  he  directs  to  give  saltish  water  so  as  to  operate 
as  an  emetic.  He  makes  mention  of  the  bath,  and  in  certain  cases  allows 
wine.  For  Galenas  sentiments,  see  de  Di/f.  Feh'.  lib.  ii.,  de  Causis  Sympt. 
ii.  5,  de  Ineqitali  Intemp.,  de  Tremore^  Palp,  et  Rigor e.  The  last-mentioned 
work,  in  particular,  contains  some  ingenious  speculations  on  the  nature  of 
rigors.     Our  author  has  mentioned  Galen's  treatment. 

Aetius  states  that  tremors  take  place  in  Fevers  for  the  most  part  owing  to 
errors  in  eating  and  drinking.  Holding  them  to  be  connected  with  disorder 
of  the  spinal  marrow,  he  directs  to  apply  to  the  back  wool  soaked  in  some 
stimulant  oil,  or  to  put  the  patient  into  a  bath  of  oil.  He  recommends 
castor,  both  when  taken  by  the  mouth  and  applied  externally  with  the  em- 
brocations.   Lib.  V.  130. 

According  to  the  explanation  of  Palladius,  rigors  and  tremors  are  occa- 
sioned by  fumes  or  vapours  arising  in  the  internal  parts,  and  being  diffused 
over  the  body.    C.  24. 

The  treatment  recommended  by  Haly  Abbas  is  simple  and  judictous.  He 
directs  to  give  draughts  of  hot  water,  to  put  the  patient's  feet  into  hot  water, 
and  to  rub  the  feet,  and,  if  necessary,  the  other  parts  of  the  body,  with  cale- 
facient oils  and  the  like.     Fract.  iii.  20. 

Avicenna  gives  a  very  accurate  account  of  the  different  modes  of  treat- 
ment, but  they  are  much  the  same  as  our  author's.  He  approves  of  ligatures 
to  the  extremities,  of  rubbing  them  witli  stimulant  oils,  or  even  with  lini- 
ments prepared  with  assafcetida  and  mustard.  He  says  the  bath  of  hot  oil 
is  very  beneficial.  He  also  recommends  draughts  of  hot  water,  and  potions 
containing  opium,  which,  he  remarks,  will  procure  sleep  and  perspiration. 
In  certain  cases,  he  allows  hot  wine,  which  had  been  recommended  by  Hip- 


COMMJBNTART  ON  THB  BBCONO  BOOK.  217 

pocrsites,  (Apk.  vii.  56.^  lie  directs  to  open  the  bowels  with  the  hiera,  or 
piils  of  assafcetida.  Lib.  iv  fen.  i.  tr.  2.  iihases  particularly  commends  a 
draught  of  hot  water.    Cont.  lib.  xxx. 


XLVII. — ON  8WBAT8.  « 

Hippocrates  has  delivered  many  interesting  remarks  on  Sweats  which  oc- 
cur in  Fevers.    See  Epidem, — Aphor, — Frognost,  pauim. 

Galen  remarks  that  profuse  Sweats  are  occasioned  by  rarity  (i.e.  relaxa- 
tion) of  the  body,  or  redundance  of  the  superfluity,  or  thinness  thereof.  The 
perspiration  is  checked^  on  the  other  hand,  either  because  the  superfluity  is 
small  in  quantity,  thick,  and  viscid ;  or  because  the  pores  of  the  skin  are 
constricted.  £ither  state,  he  adds,  may  arise  from  atony  of  the  natural  powers 
of  the  flesh.  De  Causu  Sympt.  iii.  9.  He  says,  in  another  place,  that  for 
tlie  removal  of  copious  Sweats  astringent  and  refrigerant  remedies  are  indi* 
cated,  and  that  every  thing  of  a  relaxing  nature  ought  to  be  avoided.  He 
recommends  cold  wine,  and  directs  to  avoid  all  hot  things,  also  ligatures  to 
the  extremities,  emetics,  and  motion.  He  approves  of  cool  air  medicated  by 
sprinkling  the  apartment  of  the  sick  with  austere  things,  such  as  myrtles, 
vine  shoots,  and  roses.    Therap,  ad  Glauc.  lib.  ii. 

Celsus  directs,  when  the  Febrile  Sweats  are  slight,  to  rub  the  body  with 
oil,  and,  when  more  profuse,  with  roses,  quince  ointment,  or  myrtle  oil,  to 
which  austere  wine  is  to  be  added.    Lib.  iii.  6. 

Constantinus  Africanus  and  his  prototype  Syuesius  concur  in  directing 
to  check  collequative  Sweats,  by  rubbing  the  body  with  oil  of  myrtles,  of 
roses,  &c.  They  commend  an  Fpiiheme  made  of  a  decoction  of  roses,  the 
flowers  of  the  wild  pomegranate,  galls,  and  myrtle  leaves,  to  which  a  proper 
proportion  of  oil  is  to  be  added.  They  also  direct  to  place  beside  the  patient 
Vessels  filled  with  water,  to  sprinkle  the  apartment  with  myrtles,  roses,  &c. 
to  give  him  the  syrup  of  roses  in  cold  water,  and  to  avoid  exercise. 

Serapion  recommends  styptic  and  desiccative  applications,  such  as  galls> 
frankincense,  alum,  the  flowers  of  vine,  myrtles,  and  tlie  like.  De  Antidotu, 
vi.  20. 

Haly  Abbas  briefly  recommends  friction  with  styptic  oils,  and  to  remove 
the  patient  into  a  cool  apailment.     Pract.  iii.  24. 

Alsaharavius,  in  like  manner,  recommends  friction  with  astringent  oils, 
ssuch  as  those  prepared  with  roses,  pomegranates,  and  the  like.  Tr.  xxxi.  §  2, 

Avicenna  and  Rhases  adopt  the  same  plan  of  treatment  as  our  author.  The 
tatter  directs  to  rub  the  body  with  rose  oil,  or  myrtle  oil,  to  sprinkle  the  pa- 
t.ient  with  rose  water  in  the  decoction  of  myrtles,  to  fan  him,  and  to  lay  in 
l^is  chamber  the  tops  of  cooling  herbs  and  trees.     Continens,  lib.  xxxi. 

Prosper  Alpinus  informs  us,  that  the  Methodists  approved  of  cool  air,  of 
Sprinkling  the  face  with  cold  fluids,  of  rubbing  the  body  with  styptic  oils, 
^uid  of  giving  astringent  wines  internally.  He  also  mentions  the  application 
^^f  snow  over  the  arteries  of  the  extremities,  and  pouring  cold  water  over 
^hose  of  the  wrist.  It  is  to  be  regretted,  however,  that  this  author  too  fre- 
^:^uently  omits  to  quote  his  ancient  authorities.  See  Medic.  Method,  vi.  18. 
^nd  vii.  3. 

Van  Swieten  gives  our  author  credit  for  his  judicious  directions  respecting 
^:;ool  air,  ventilation,  and  removing  all  superfluous  coverings  from  the  body, 
^^e  questions  the  propriety,  however,  of  using  oily  and  styptic  applications 
^o  the  skin,  although  be  admits  that,  in  certain  cases,  they  might  prove  ad- 
^^i^antageous.  Comment.  §  717.  liogerius  cautions  not  to  stop  Febrile 
*^»weais  inconsiderately ;  but,  when  it  is  judged  proper  to  interfere  with 


218  COMMBNTART  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK. 

them,  he  recommends  to  rub  into  the  temples,  and  over  the  kidneys,  sto- 
mach, and  spine,  a  mixture  of  albumen  and  rose  water.  When  they  occur 
early,  he  directs  to  have  recourse  to  venesection.  The  other  earlier  writers 
on  Medicine,  likewise,  treat  this  complication  of  Fever  in  the  same  manner. 


XL VIII. ON  COUGHS. 

Galen  gives  some  ingenious  remarks  on  the  causes  of  Coughing.  He 
states  that,  when  any  substance  becomes  fixed  in  the  trachea,  as  it  is  a 
cartilaginous  and  hard  tube,  and  incapable  of  contraction,  nature  brings  on 
Coughing,  by  which  a  violent  expiration  of  air  is  induced.  A  Cough,  then, 
is  nothing  but  a  violent  expiration  by  which  nature  endeavours  to  expel  any 
body  that  obstructs  the  air  passages ;  and,  when  she  cannot  accomplish  this 
at  the  first  effort,  she  repeats  it  once  and  again  until  she  efiect  her  purpose. 
He  goes  on  to  state,  that  such  fluids  as  are  very  watery,  instead  of  being 
brought  up,  are  merely  divided  or  cut  asunder  by  the  current  of  air,  while 
such  as  are  thick  and  viscid  adhere  so  closely  to  the  sides  of  the  wind-pipe 
that  they  cannot  be  removed,  and  hence  violent  efforts  are  necessary  to  ef" 
feet  the  discharge  of  them.  De  Causis  Sympt.  ii.  4.  He  treats  fully  of 
compositions  for  Coughs  in  his  Work,  de  Comp.  Med.  sec,  Loc.  lib.  vii.  See 
the  28th  chapter  of  the  Third  Book. 

Avicenna  recommends  Cough  pills  and  lohocks  made  with  poppies,  the 
cold  medulla  of  fruits,  starch,  and  the  like.     Lib.  iv.  fen.  i.  tr.  2. 

The  prescriptions  of  Serapion  contain  liquorice,  sweet  almonds,  traga- 
canth,  and  the  like.  De  Antidotis,  vii.  17.  Those  of  Haly  Abbas  are  very 
similar.     Tract,  iii.  22. 

A  receipt  is  given  by  Rhases  for  Cough  pills,  the  principal  ingredients  of 
which  are  tra^acanth,  sweet  almonds,  poppy  seed.  Gum  Arabic,  and  Arme- 
nian bole.     Divis.  i.  52.    Many  such  receipts  are  given  by  Myrepsus. 

According  to  Prosper  Alpinus,  the  practice  of  the  Methodists  consisted 
principally  in  the  administration  of  demulcents,  such  as  liquorice  and  al- 
mond oil,  with  the  internal  application  of  various  oily  substances.  De 
Med,  Meth,  vi.  7. 

XLIX« ON    SNEEZING. 

Galen  explains  that  sneezing  is  a  still  more  violent  effort  of  natnre  than 
coughing,  and  that  its  intention  is  to  remove  irritating  matters  from  the  parts 
about  the  nose,    u,  a. 

Avicenna  gives  ample  directions  for  the  treatment  of  sneezing ;  but  they 
are  evidently  copied  from  our  author.  Lib.  4.  fen.  1.  tr.  2.  The  same  may 
be  said  of  Haly  Abbas.  Tract,  iii.  22.  Rhases  recommends  warm  gruel 
internally,  to  pour  warm  water  on  the  head,  and  to  apply  oil  of  gouni,  of 
roses,  and  the  like,  to  the  nostrils.     Cont.  lib.  xxxi. 

Cassius  Medicus  discusses  the  question  why  rubbing  the  nose  and  eyes 
stops  sneezing.  He  supposes  that  it  is  by  occasioning  a  discharge  from  these 
parts,  whereby  the  exciting  cause  is  removed.    ProbL  45. 


L. — ON  LOSS  OF  APPETITE. 

Galen's  explanation  of  the  Philosophy  of  the  sense  of  appetite  is  very  in- 
teresting. He  remarks,  that  the  appetite  is  a  refined  species  of  touch,  the 
seat  of  which  is  the  mouth  of  the  stomach,  which,  therefore,  is  supplied  with 
nerves  direct  from  the  brain.    He  goes  on  to  remark,  that  the  earth  is  to 


COMMBNTART  ON  THB  BBCOND  BOOK*  219 

plants  what  the  stomach  is  to  aDimals,  supplying  them  with  abundance  of 
food  as  long  as  it  is  moistened  by  seasonable  rains ;  but,  when  it  becomes 
parched  by  drought,  the  plants  in  like  manner  are  dried  up  for  want  of  du- 
triment.  (This  comparison  is  borrowed  without  acknowledgment  ffom 
Aristotle.)  To  animals,  then,  as  not  being  fixed  to  the  earth  (with  a  few  ex- 
ceptions), nature  betowed  a  stomach  which  is  to  them  a  repository  of  food, 
such  as  the  earth  is  to  plants,  and  she  further  gave  them  a  sense  of  want  by 
which  they  have  the  desire  of  being  filled  with  food  and  drink  in  due  season. 
This  desire  of  being  filled  is  called  the  appetite,  which  arises  from  a  sense 
of  want,  when  the  veins  of  the  stomach  absorb,  and,  as  it  were,  suck  from  it» 
whereby  a  painful  feeling  is  excited,  the  proper  cure  of  which  is  a  supply 
of  food.  The  sensation  then  of  sucking  constitutes  hunger.  The  loss  of  ap- 
petite then  may  arise  either  from  the  sense  of  the  sucking  being  lost,  or  from 
the  process  of  sucking  (absorption  ?)  not  taking  place,  or  from  the  body  not 
being  evacuated.  De  CausU  Sympt,  i.  7.  He  treats  of  stomach  aifections 
very  fully  in  his  work  de  Med.  ttec.  Locos,  lib.  viii. 

Treatment  similar  to  our  author's  is  recommended  by  Alexander,  lib.  vii. 
7,  and  by  Oribasius,  Si/nops,  vi.  35. 

Avicemia  evidently  takes  his  plan  of  treatment  from  our  author,  for  he  re- 
commends emeticd,  and  afterwards  fragrant  things,  with  a  plaster  composed 
of  firuits  laid  over  the  stomach,  and  wormwood,  aloes,  &c.  internally.  Lib.  iv. 
kn.  1.  tr.  2.  c.  26.  Among  the  causes  of  loss  of  appetite  mentioned  by  him 
in  another  place  are,  general  disorder  of  the  constitution  in  Fevers,  severe 
thirst,  repletion  with  depraved  humours,  and  insensibility  of  the  mouth  of 
the  stomach,  so  that  it  does  not  perceive  the  suction  of  the  veins.  Lib.  iii. 
fen.  1 3.  tr.  2.  c.  7. 

Haly's  treatment  is  nearly  the  same.  He  recommends  fragrant  food,  and 
fragrant  wine  after  the  acm^  of  the  fever,  gentle  laxatives,  and  such  mode» 
of  exercise  as  he  can  bear.    Fract.  iii.  21. 


LI. ON  BULIMOS,  OR  INORDINATE  APPBTITB. 

AccoRoiKG  to  Galen,  Bulimos  is  occasioned  by  a  want  connected  with 
^tony,  and  coldness  of  the  stomach.  De  Camis  Sympt,  i.  7.  Alexander  on 
^he  other  hand  says,  that  it  arises  from  inordinate  heat  and  weakness  of  the 
stomach.  He  informs  us  that  the  vulgar  practice  consisted  in  giving  fra- 
grant things,  binding  the  extremities,  rousing  by  pinching,  giving  bread 
Soaked  in  wine,  and,  in  short,  administering  every  thing  calculated  to  cool 
«tiid  strengthen  the  body.  Others,  he  says,  give  opium  with  cold  water,  in 
Order  to  extinguish  the  heat  of  the  stomach.  However,  he  disapproves  oi 
^11  these  things,  and  directs  to  give  food  of  difficult  digestion.  He  relates 
tHe  case  of  a  woman  affected  with  Bulimia  who  was  cured  by  having  a  pur- 
gative powder  given  to  her,  which  occasioned  the  discharge  of  a  worm  nK>re 
t.ban  twelve  cubits  long.    Lib.  vii.  6. 

Aetius  and  Oribasius  adopt  the  Theory  of  Galen,  and  recommend  nearly 
tlie  same  treatment  as  our  author.    Aetius  also  directs  to  apply  over  the. 
stomach  cooling  cataplasms  made  of  dates,  quinces,  or  polenta,  boiled  in 
<liluted  wine. 

Serapion  remarks,  that  Bulimos  is  distinguished  from  the  Canine  Appe>> 

t.ite,  by  the  desire  in  the  former  complaint  being  for  proper  articles  of  food, 

^vvhereas,  in  the  latter,  it  is  for  depraved  or  improper  food.    His  treatment 

in  most  respects  is  like  our  author  s.    He  also  recommends  a  mixture  of  old 

odoriferous  wine,  camphor,  and  lignum  aloes.    Tr.  ii.  c.  11. 

Avicenna  and  Haly  Abbas  agree  with  Galen  in  stating  that  Bulimos  is 
<^«nnected  with  a  cold  interoperament  of  the  stomach,  whereby  the  sensibi- 


220  GOMMBNTART  ON  THB  SECOND  BOOK. 

lity  and  attractive  power  of  the  stomach  are  diminished.  Their  (reatroent  in 
principle  is  quite  similar  to  our  author's.  In  extreme  cases  they  agree  with 
Galen  in  recommending  the  Theriac.  One  of  Rhases'  authorities  recom- 
mends cardamom,  cubebs,  and  the  like.     Cont.  lib.  xi. 

The  Classical  reader  is  referred  to  Callimachus  for  a  grand  poetical  de- 
scription of  Bulimia.     Hi/mnus  in  Cererem. 


LIL— ON  THB  CANINB  APPBTITB. 

According  to  Galen,  one  of  the  causes  of  the  Canine  appetite  is  an  acid 
cacochymy,  and  another  is  an  immoderate  evacuation  of  the  whole  body,  oc- 
casioned either  by  strong  heat  or  weakness  of  the  retentive  faculty,  u.  a. 
Hippocrates  recommends  the  liberal  use  of  wine,  in  one  of  his  Aphorisms, 
lib.  ii.  21 ;  and  Galen,  in  his  Commentary  on  the  same,  states  that  the  wine 
should  be  tawny-coloured  or  red,  and  devoid  of  astringency.  In  another 
place,  he  directs  to  purge  away  the  offending  humour  witli  the  Hiera  of 
Aloes.    De  Med.  sec.  Locos,  lib.  viii. 

Our  author  borrows  part  from  Oribasius.     S^nops.  vi.  34. 

Alsaharavius  recommends  the  same  plan  of  treatment  as  the  Greeks,  when' 
the  disease  is  connected  with  a  cold  intemperament ;  but  when  with  a  hot, 
he  directs  to  have  recourse  to  bleeding,  cold  fruits,  and  cooling  applications 
to  the  stomach.     Pratt,  xvi.  c.  1 1. 

Rhases  and  Avicenna  approve  in  general  of  our  author's  plan  of  treat- 
ment, to  which,  however,  they  suggest  some  improvements ;  wnen  the  cause 
of  the  complaint  is  an  acid  phlegm,  they  direct  to  give  fatty  things  with  mus- 
tard, pepper,  garlic,  and  the  like.  When  connected  with  black  bile,  they 
approve  of  bleeding.  When  it  arises  from  worms,  they,  of  course,  approve 
of  Anthelminthics.  Sarac,  one  of  Rhases'  authorities,  recomm,ends  emetics 
and  purgatives,  with  a  cupping-instrument  applied  over  the  stomach.  Ccm- 
tinenSy  lib.  xi. 

Serapion's  treatment  is  entirely  like  our  author's.    Tr.  ii.  c.  10. 

Prosper  Alpinus,  the  modern  advocate  for  the  doctrines  of  the  Methodists, 
approves  of  our  author's  practice.     Med,  Meth,  xi.  7. 


LIII. ON  THIRST. 

The  greater  part  of  this  chapter  is  taken  from  Galen  (de  Cans.  Symp. 
u.  s,),  who,  as  usual,  handles  the  subject  very  philosophically.  Oribasius 
treats  of  it  in  nearly  the  same  terms  as  our  author.  Spnops.  vi.'37,  38,  39. 
Aetius  remarks  that  there  are  two  causes  of  thirst,  a  want  of  humidity,  or  a 
redundance  of  heat.  In  Fevers,  then,  both  these  causes  co-operate  to  occa- 
sion thirst ;  for,  there  is  excess  of  heat  originally,  and  dryness  comes  on  ow- 
ing to  the  fluids  of  the  body  being  consumed  by  the  Febrile  heat.  Lib. 
v.  119. 

The  question  was  keenly  agitated  in  the  ancient  schools  of  medicine,  whe- 
ther cold  drink  might  be  safely  given  in  Fevers.  Hippocrates  was  a  great 
advocate  for  this  practice,  giving  his  patients  barley-water  and  acidulated 
draughts  very  freely  at  all  periods.  Asclepiades,  on  the  other  hand,  as  Cel- 
sus  and  Alexander  informs  us,  forbade  even  to  wash  the  patient's  mouth  with 
water  during  the  first  stage  of  a  Fever.  Celsus  is  disposed  to  hold  a  middle 
course  between  these  opposite  methods  of  practice.  He  particularly  ap- 
proves of  washing  the  mouth  and  fauces  frequently  with  cold  water,  because, 
as  Erasistratus  had  properly  remarked,  these  parts  oflen  require  cold  li- 
quids, while  the  internal  parts  are  not  in  want  of  them.     Philumenus  (ap. 


OOMMBNTART  ON  THE  SECOND  BOOK.  321 

Aetium)  also  strongly  recommends  gargles,  but  forbids  to  give  cold  drink 
freely  until  after  the  acm^  of  the  Fever.  Alexander  informs  us  that  the  ce- 
lebrated Archigenes  allowed  his  patients  the  free  use  of  cold  water  and  aci- 
dulated drinks.  He  himself  does  not  speak  very  decidedly  for  or  against 
this  practice.  He  approves,  however,  otcold  applications  externally;  and> 
accordingly,  directs  to  apply  to  the  region  of  tne  stomach  a  bladder  filled 
with  cold  water,  ice,  or  some  cooling  decoction. 

Of  the  Arabians,  Serapion  expresses  himself  most  decidedly  in  favour  of 
cold  drink.  Avicenna  forbids  to  give  much  at  a  time.  See  also  Haly  Abbas, 
Pract.  iii.  22.  Alsaharavius,  Fract.  xvi.  14.  Averrhoes,  CoUiget.  vii.  24, 
and  Rhases,  Contin.  lib.  xxx. 

The  pill  mentioned  in  the  end  of  the  chapter  is  from  Dioscorides. 

It  appears  singular  that  all  the  ancient  authorities  should  agree  in  stating 
that  liquorice  quenches  thirst,  while  the  modems  hold  that  it  rather  increases 
it — (See  Edinhurgh  Dispensatori/.)  And  yet  I  can  affirm  that  the  common 
people  in  Scotland  are  of  the  same  opinion  as  the  ancients. — De  gustibtif 
non  est  disputandum  I 

Prosper  Alpinus  seems  to  agree  with  the  ancients  as  to  this  property  ef 
liquorice.  He  represents  the  Methodists  as  having  disapproved  of  the  free 
use  of  cold  water  in  Fever.     Med.  Meth.  vi.  7. 

Fabius  Paulinus  gives  an  admirable  exposition  of  the  philosophical  doc- 
trines of  the  ancients  on  this  subject.  He  remarks  that  there  are  three  dis- 
tinct species  of  thirst.  The  1st  is  occasioned  by  the  fauces  and  sesophagas 
being  arier  or  hotter  than  natural.  This  state,  if  it  supervene  upon  sleep, 
is  to  be  cured  by  watchfulness,  or  versa  vice.  In  the  2d,  the  veins  over  the 
whole  body  are  filled  with  hot  and  acrid  humours.  In  the  3d,  the  mouth 
of  the  stomach,  lungs,  or  heart,  are  pretematurally  hot  or  dry.  Marc,  Pra» 
kct.  p.  315. 


LIV. ON  ROUGHNESS  OP  THE  TONGUE. 

This  chapter  is  mostly  taken  from  Oribasius.     Synop.  vi.  43. 
Aetius  recommends  nearly  the  same  treatment.     He  also  states  that,  when 
t'ie  roughness  of  the  tongue  is  difficult  to  remove,  it  may  sometimes  be  ac- 
^^mplished  by  rubbing  it  with  the  fat  of  fowls,  or  with  fresh  butter.    Lib. 
^-  118. 

Ocelius  Aurelianus  directs  to  clean  the  tongue  with  a  sponge  squeezed  out 

^^  liot  water.    Avicenna  recommends  for  this  purpose  an  instrument  called 

^^<Mizarany  and  also  directs  to  use  sugar,  or  a  sponge  with  a  small  quantity  of 

!^l(  and  rose  oil.    He  likewise  makes  mention  of  the  salt  brought  from 

^^clia,  possessing  the  colour  of  salt  and  the  taste  of  honey.    (Lib.  iv.  fen.  1. 

?*"*     2.  c.  22.)    The  Pseudo-Dioscorides  recommends  mint  triturated  with 

^'^^Hey,  red  sumach,  and  rose  oil  with  honey,  or  by  itself.     Eupornt.  ii.  18. 

X^rosper  Alpinus  was  of  opinion  that  the  Indian  salt  mentioned  by  our 

^^t.lior  and  Avicenna  was  the  same  as  our  sugar.     Sprengel,  however,  main- 

^ii:is,  that  the  Greeks  and  Romans  were  utterly  unacquainted  with  our 

^^gar.    Kei.  Herh.  Hist,  and  Notie  in  Dioscoridem.    Lib.  ii.  104.    The 

^'^el  arundinum  appears,  in  fact,  to  have  been  a  natural  concretion,  and  it 

^^s  most  probably  the  same  as  the  Indian  salt.    See  Dr.  Milword's  Letter 

^o  Si|.  Hans  Shane.  The  Cane  from  which  the  ancient  Sugar  was  procured, 

^  now  called  by  botanists  the  Bambusa  Arundinaceoy  or  Bamboo  Cane. 


222  COMMBNTABT  ON  THB  SECOND  BOOK. 


LV. — ON  NAUBBA. 

Obibasius  recommends  the  same  treatmeDt.  S^nop,  vi.  40.  Our  author 
appears  to  have  condensed  the  lengthy  account  given  by  Galen  and  Aetius. 
Lib.  ix.  c.  5. 

Alexandei:  also  treats  of  the  subject  at  gpreat  length,  but  I  can  only  af- 
ford room  for  a  few  extracts.  When  the  nausea  arises  from  plethora,  he 
directs  to  bleed ;  and,  when  the  plethora  is  connectei  with  vitiated  humours, 
he  recommends  both  to  bleed  and  purge.  When  Bilious*  or  Melancholic 
humours  occasion  the  nausea,  he  recommends  dilution  at  first  by  giving  te- 
pid water  or  the  like,  and  then  directs  to  evacuate  them  by  purging  or 
emetics.  When  the  humour  is  an  acrid  or  sweet  phlegm,  he  recommends 
oxymel,  radishes,  and  the  like.  When  a  serous  and  thin  humour  is  impact^ 
ed  in  the  stomach,  he  directs  to  evacuate  it  by  procuring  vomiting  witn  te- 
pid water  or  ptisan.    Lib.  vii.  c.  13. 

Serapion  appeal's  to  have  copied  from  our  author.  Lib.  iii.  c.  5.  See  Avi- 
cenna,  lib.  iii.  fen.  xiii.  tr.  5.  c.  8.  Rhases  recommends  to  apply  over  the 
stomach  a  cold  plaster  with  snow.  When  the  nausea  is  oppressive,  he  di- 
rects to  promote  vomiting  with  tepid  water.     Cont,  lib.  xi. 

Prosper  Alpinus  says  that  the  Methodists  approved  of  giving  a  weak  aro- 
matic wine  in  such  cases,  and  that,  when  the  stomach  was  very  much  loaded, 
they  administered  emetics.  Med.  Meth,  vi.  8.  Sydenham  was  fond  of  giv- 
ing emetics  in  cases  of  Fever  attended  with  nausea.  Van  Swieten,  however, 
often  found  that,  when  administered  early,  they  failed  to  afford  relief:  he, 
therefore,  preferred  giving  oxymel  and  the  like,  which,  in  the  course  of  a 
few  days,  usually  had  the  effect  of  producing  vomiting  with  great  relief. 
Upon  the  whole,  the  treatment  recommended  by  Boerhaave  and  Van  Swie- 
ten is  little  different  from  our  author's.  They  very  properly  forbid  to  use 
emetics,  when  there  is  any  reason  to  suspect  inflammation  of  the  Liver  or 
Stomach.  See  Comment,  §  644.  In  the  plague.  Dr.  Russel  treated  nausea 
by  giving  draughts  of  tepid  water,  or  small  doses  of  Ipecacuanha. 

LVI. — ON  YOMITINO  OF  BILB. 

This  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Si/nops.  vi.  41. 

Alexander  states  that  the  proper  remedies  for  vomiting  occasioned  by  a 
redundance  of  bile,  are  diluents  and  refrigerants.     He  recommends  internally 

{>tisan,  lettuces  with  a  small  quantity  of  vinegar,  &c.  For  drink,  he  particu- 
arly  approves  of  cold  water,  but  forbids  to  give  much  at  a  time.  When  the 
strength  fails,  he  permits  to  add  a  small  proportion  of  hydromel,  wine,  or  the 
like,  to  the  water.  In  certain  cases,  when  the  patient  is  troubled  with  in- 
somnolency,  he  directs  to  add  the  heads  of  poppies  to  his  drink.  He  also 
recommends  external  applications  possessed  of  tonic,  cooling,  and  impellent 
properties.    Lib.  vii.  c.  17. 

Serapion  recommends  not  to  interfere  with  a  Critical  vomiting.  When  it 
is  continued,  he  directs  to  give  clysters  and  gentle  purgatives  at  first,  and 
afterwards  vegetable  acids  and  astringents.  When  these  remedies  fail,  he 
directs,  if  the  strength  be  good,  to  bleed  from  the  arm.  He  also  makes  men- 
tion of  external  applications,  possessed  of  astringent  and  refrigerant  proper- 
ties. Tr.  iii.  15.  Haly  Abbas,  in  like  manner,  cautions  against  stopping  a 
Critical  vomiting.  Pract,  iii.  24.  Alsaharavius  directs  to  give  draughts  of 
tepid  water  at  first,  and  afterwards  the  infusion  of  wormwood  or  of  aloes. 
He  also  recommends  external  applications  of  a  strengthening  nature.  Pract, 
xvi.  20.  Avicenna's  plan  of  treatment  appears  to  have  been  copied  from  our 


V 


COMMBNTART  ON  THB  SECOND  BOOK.  228 

author's.  Lib.  iv.  fen.  i.  tr.  2.  Rhases  recommends  acid  drinks,  such  as  the 
decoction  of  pomeg^ranates  and  the  like.     Coni,  lib.  xi. 

According  to  Prosper  Alpinus,  the  treatment  of  the  Methodists  consisted 
in  administering  sub-acid  fruits,  the  juice  of  wormwood  or  of  mint  in  wine, 
and  in  applying  externally  tonic  Epithemes,  containing  sumach,  galls,  mas- 
ticb,  and  the  like.     Med,  Meth,  xii.  1 1 . 

Vomiting  in  Fevers  b  no  doubt  generally  connected  with  a  state  of  the 
stomach  and  neighbouring  parts  approaching  to  inflammation.  See  an  ex- 
cellent account  of  the  Vomitus  Febrilis,  by  Van  Swieten,  Comment.  §  652. 
Vomiting  is  mentioned  by  all  the  writers  on  the  Plague  as  a  common  and 
un&vourable  symptom  of  that  disease.  See  Thucydides,  and  Russel  on  the 
Plague,  p.  92. 


LVIL— ON  HICCOUGH. 

This  chapter  is  copied  from  Oribasius,  Si/nops,  vi.  42. 
According  to  Galen's  explanation,  Hiccough  is  occasioned  by  any  exciting 
cause  which  rouses  the  stomach  to  violent  motions.  He  states  that  sneezing 
proves  a  cure  to  it.  De  Cans.  Sym,  iii.  6.  Celsus  says,  in  like  manner,  <<  Sin- 
gultus stemutamento  finitur.''  He  states  that  frequent  and  unusual  bickuping 
is  symptomatic  of  an  inflamed  liver.  Lib.  ii.  7.  Aetius,  in  like  manner  says, 
that  singultus  in  Fevers  often  arises  from  inflammation  of  the  stomach  and 
neighbouring  parts.  He  treats  of  the  complaint  at  great  length.  When  it 
arises  from  pungent  humours,  he  directs  to  give  first  emetics,  and  afterwards 
narcotics,  such  as  opium,  &c.  He  also  recommends  to  apply  a  cupping- 
instrument  with  great  heat  to  the  breast,  stomach,  and  back,  in  certain  cases. 
Lib.  ix.  5. 

Alexander  gives  an  interesting  account  of  this  affection,  for  which  he  re- 
commends various  remedies.  When  connected  with  inflammation  of  the 
stomach  or  liver,  he  directs  to  begin  with  bleeding.  When  it  is  occasioned 
by  thick  and  viscid  humours,  he  recommends  an  oxymel  of  squills,  the  com- 
position of  which  he  minutely  describes.    Lib.  vii.  15. 

When  singultus  is  connected  with  a,cold  cause,  the  author  of  the  Euporis- 
ton  ascribed  to  Dioscorides,  recommends  to  put  the  feet  into  hot  water,  to 
take  tepid  draughts,  and  apply  hot  fomentations  to  the  stomach.   Lib.  ii  4. 

Though  there  is  perhaps  nothing  original  in  the  views  of  the  Arabians, 
they  treat  of  hiccough  very  fully  and  accurately.  Among  the  causes  of  it 
mentioned  by  Aisaharavius  is  inflammation  of  the  stomach  and  liver,  in 
which  case  he  recommends  venesection.  When  connected  with  excessive 
heat  of  these  parts,  he  approves  of  cold  air,  cold  drink,  and  refrigerant 
draughts,  containing  prunes,  tamarinds,  camphor,  Src.  Tr.  xvi.  18.  The 
causes  of  hiccough,  according  to  Sempion,  are,  evacuation,  repletion,  pun- 
gent and  cold  humours.  His  remedies  are  emetics,  calefacients,  and  attenu- 
^ts,  which  are  to  be  directed  according  to  the  nature  of  the  exciting  cause. 
Tr.  iii.  17.  See  also  Avicenna,  lib.  iii.  fen.  13.  tr.  v.  c.  25.,  Rhases, 
Bwis.  62.,  ad  Mansor.  ix.  65.,  ContinenSf  lib.  xi.  Rhases  recommends  ca- 
le&cients,  such  as  cumin,  pepper,  rue,  and  the  like,  in  vinegar.  He  also 
approves  of  emetics  and  laxatives. 

Prosper  Alpinus  says  that  the  ancient  Methodists  approved  of  Oily  Eme- 
tics. Meth.  Med.  vi.  8.  It  will  be  remarked,  that  our  author  states  that 
^ny  persons  are  seized  with  hiccough  if  they  take  peppers  with  wiue. 
^sper  Alpinus  mentions  that  they  had  this  effect  on  him  (de  Pras.  v.  et 
n.  M^r.  iii.  9.);  and  1  have  further  to  state  the  same  of  myself. 

Hogerius,  probably  copying  from  Rhases  (for  the  practice  of  the  earlier 
DQodem  physicians  is  mostly  borro\<red  from  the  Arabians),  recommends  prin- 


224  COMMBNTART  ON  THX  SECOND  BOOK. 

ci pally  cale^Eicient,  attenuant,  and  carminative  medicines,  mixed  witli  gentle 
laxatives,  such  as  prunes.  Tr.  iii.  c.  21.  For  Hiccough  in  Intermittents, 
Cleghom  recommends  to  apply  a  cuppins-instrument  to  the  pit  of  the  sto- 
mach, and  give  laudanum  with  tincture  of  castor  internally. 


LVIII. ON  CONSTIPATION  AND  DIARRHOSA. 

Galek  forbids  venesection  when  the  Fever  is  complicated  with  Diarrhoea. 
Therap,  ud  Glauc,  lib.  i. 

When  the  belly  is  constipated,  Celsus  recommends  laxatives,  diuretics, 
and  sudorifics.  lie  adds,  it  may  also  be  proper  to  let  blood,  practise  gestation, 
enjoin  abstinence  from  food  and  drink,  and  keep  the  patient  from  sleeping. 
He  likewise  recommends  the  bath,  both  of  tepid  water  and  of  oil.  When  the 
bowels  are  loose,  he  enjoins  rest  and  sleep,  directs  to  restrain  sweating,  and 
forbids  all  exercise  except  gentle  gestation.  He  also  directs  to  excite  vomit- 
ing by  copious  draughts  of  tepid  water,  unless  the  complaint  be  of  long 
standing,  or  there  be  pain  of  the  throat,  prscordia,  or  side.     Lib.  iii.  6. 

Alexander  forbids  to  use  Narcotics,  unless  in  cases  of  extreme  urgency. 
Avicenna  joins  him  in  laying  down  this  injunction,  and  otherwise  directs  to 
treat  the  Diarrhoea  Febrilis  upon  general  principles.  Lib.  iii.  fen.  16.  tr.  1. 
c.  4.  Haly  Abbas  directs  to  treat  Fever,  when  complicated  with  constipa- 
tioD,  by  giving  gentle  laxatives,  such  as  prunes  aud  tamarinds,  or,  if  these 
prove  injurious  to  the  stomach,  by  administering  clysters.  When  the  Diar- 
rhoea is  complicated  with  a  discharge  of  blood,  he  recommends  to  add  to  the 
other  medicines  Armenian  earth,  purslain,  sumach,  or  such  like  astringents. 
Pract.  iii.  24.     See  Serapion,  tr.  iii.  17.,  Hhases,  Divis,  67. 

According  to  Prosper  Alpinus,  the  ancient  Methodists  approved  of  astrin- 
gent applications  and  astringent  clysters  for  Febrile  Diarrhoea.  Med,  Meth. 
▼i.  10.  Sydenham  and  Van  Swieten  agree  with  Alexander  and  Avicenna  in 
forbidding  to  stop  Diarrhoea  in  Fevers  by  means  of  opiates,  unless  in  ex- 
treme cases. 

liogerius  discusses  fully  the  question  of  the  propriety  or  impropriety  of 
bleeding  in  cases  of  Fever  complicated  with  Diarrhoea.  Upon  the  whole,  he 
rather  disapproves  of  it,  unless  the  system  be  strong  and  the  symptoms  vio- 
lent.   He  approves  of  assisting  nature  in  the  way  she  points  at. 


LIX. — ON  TRICKLING  OF  BLOOD  AND  HBMORRHAGB  FROM  TBB 

NOSE. 

Hippocrates  declares  that  profuse  bleeding  at  the  nose  indicates  a  dis- 
position to  convulsions  which  venesection  is  calculated  to  remove.  Pradict, 
i.  21.  Galen,  in  his  Commentary,  remarks  that  the  convulsions  are  broi^t 
on  by  the  unseasonable  use  of  cold  applications  to  stop  the  hemorrhage.  He 
strongly  recommends  to  bleed  from  the  arm  of  the  side  from  which  the  blood 
flows.  In  another  place,  he  states  that  Epistaxis  in  Acute  Fevers  is  an  un- 
favourable symptom.     In.  iii.  Epidem.  Comment. 

Aetius  mentions  that  Hippocrates  had  declared  a  bleeding  from  the  nose 
on  the  fourth  day  of  a  fever  to  be  a  very  bad  symptom.  He  recommends  to 
encourage  the  bleeding  by  irritating  the  nostrils  with  a  stalk  of  grass.  Oar 
author,  it  will  be  observed,  directs  to  perform  this  operation  with  the  T^m, 
a  species  of  grain  several  times  mentioned  by  Theophrastus,  in  his  History 
of  Plants,  by  Galen  (Je  Aliment,  i.  13.),  and  by  Alexander  Trallian  (lib. 
vii.  5.)    Sprengel  makes  it  to  be  a  species  of  Secale  or  Rye ;  but  Stack- 


COMMBMTABT  ON  THB  8B0ONO  BOOK.  225 

house,  the  English  editor  of  Theopfarastus,  is  of  opinion  that  it  was  the 
TVt^tctMi  SpeltOy  or  Spelt.    * 

When  it  is  judged  proper  to  restrain  the  hemorrhage,  Avicenna  recom- 
mends ligatures  to  the  extremities,  and  cold  and  styptic  applications  to  the 
nose  and  adjoining  purts.  Lib.  iv.  fen.  i.  tr.  2.  c.  14.  and  lib.  iii.  fen.  v.  tr.  1. 
Serapion  agrees  witn  most  of  the  ancient  authorities  in  commending  a  mix- 
ture of  frankincense  and  aloes,  when  applied  on  the  down  of  a  hare.  He 
also  directs  to  apply  a  sponge  soaked  in  cold  water  to  the  temples  and  fore- 
head. Tr.  ii.  13.  When  bleeding  at  the  nose  occurs  in  a  fever,  Rhases  for- 
bids to  stop  ity  unless  it  prove  excessive;  in  which  case,  he  directs  to  apply 
a  cupping-instrument,  without  scarification,  to  the  hypochondrium ;  to  tie 
ligatures  about  the  testicles;  to  pour  cold  water  on  the  head ;  and  to  driidL 
cold  water.    Divis.  40. 

Boccacio  mentions  Epistaxis  as  a  fatal  symptom  of  the  Plague  of  1 348. — 
Decameronf  IrUrod,  Dr.  Russel  found  it  an  un&vourable  symptom  of  the 
plague  of  Aleppo. 

According  to  Prosper  Alpinus,  the  ancient  Methodists  forbade  to  stop  a 
Critical  Epistaxis,  unless  it  proved  excessive,  when  they  approved  of  cooling 
tieatment,  as  recommended  oy  our  author.     Med,  Meth.  vi.  10. 

Rbgerios  remarks  that  it  is  an  important  point  to  determine  whether  the 
Epistaxis  be  a  Critical  evacuation  or  otherwise,  as,  in  the  former  case,  it 
ought  not  to  be  meddled  with.  When  it  appears  not  to  be  Critical,  be  di- 
rects to  produce  revulsion,  by  bleeding  at  the  arm,  and  to  apply  astringents 
to  the  forehead  and  sides.  Tr.  iii.  c.  19.  The  other  earlier  writers  adopt 
the  ancient  views  in  like  manner. 


LX« ON  DBLIQUIUM  ANIMI. 

l^EABLT  the  same  account  of  Deliquium  Animi  in  Fevers  is  given  by 
AetiuSy^Lib.  v.  101,  et  teg.)  and  by  Oribasius,  {<ie  Morb,  Curat,  iii.  7.)  But 
-^11  these  authors  are,  in  fact,  indebted  to  Galen.  Therap,  ad  Glanc,  lib.  i. 
Aetius  thus  states  the  distinction  between  Syncope  and  Deliquium : — <<  De- 
liquium makes  its  attack  suddenly,  depriving  the  person  of  sense  and  mo- 
"tion,  but  is  not  necessarily  accompanied  with  sweats ;  but  Syncope  seizes 
"^pon  persons,  both  when  asleep  and  when  awake,  and  is  necessarily  attended 
"With  sweats,  called  Syncoptic.'' 

Alexander  delivers  a  ftiU  account  of  the  subject;  but  his  principles  of 
"^eatment  scarcely  differ  in  any  respect  from  those  of  Galen.    Lib.  xii.  13. 

Haly  Abbas  directs,  when  the  Deliquium  proceeds  from  a  defluxion  of 
^Himours  upon  the  stomach,  to  apply  ligatures  to  the  extremities,  to  dash  water 
^^>n  the  face,  to  fan  it,  and  to  give  vinegar  and  pepper.  He  recommends  to  pre- 
sent sleep,  which  has  a  tendency  to  extinguish  the  powers  of  the  primary 
'^cera,  by  occasioning  a  determination  inwardly.  When  it  proceeds  from 
'dryness,  he  directs  to  give  wine,  the  decoction  of  quinces,  of  apples,  and  the 
^ike.  If  it  happen  at  Uie  commencement,  he  recommends  to  give  a  piece  of 
^>read  soaked  m  wine.    Tract,  iii.  25. 

The  Arabians  in  general  do  not  acknowledge  the  distinction  between  Syn- 
<5ope  and  Deliquium.— See  Averhoes,  Colliget.  vii.  16.,  Serapion,  vi.  19., 
Phases,  od  JUofisor.  X.  13. 

Avicenna  seems  to  point  at  the  distinction,  but  it  is  not  perceived  by  his 

^nnslator."'' Rhases  recommends  the  same  treatment  as  Haly  Abbas.    He 

i^ommends  hot  wine,  food  of  easy  digestion,  sprinkling  of  the  face  with  cold 

^ater,  and  the  application  of  ligatures  to  the  extremities.     Continens,  lib. 

nxi. 


226  OOMMBNTABT  ON  THB  SBCOND  BOOK. 

Fainting  and  Syncope  are  most  commonly  met  with  in  Pestilential  Yeren. 
See  Russel  on  the  Plague,  p.  89. 


LXI. ON  ULCBBATION  OVBR  THE  08  SACRUM. 

This  chapter  is  taken  from  Oribasius,  Synops,  vi.  44. 

Aetius  remarks  that,  in  prolonged  Fevers,  the  fleshy  parts  of  the  body  be- 
ing wasted,  ulceration  takes  place  in  those  parts  upon  which  the  patient  lies. 
These  sores,  he  adds,  spread  deep,  and  have  hard  thick  edges.  When  the 
back  becomes  red  and  painful,  he  directs  to  surround  the  adjoining  parts 
with  a  circle  of  wool,  so  as  to  relieve  the  affected  part  from  the  effects  of 
pressure ;  and  then  a  cerate  of  rose  or  myrtle  oil,  containing  litharge,  ceruse, 
and  burnt  barley,  is  to  be  applied.  He  particularly  commends  a  composi- 
tion consisting  of  litharge,  oil,  wax,  and  honey,  mixed  with  rose-oil.  He  also ' 
makes  mention  of  the  applications  recommended  by  our  author.  He  con- 
cludes with  directing  to  use  milder  applications  when  the  ulceration  has 
stopt  spreading.    Lib.  v.  127. 

Alsaharavius  directs  to  treat  the  redness  of  the  back  occasioned  by  lying 
long  in  bed,  with  the  flower  of  millet,  barley,  or  lentils.  When  pustules 
form  and  break,  he  recommends  to  apply  an  ointment  containing  ceruse. 
Pract.  xxix.  §.  1.  c.  26. 


APPENDIX 


TO  THK 


COMMENTARY  ON  BOOK  SECOND. 


ON     8MAHiL-P0X     AND     MEASLES. 

The  reader,  I  am  sure,  would  be  disappointed,  if  I  were  to  quit  the  subject 

of  Fever,  without  making  any  allusion  to  the  history  of  Small-Pox  and 

Jdeasles.   I  will,  therefore,  conformably  with  my  general  plan,  give  a  brief 

:aK>tice  of  the  descriptions  of  these  diseases  which  we  meet  with  in  the  works 

<^>f  the  ancient  physicians.    In  the  first  place,  then,  I  may  mention  that,  after 

Kaving  read  every  word  of  eveiy  ancient  writer  on  medicine  that  has  come 

"^own  to  us,  I  can  confidently  a&rm  that  the  Greeks  and  Romans  are  alto- 

^gether  silent  on  the  subject,  and  that  we  are  indebted  to  the  Arabians  for  the 

^^arliest  accounts  which  we  have  of  these  diseases*.    Rhases,  indeed,  pretends 

^^provided  the  Introduction  to  his  Treatise  on  Small-Pox  be  not  spurious)  that 

^Cklen  had  delivered  some  imperfect  descriptions  of  Small-Pox ;   but  he 

ould  appear  to  have  been  led  into  this  mistake,  by  following  some  iuac- 

urate  translation  of  the  Works  of  Galen  into  the  Syriac  language ;  for  no 

which  would  justify  the  interpretation  which  Rhases  puts  upon 

em  are  now  to  be  found  in  the  origmal.    lately,  Dr.  Bateman  attempted 

<  show,  that  allusions  to  Measles  and  Small-Pox  are  to  be  met  with  in  the 

orks  of  several  of  the  Greek  authors;  but  I  entirely  agree  with  Drs.  Mead 

d  Freind,  who  maintain  the  contrary.     In  an  Arabian  MS.  preserved  in 

e  University  of  Leyden,  it  is  stated  that  the  Small  Pox  and  Measles  first 

ppeared  in  Arabia,  about  the  year  572,  p.  c. — See  Reiske,  Opuscula  Medicuj 

.10. 

Although  Rhases  be  the  most  ancient  writer  whose  account  of  Small-Pox 

^-Dd  Measles  has  come  down  to  us,  he  does  not  pretend  to  have  been  the  first 

^^f  his  countrymen  who  had  noticed  them,  but  gives  extracts  from  the  Works 

^^f  the  Elder  Mesne,  the  Elder  Serapion  and  Aaron,  wherein  mention  is  made 

^^ithem.    According  to  Rhases,  the  common  cause  of  Small- Pox  is  a  fer- 

^^entation  in  the  blood ;  and  hence  the  disease  is  most  apt  to  seize  children, 

^^^hose  blood  is  hotter  than  that  of  other  persons.    He  was  well  aware,  how- 

^'^^r,  that  the  disease  is  capable  of  being  propagated  by  contagion,  for  he 

^^nks  the  Pestilential  Fever  or  Small-Pox  among  the  diseases  '*  qui  transeunt 

^^uno  ad  alios.*'    The  symptoms, as  described  by  him,  are,  continued  fever, 

V^in  in  the  back,  itching  at  the  nose,  disturbed  sleep,  and  afterwards  redness 

q2 


228      AFPBNDIX  TO  THE  COMMENTARY  ON  BOOK  SECOND. 

and  fulness  of  the  face,  pain  of  the  throat,  difficulty  of  breathing,  diyness  of 
the  mouth,  thick  spittle,  hoarseness,  headach,  inquietude ;  and  these  symp- 
toms   are   followed  by  the  characteristic   eruption  of  the  Small-Pox  or 
Measles ;  but  in  the  case  of  the  latter  there  is  more  anxiety  of  mind,  sick 
qualms,  and  heaviness  of  heart ;  and  in  that  of  the  former  there  is  more  pain 
in  the  back,  heat,  and  inflammation  of  the  whole  body,  especially  in  the 
throat,  with  a  shining  redness.    He  then  lays  down  the  rules  of  treatment. 
He  directs  to  bleed  from  the  arm  at  the  commencement,  provided  the  patient 
be  more  than  fourteen  years  old,  but  by  a  cupping-instrument  if  he  be  younger. 
He  forbids,  however,  to  abstract  blood  after  the  eruption  is  come  out.     He 
allows  to  take  light  kinds  of  animal  food,  with  acids ;  and  for  drink  he  re- 
commends water  cooled  with  snow,  or  cold  spring  water,  or  some  diluent 
and  acid  draught,  such  as'  barley-water  acidulated  with  pomegranate  juice. 
Aaron,  one  of  his  authorities,  forbids,  however,  to  give  cold  water  when  the 
eruption  is  coming  out.     He  directs  to  sprinkle  the  chamber  with  cold  water, 
and  even  at  a  certain  stage  permits  the  patient  to  go  into  the  cold  bath.     He 
recommends  abstinence  from  new  milk,  wine,  dates,  honey,  mutton,  beef, 
shell-Bsh,  and  all  high-seasoned  and  heating  things.    The  rest  of  his  general 
treatment  1  need  not  give  in  detail.    Suffice  it  to  say,  that  the  medicines  re- 
commended by  him  are,  for  the  most  part,  vegetable  acids  and  astringents. 
Upon  the  whole,  the  earlier  part  of  his  treatment  consists  of  bleeding,  cold 
drinks,  and  acid  draughts.     For  hastening  the  eruption,  he  directs  to  wrap 
up  the  patient  closely  in  clothes ;  to  rub  his  body  all  over;  to  keep  him  in  a 
room  not  very  cold;  to  give  him  some  cold  water  to  drink;  to  put  on  a 
double  shirt ;  and  to  place  near  him  two  small  basins  of  very  hot  water,  one 
Defore,  and  the  other  behind  him,  so  that  the  vapour  may  be  diffused  all 
over  his  body,  except  the  face ;  but  he  prudently  directs  not  to  allow  the 
moisture  to  cool  upon  the  body,  but  to  get  it  carefully  wiped  off.    All  fujp- 
naces  and  hot  baths  he  condemns,  as  overheating  and  weakening.     He  very 
much  commends  figs  for  promoting  the  eruption.    He  afterwards  gives  very 
minute  directions  about  the  treatment  of  particular  parts,  such  as  the  eyes,' 
the  throat,  and  the  nose.    For  the  eyes,  ne  recommends  various  astringent 
lotions  or  colly ria,  such  as  galls  and  rose-water,  sumach,  pomegranate  rind, 
&c.    The  care  of  the  throat  he  justly  holds  to  be  a  very  important  considerar 
tion,   and  recommends  to  bleed  when  there  is  acute ,  pain,  and  to  gargle 
with  cold  water,  or  with  astringent  decoctions,  such  as  those  of  acid  pome- 
granates, sumach,  and  the  juice  of  mulberries.    When  the  pustules  on  the 
limbs  are  large,  he  directs  to  open  them ;  and,  when  there  is  great  pain  in  the 
soles,  he  recommends  to  rub  them  with  warm  oil,  or  to  put  the  feet  into  hot 
water.    When  the  pustules  seem  to  stand  in  need  of  ripening,  he  directs 
foment  the  body  with  the  steam  arising  from  a  hot  decoction  of  camomile^ 
violets,  and  the  lik&;  and,  when  too  humid,  the  patient  is  to  be  laid 
pounded  roses,  rice  meal,  or  millet  seed.     For  removing  the  scabs 
eschars,  he  recommends  to  rub  them  with  the  warm  oil  of  sesame,  or  oil 
pistaches;  but  the  larger  are  to  be  cut  off  carefully  without  any  application:^ 
of  oil.    For  removing  the  specks  on  the  eye,  he  recommends  many  stimulac^c 
collyria,  containing  antimony,  verdigris,  sal  ammoniac,  tutty,  camphor. 
For  removing  cicatrices  or  marks  on  oUier  parts  of  the  body,  be  mentioi 
various  applications,  containing  litharge,  bastard  spurge,  &c.*    When 
belly  is  loose,  either  in  Small-Pox  or  Measles,  which,  as  he  remarks, 
commonly  the  case  on  the  decline  of  the  Fever,  he  recommends  to  abst 
from  all  laxative  things,  and  to  give  barley  gruel,  to  which  the  meal  of 
megranate  seeds  may  be  added ;  or,  if  the  looseness  increase,  gum  aral 
&c.  may  be  added  to  the  drink.     He  adds,  that  it  sometimes  happens 
the  bowels  require  to  be  opened,  and  he  directs  to  effect  this  by  mean; 
niyrobalans,  prunes,  and  the  like.     When  in  Measles  there  is  much  appear- 


AFPBNDIX  TO  THE  COMMENTARY  ON  BOOK  tXCOND.     229 

ance  of  vitiated  bile,  he  directs  to  procure  the  discharge  of  it  He  points 
out  the  difference  between  Distinct  and  Confluent  Small-Pox ;  and  remarks, 
that  the  latter  isiar  more  dangerous  than  the  other.  He  also  correctly  states, 
that  when,  in  Measles  or  Small-Pox,  the  eruption  is  suddenly  determined  in- 
wardly, it  is  a  fatal  symptom.  He  all  along  inculcates,  that  Measles  and 
Small-Pox  are  nearly  allied  to  each  other;  and  I  may  mention,  by  the  way, 
that  the  learned  Dr.  Mead  is  of  the  same  way  of  thinking.  He  !»ays,  "  The 
Measles  have  a  great  affinity  with  the  Small-Pox,  being  originally  bred  in 
the  same  country,  and  propagated  in  the  same  manner  by  infection  into 
distant  parts  of  the  world,  and  never  seizing  any  person  but  once."  The 
simultaneous  occurrence  of  Small-Pox  and  Measles  in  certain  cases,  will  be 
admitted  as  a  presumptive  proof  of  a  certain  alliance  between  the  two 
diseases. — (See  Mr.  Delagarde*s  Paper  in  the  Medico-Chirnrgical  Transact 
t'umsy  vol.  xiii.  p.  1.)  I  may  mention  further,  that  Sidobre,  Sennertus,  and 
most  of  the  authorities  of  that  period,  maintained  this  opinion.  Even  Syden- 
ham holds  them  to  be  of  the  same  nature. 

Georgius,  one  of  the  authorities  quoted  in  his  Continent^  says  that  Measles 
arise  from  blood  mixed  with  much  bile,  and  Small-Pox  from  gross  blood 
mixed  with  much  humidity.  He  states  that  the  danger  is  proportionate  to 
the  pain  in  the  throat  and  difficulty  of  brefathing.  The  Elder  Serapion,  as 
quoted  by  him  in  the  same  work,  directs,  if  it  is  the  winter  season,  to  bum 
the  wood  of  Tamarisk,  &c.  beside  the  patient. 

In  his  work  Ad  Mansorem,  he  recommends  nearly  the  same  treatment  as 
that  which  we  have  been  detailing  from  his  Tractatus  on  Small-Pox ;  but 
does  not  speak  so  decidedly  in  favour  of  cold  drink. 

Avicenna's  description  of  Small-Pox  and  Measles  is  very  similar  to  that 
of  Rhases.     He  conhdently  pronounces  them  to  be  contagious  diseases;     He 
states  correctly,  tliat,  when  Small-Pox  proves  fatal,  it  is  usually  from  the  af* 
^^tion  of  the  throat,  or  from  the  bowels  becoming  ulcerated.    Sometimes,  he 
^dds,  the  disease  superinduces  bloody  urine.    He  agrees  with  Rhases  that 
Measles  is  a  bilious  affection,  and  that  it  differs  from  Small-Pox  only  in  this, 
Uiat  in  the  former  the  morbific  matter  is  in  smaller  quantity,  and  does  not 
pass  the  cuticle.    His  treatment  also  is  little  different.    At  any  period  dur- 
ing the  first  four  days  he  approves  of  venesection,  but  forbids  it  afterwards. 
^e  recommends  cooling  and  diluent  draughts  prepared  from  tamarinds,  and 
the  like.     He  directs  to  give  figs  to  facilitate  the  eruption  of  the  pustules,  and 
^rbids  to  give  cold  drink  after  they  begin  to  come  out.    When  the  pustules 
^*e  large  and  fully  formed,  he  approves  of  letting  out  their  contents  with  a 
Sold  needle.    His  treatment  of  the  throat,  eyes,  belly,  and  hands,  is  nearly 
the  same  as  that  recommended  by  Rhases.    When  ulcers  are  formed  after 
t^e  falling  off  of  the  eschars,  he  directs  to  dress  them  with  the  White  Oint- 
Hcieuty  composed  of  Ceruse  and  Litharge. — See  Lib.  iii.  fen.  1.  tr.  4. 

Serapion*s  account  of  Small-Pox  and  Measles,  as  is  remarked  by  Haly 
A.bbas,  is  very  defective.  He  treats  of  them  along  with  apostemes,  and  his 
description  of  the  symptoms  is  far  from  being  accurate. 

Avenzoar,  in  his  Treatise  on  Epidemical  diseases,  treats  incidentally  of 
l^easles  and  Small-Pox,  for  the  cure  of  which  he  recommends  principally 
gentle  purgatives,  such  as  tamarinds,  with  cooling  and  acid  drinks.  Lib.  iii, 
Ir.  3.  c.  4. 

Alsaharavius  also  mentions  them  briefly  among  the  Pestilential  diseases; 
"but  his  deserrption  of  them  is  not  to  be  compared  with  that  of  lihases. 

According  to  Haly  Abbas,  Variola  is  produced  either  by  external  causes, 
such  as  a  Pestilential  state  of  the  atmosphere,  or  from  respiring  the  air  of  a 
place  which  has  been  tainted  with  the  effluvia  from  the  pustules  of  persons 
uffected  with  the  disease;  or  it  may  arise  from  an  ebullition  of  the  blood 
vrhenitis  loaded  with  gross  humours   which  nature  endeavours  to  cast  out- 


230  AFPXNDIX  TO  THB  COMMBNTART  ON  BOOK  BBCOMD. 

wards.  He  then  briefly  describes  several  f  arieties  of  the  disease,  differing 
from  one  another  in  degrees  of  malignity;  and  among  them  he  ranks 
Rubeola,  which  is  occasioned,  he  says,  by  a  hot  thin  blood,  and  is  not  of  a 
bad  nature.  In  it,  he  says,  the  eruption,  when  at  its  height,  resembles  mil- 
let seeds,  or  is  somewhat  larger,  the  colour  is  red,  and  the  pustules  discharge 
nothing.  The  precursory  symptoms  of  Small-Pox  are,  Fever,  swelling  of  the 
face,  itching  ot  the  nose,  inflammation  and  redness  in  the  face  and  other 
members,  heaviness  of  the  head,  and  roughness  of  the  throat.  TAeor.  viii. 
14.  With  regard  to  the  treatment  of  Variola  and  Rubeola,  he  recommends 
venesection  during  any  of  the  first  three  days;  or,  if  the  patient  be  a  child, 
he  directs  to  apply  a  cupping-in.strument  to  the  back.  The  patient  is  then 
to  be  made  to  drink  barley-water,  in  which  jujubes  and  sebesten  plums  have 
been  boiled ;  syrup  of  poppies  is  to  be  added,  if  the  cough  be  troublesome,  or 
the  pain  of  the  throat  severe;  and  spoon-meats  prepared  with  spinage,  orach, 
and  the  like,  are  to  be  given.  When  the  eruption  does  not  come  properly  out, 
he  recommends  a  decoction  of  fennel,  lentils,  figs,  &c.  to  be  taken  cold.  (By 
the  way,  this  practice  is  favourably  mentioned  by  Fracostorius,  a  writer  of 
the  t6th  century,  de  Marb,  Cont,)  When  there  is  asperity  in  the  chest,  he 
directs  to  give  the  mucilage  of  fleawort,  linseed,  and  the  like,  and  forbids 
all  heating  things.  The  patient  is  to  be  kept  npon  a  low  diet,**  as  in  other 
Fevers;  and  his  apartment  is  to  be  fumigatea  with  aromatics,  such  as  sandal- 
wood, myrtles,  and  roses.  When  tlie  belly  is  constipated,  he  directs  to  give 
barley-water  with  manna,  prunes,  and  the  like;  or,  if  loose,  barley-water 
with  myrtle  seeds,  gum  Arabic,  Armenian,  or  Ci*etan  earth  (chalk  ?).  He 
forbids  to  give  purgatives  after  the  7th  day,  especially  in  Rubeola,  as  there  is 
danger  of  diarrhcea  or  dysentery  being  superinduced ;  and,  if  tliese  affections 
should  come  on,  he  directs  to  stop  them  with  astringents.  He  recommends 
to  pay  particular  attention  to  the  eyes  at  the  commencement,  and  with  this 
intention  directs  to  bathe  them  with  an  astringent  decoction.  No  animal 
food  is  to  be  allowed,  until  the  eruption  and  heat  are  gone. 


HEADS  OF  THE  THIRD  BOOK. 


This  Book,  which  is  the  Third  of  the  whole  Work,  treats  of  Topical 
complaints,  beginning  with  the  Head  and  ending  with  the  Toes. 


1.  On  Alopecia,  Ophiasis,  and  Baldness. 

2.  Compositions  for  Dyeing  and  Curling  the  Hair. 

3.  On  the  Affections  of  the  Skin  of  the  Head. 

4.  On  Headach. 

5.  On  Cephelsea  and  Hemicrania. 

6.  On  Phrensy. 

7.  On  Phlegmon  of  the  Brain. 
8'  On  Erysipelas  of  the  Brain. 
9.   On  Leftliargy. 

10.   On  Catochus,  or  Coma  Vigil. 

11  •   On  Loss  of  Memory  and  of  Reason^  Carus,  and  Fatuity. 

12.  Oq  Vertigo. 

13.  On  Epilepsy. 

1^'   On  Melancholy,  Mania,  and  Dssmoniacs. 

15.   On  Incubijs,  or  Night-mare. 

^^'   On  Lycaon,  or  Lycanthropia. 

^^*   On  Lovers. 

^^'   On  Apoplexy,  Hemiplegia,  or  Paralysis. 

^^'  Oq  Spasm. 

^^.   On  Tetanus,  and  its  different  yaneties. 

2^-   OuTiemblkigs. 

22.   On  Complaints  of  the  Eye. 

^^'   Matters  relating  to  the  Ear. 

^^-    On  Affections  of  the  Nose,  and  of  the  Sense  of  Smell. 

^^'    On  Affections  of  the  Face. 

^^"    On  Affections  of  the  Mouth. 

*^'   On  Quinsy,  and  Affections  of  the  neighbouring  parts,  also  on  those  who 

are  Strangled  or  otherwise  Suffocated. 
*^'    On  Coryza,  Catarrh,  Affections  of  the  Trachea,  and  Cough. 
^-    On  Orthopnoea,  Asthma,  and  Dyspncea. 


232 

30.  Od  PiieumoDJa. 

31 .  On  Spitting  of  Blood. 

33.  On  Empyema  and  Phthisis. 

33.  On  Fleurisjt. 

34.  On  the  Affections  of  the  Heait. 

35.  On  AffeclloDs  of  (he  Mamnw. 

36.  On  Offensive  Smells  and  Exudations  of  Ihe  Ann-pits. 
3T.  On  Affections  of  the  Stomach,  Urpochondria,  and  Belly. 

38.  On  Ineation  of  the  Stomacli. 

39.  On  Cholera  and  Diarrhcpa'. 

40.  On  Lienteria  and  Caliac  ASections. 

41 .  On  Tenesmas. 
43.  On  Dysenter)'. 

43.  On  Colic. 

44.  On  Ileua. 

45.  On  AfTectiona  of  the  Kidneys  and  Bladder. 

46.  On  Affections  of  the  Lirer. 

47.  On  Cachexia. 

48.  On  Dropsies. 

49.  Od  the  Spleen. 

50.  On  Jaundice. 

51.  On  Prolapsus  of  the  Navel. 

52.  HowtoinaketbeHairof theChinandPobeslateofGrowth;  alsoon 

the  Preserration  of  the  Privy  Parts  and  Testicles;  and  likewise  of 
Depilatories. 

53.  On  Bnboitocele,  Gnlerocele,  and  Hydrocele. 

54.  On  InSammatioQ  of  the  Testicles  and  Scrotum,  and  other  Complaints 

of  those  parts. 

55.  On  Gonorrhcea,  and  Polluted  Dreanu. 

56.  On  Satyriasis. 

57.  On  Priapism. 

58.  On  Impotence. 

59.  On  Affections  of  the  Pudenda  and  Anus. 

60.  On  Affections  of  the  Uterus,— and,  firet,  of  Uie  Menstrual  Discharge. 

61.  On  lUtention  of  the  Menses. 

62.  On  Immoderate  Menatruitiou,  and  Hemorrhage  of  the  Uterus. 

63.  On  the  Female  Discharge. 

64.  On  Inflammation  of  the  Uterus,  and  Displacement  of  the  same. 

65.  On  Abscess  of  the  Uterus, 

66.  On  Ulceration  of  the  Uterus. 

67.  On  Cancer. 

68.  On  Scirrhus,  and  the  Hard  Tumour  called  Scleroma. 

69.  On  Hole. 
TO.  On  Inflation. 

71.  On  Uterine  Suffocation,  or  Ihe  Hysterical  ConTuIsion. 


288 


72.  Od  Prolapsus  of  the  Uterus. 

73.  On  Phimus  of  the  Uterus. 

74.  Cure  of  Barreuness. 

75.  On  Fissures,  Condylomata,  and  Hemorrhoids. 

76.  On  Difficult  Parturition. 

77.  On  Ischiatic  Disease. 

78.  On  Gout  and  Arthritis. 

79.  On  Chilblains,  and  Complaints  of  the  Sole  and  Heel. 

80.  For  Corns  and  Callus. 

81.  On  Complaints  about  the  Nails, — and,  first,  of  Paronychia. 


PAULUS    iEGINETA. 


BOOK   THIRD. 


I. — On  Affections  of  the  Haitf  Alopecia,  Ophiasis,  and 

Baldness* 

As  some  plants  die  from  dryness  for  want  of  sap^  and  some  frdm 
the  sap  being  onsoitable  to  them,  so  is  it  in  like  manner  with  te 
hairs ;  for  baldness  is  occasioned  by  want  of  the  natural  juices*  aad 
alopecia  and  ophiasis  by  the  badness  of  them.  These  complidttts 
di£^  only  in  figure ;  for,  in  the  latter,  the  affected  part  has  tiie  mp^ 
pearance  cf  a  serpent;  and  alopecia  deriTCS  its  appellation  fnmt 
the  circumstance  of  foxes  being  frequently  subject  to  the  afieetiiNi. 
Judging  of  the  prevailing  humour,  then,  from  the  colour  of  tite 
skin,  we  are  first  to  evacuate  it  by  purging,  and  then  to  have  re- 
course to  local  appliditions.  If,  therefore,  the  colour  incline  to 
black  or  white,  we  purge  with  the  medicine  called  hiera,  which 
evacuates  both  phlegm  and  the  melancholic  humour ;  but,  if  it  is 
palish,  we  give  pills  of  aloes.  An  account  of  these  medicines  will 
be  found  in  that  part  of  our  work  which  treats  of  compound  medi- 
cines. After  general  depletion,  we  are  to  use  masticatories  oom'- 
posed  of  vin^ar,  mustard,  and  honey,  and  not  once  only,  but  fre-^ 
quently.  It  will  be  better,  too,  if  marjoram,  penny-royal,  th3n]ie»  or 
hyssop,  had  been  infused  in  the  vinegar.  In  all  the  other  compleliits 
of  the  head,  the  same  method  is  to  be  observed,  first  evacuating  tiie 
prevailing  humour,  either  by  purging,  or  by  phlebotomy  if  there  be 
a  fulness  of  blood,  and  then  proceeding  to  the  topical  treatmmit. 

On  Alopbci a. -—Having  first  cleansed  the  part  with  nitre,  and 
scrubbed  it  with  a  rough  cloth,  more  particularly  a  woollen-cloth« 
and  continued  the  friction  until  it  become  red,  anoint  it  with  yer- 
vain  pounded  with  vinegar  in  the  sun.  Or,  rub  in  the  roughest 
alcyonium  burnt  and  pounded  with  lamp-oil.  Or,  bum  the  root  of 
the  club-rush,  or  the  rind  of  the  bitter  almond,  and  rub  theia  in 
with  oil,  or  wolves*  tallow.    These  are  moderate  remedies.    But 


236  PAULUS    iEGINETA. 

stronger  applications  may  be  prepared  from  euphorbium,  thapsia, 
and  adarce,  pounded  with  oil  of  bays,  or  liquid  pitch.  Another : — 
Having  burnt  the  shells  of  sea-urchins,  mix  them  with  wolves'  tal- 
low, and  rub  with  them,  having  first  cleansed  the  part  with  nitre. 
Another : — Of  pepper,  of  dried  sheep's  dung,  of  hedge- mustard,  of 
rocket-seeds,  of  each,  dr.  iv. ;  of  white  hellebore,  dr.  iii. ;  of  mouses' 
dung,  dr.  i :  add  to  the  gall  of  a  bull,  of  a  goat,  or  of  a  hog. 
Another  tried  remedy  for  alopecia : — Of  the  root  of  mandragora,  of 
birthwort,  of  the  root  of  wake-robin,  of  wax,  of  liquid  pitch,  oz. 
viii. ;  of  swines'-seam  not  salted,  of  the  heart  or  inner  part  of  the 
herb  nerium  a  little  :  boil  the  seam  and  the  nerium  until  the  herb 
be  softened ;  strain  and  throw  away  the  herb,  and  add  to  the  axunge 
the  other  ingredients,  and  boil.  Add  the  wax  and  the  liquid  pitch, 
and  use  boldly  in  the  sun.  When  the  ulcers  are  cicatrised,  burn 
the  head  of  a  fox,  take  alcyonium,  the  leaves  of  the  black  alkanet, 
and,  having  pounded  all  together,  sprinkle  upon  the  ointment,  in  or- 
der to  promote  the  growth  of  the  hair.  Another  : — Of  a  mouse's 
head  burnt,  one  part ;  of  the  shells  of  the  sea-urchin,  one  part ;  boil 
in  a  pot  with  swine's-seam,  and  use.  They  may  also  be  sprinkled 
in  powder. 

A  Medicament  from  Thapbia  for  all  Chronic  Affections. — 
Of  euphorbium,  of  thapsia,  of  bay -berries,  of  each,  oz.  i. ;  of  native 
sulphur,  oz.  ss. ;  of  hellebore,  oz.  ss. ;  of  wax,  oz.  viij. ;  of  oil  of 
bays,  or  old  castor  oil,  q.  s.  When  stronger  applications  are  re- 
quired, add  of  cardamom,  oz.  i. ;  of  burnt  alcyonium,  oz.  i. ;  and  it 
will  be  applicable  not  only  for  alopecia,  but  for  all  cases  of  chronic 
coldness.  But  in  every  case  of  tdopecia,  have  recourse  in  the  first 
jdace  to  the  process  of  cleansing  with  nitre,  then  friction,  and  fre- 
quent shaving.  I  have  seen  many  have  their  hair  reproduced  by 
friction  alone,  and  frequent  shaving. 

For  Baldness,  and  in  order  to  Increase  the  Growth  of 
Hair,  from  Crito. — ^Take  the  dried  stomachs  of  five  hares,  roast 
carefully  in  an  earthen  vessel,  add  to  them  the  third  part  of  myrtle 
tops,  of  the  fruit  of  acacia,  of  the  juice  of  acacia,  of  sweet-briir,  an 
equal  part,  of  maiden-hair,  oz.  iii. ;  pound  all  these  things  together, 
and  sift  through  a  small  sieve.  Then,  adding  of  wolves'  tallow  lb. 
iv.,  of  that  of  a  seal  the  same  quantity,  pound,  and  preserve  in  a 
leaden  vessel.    At  the  time  of  using,  add  to  any  fragrant  ointment. 

Preservatives  of  the  Hair. — Of  maiden-hair,  one  part;  of 
ladanum,  two  parts ;  add  to  wine  and  myrtle-oil,  and  use.  An- 
other : — Pound  the  flower  of  anemone,  and  rub  it  in  with  oil.  The 
same  will  blacken  the  hair.  Another : — Pound  the  straight  vervain 
dried  with  its  roots,  sift  through  a  narrow  sieve,  and,  having  mixed 
with  oil  so  as  to  have  the  thickness  of  the  bath-sordes,  lay  it  up  in 
a  copper  vessel,  and,  when  softened,  use  instead  of  oil  in  like 
manner. 

A  Watery  Infusion  for  Increasing  the  Growth  of  the 
Hairs,  and  for  Blackening  them. — Of  rain  water,  six  sextarii ; 
of  Alexandrian  sumach,  three  sextarii ;  of  maiden-hair,  oz.  iv. ;  of 
savin,  oz.  iv. ;  of  ladanum,  oz.  i. ;  of  m3Ttle,  oz.  i. ;  of  dried  gourd, 


BOOK  THIRD.  287 

OE.  i. ;  allow  to  macerate  in  a  glass  vessel  for  twenty  days,  stirring 
it  t^ice  a-day  with  a  pine  spat^a.  On  the  following  day,  plunge  the 
comb  into  the  infusion,  and  use  once  a-day.  And  the  seed  of  marsh- 
mallows,  when  rubbed  in  while  in  a  bath,  preserves  the  hair,  and 
promotes  its  growth.  And,  in  like  manner,  oil  may  be  rubbed  in 
that  has  had  marshmallows  boiled  in  it,  or  added  to  it. 

For  Thinning  thb  Hair. — Of  the  leaves  of  the  iig-tree,  of  liie 
rind  of  the  white  wild  vine,  of  pumice  stone,  of  the  shells  of  hoc* 
cinse,  of  Cimolian  earth,  of  each,  one  mina.  Put  them  into  a  new 
crude  pot,  and,  having  covered  it  with  clay,  bum  in  a  furnace,  and 
pound,  adding  of  aphronitrnm  half  a  mina,  of  the  galls  called  om- 
phacitm  thirty  in  number,  pulverise  and  use.  Another  : — Of  aphro- 
nitrnm, half  a  mina ;  of  roasted  pumice  stone,  four  minse ;  of  fissile 
alum  (alumen  scissilej,  of  dried  iris,  of  the  black  wild  myrtle,  of 
gum,  of  the  root  of  bryony,  of  each,  dr.  iv. ;  of  unripe  lupines 
pounded,  the  fourth  part  of  a  gallon  ;  use  without  tallow. 

For  Falling  out  of  thb  Hair. — Rub  in  aloes  with  black  aus- 
tere wine ;  or,  the  cover  of  the  purpura  boiled  with  oil ;  or,  m3nrh 
and  ladanum,  with  wine  and  myrtle  oil ;  or,  pound  burnt  sheeps- 
dung  on  a  shell,  and  rub  it  in  with  oil,  having  first  shaved  the  head. 

II.— For  making  the  Hair  Curled,  and  for  Dyeing  them* 

From  Cleopatra, 

Having  first  scrubbed  the  head,  anoint  the  hair  with  the  root  of 
cow-parsnip  in  undiluted  wine.  Another : — Having  shaved  the 
head,  and  scrubbed  it,  take  a  young  pine-kernel,  and  burn  it  until  it 
be  reduced  to  ashes,  put  it  into  a  mortar  and  pulverise  it,  adding 
myrtle  ointment,  until  it  be  of  the  thickness  of  honey,  and  thus  anoint 
the  head  with  it.  Another  : — Rub  in  equal  parts  of  myrtles  and 
beet,  with  oil.  Another  : — ^Twenty  galls  ;  of  maiden-hair,  oz.  ii. ; 
pound  with  sea-water  until  they  attain  the  thickness  of  honey. 
Having  rubbed  the  hair  with  urine  or  lixivial  ashes,  and  cleaned 
it  with  warm  water,  anoint  it  with  this  medicine  for  two  days, 
then  stopping,  on  the  third  day  clean  it,  and,  having  shaved,  anoint 
with  myrtle  oil.  This  will  render  the  hair  smooth,  curled,  and  black  ; 
but  it  will  be  more  curled  if  you  will  shave  before  using  it. 

Prbservativbs  of  Hoary  Hairs,  and  other  Compositions 
FOR  Dyking  them  Black. — Of  the  oil  of  unripe  olives,  three  sex- 
tarii ;  of  spikenard,  dr.  i. ;  of  unguis  aromaticus  (sweet-hoof  f), 
dr.  iv. ;  of  schsenanth,  dr.  iv.  Boil  with  oil,  and  separately  pound 
aud  dissolve  carefully  one  ounce  of  the  juice  of  acacia  in  wine. 
When  only  a  third  part  of  the  oil  remains,  strain  it,  and,  mixing 
with  the  acacia,  lay  it  up  in  a  vessel,  and  anoint  with  it  every  day. 
Another  : — Of  the  bark  of  green  walnuts,  oz.  iii. ;  of  the  root  of 
the  ilex,  oz.  iii. ;  of  dark-coloured  wine,  three  sextarii ;  boil  to  a 
thirdrpart,  and,  having  strained,  pound  the  remainder  with  one 
sextarius  of  myrtle  oil.     To  be  used  every  day. 

An    Infusion    for  Dyking   the  Hair  Black. — Of  galls,  one 


238  PAULUS  iEGlNETA. 

•extarius ;  of  elm-leaved  Bumach  (rhus  coriaria),  two  sextarii ;  of 
the  leaves  of  privet,  an  equal  quantity ;  of  black  myrtle  leaves,  the 
same ;  of  cennaris,  a  handful ;  of  poppy-heads,  the  same ;  of  lake- 
water,  twelve  sextarii.  Macerate  for  many  days,  boil  to  a  third, 
then  rub  and  anoint  the  head.  When  the  hairs  are  dry,  anoint 
with  an  acetabulum  of  Cimolian  earth,  and  an  equal  quantity  of 
quick-lime.  Dissolving  these  things  in  the  juice  of  boiled  beet, 
anoint  with  it,  and  then,  for  the  sake  of  protection,  put  over  it  the 
leaves  of  beet,  and,  when  they  adhere  properly,  wash  in  the  bath 
with  it. 

For  Dyeing  Tawnt  Hair,  and  Making  thbm  of  a  Bright 
YxLLOw  Colour. — ^Take  of  m3m'h,  one  part ;  of  the  flower  of  salt, 
one  part ;  pulverise  carefully,  and,  having  made  it  of  the  thickness 
of  the  sordes  of  a  bath,  scrub  the  head,  anoint  it  with  the  ointment, 
and  allow  it  to  remain  a  night  and  a  day,  and  then  order  it  to  be 
wiped  off.  Another : — Rub  in  unripe  lupines  with  water.  Another  : 
— Of  litharge,  dr.  i. ;  of  Cretan  earth,  dr.  iv.  ;  of  quick-Ume.,  dr. 
i. ;  with  water  make  to  the  thickness  of  bath  sordes,  and  anoint. 
Apply  the  leaves  of  beet  for  two  or  three  days,  and  then  dean. 

For  Making  Black  Hairs  Yellow. — Add  the  lees  of  wine  to  the 
sordes  of  a  bath,  and,  having  made  it  to  the  consistence  of  cerate, 
use  it  when  you  are  going  to  sleep,  and  in  the  morning  the  hairs 
will  be  yellow.  Another : — Macerate  the  leaves  of  privet  in  the 
juice  of  Fuller's  herb  (struthiumj,  and  use  the  infusion. 

A  Gold- coloured  Dye. — Of  alum,  dr.  vi. ;  of  red  arsenic,  dr. 
vi. ;  of  saffron,  dr.  ii. ;  of  the  thapsus  used  by  dyers,  called  rubia 
by  the  Komans,  dr.  viij. ;  of  the  lixivial  ashes  used  by  the  bonnet- 
makers,  four  sextarii ;  boil  the  ashes  and  the  thapsus  pounded  to- 
gether, and,  when  but  one-half  remains,  squeeze  out  the  juice,  and 
dissolve  in  it  the  alum,  red  arsenic,  and  saffron ;  put  it  into  a  glass 
vessel,  and,  at  the  time  of  using,  first  scrub  the  head,  and  then 
anoint  with  it.  When  it  is  all  drunk  up,  clean  with  the  decoction 
pf  fenugreek,  barley,  and  cumin,  having  previously  washed  them 
with  a  sufficiency  of  tepid  water,  and  add  as  much  as  is  required. 
Another : — Mixing  together  the  burnt  lees  of  wine  and  the  oU  used 
in  the  baths,  anoint  the  hairs.  Another : — Scrub  with  Gallic  soap 
and  water  at  each  bath.  Another  very  fine : — Of  red  sumach,  a 
sextarius ;  of  galls,  lb.  i.  ss. ;  of  sheeps'  dung,  oz.  ii. ;  of  the 
golden-coloured  herb,  called  rubia  by  the  Romans,  oz.  ii.;  of 
maiden-hair,  two  fasciculi ;  of  wormwood,  one  fasciculus ;  of  lu- 
pines stripped  of  their  outer  coat,  two  cyathi ;  of  water,  six  sex- 
tarii ;  put  all  into  a  glass  vessel,  and  allow  to  macerate  for  nine 
days,  stirring  it  twice  a  day.  At  the  time  of  using,  strain  out 
what  is  required,  and,  soaking  a  sponge  in  it,  rub  the  hairs,  and 
when  they  are  moistened  allow  them  to  drink  it  up.  When  dried, 
wash  with  a  solution  of  soap  in  warm  water. 

For  Making  the  Hair  White. — Bum  the  flowers  of  the  white 
petty-muUein,  moisten  with  vinegar,  and  mix  for  a  detergent 
ointment.     Another  : — Of  the  fruit  of  petty-mullein,  dr.  i. ;    of 


BOOK   THIRD.  299 

alum,  dr.  i. ;  of  the  rind  of  radbbes^  dr.  i. ;  pound,  and  mix  of 
bulla'  gluten,  dr.  iy. 


Ilh-^On  Pityriani. 

PiTTBiABis  is  an  eruption  of  small  furfuraceoua  aubstancea  on  the 
skin  of  the  bead,  or  the  rest  of  the  body,  without  ulceration.  It  ia 
occasioned,  either  by  depraved  humours  which  have  been  determined 
to  the  bead,  or  by  a  saltish  phlegm,  or  by  bilious  or  melancholic 
blood.  After  the  general  system  has  been  evacuated,  as  formerly 
described,  we  must  use  some  of  the  under-mentioned  remedies. 
Macerate  Cimolian  earth  in  water,  mix  with  the  juice  of  beet,  and 
anoint  with  it,  allowing  it  to  remain  until  dry,  then  wash  it  away, 
and,  having  pounded  frankincense  with  wine  and  oil,  anoint  with 
them.  Next  day,  rub  in  stavesacre  with  oil.  Another  : — Of  nitre, 
of  the  burnt  lees  of  wine,  of  ben  nut,  of  each,  lb.  i. ;  of  stavesacre, 
lb.  i.  ss.  Dissolve  in  wine,  and  rub  the  head ;  or,  if  the  rest  of 
the  body  be  affected  with  tingling,  it  may  be  used  dry.  When  the 
Pityriasis  is  more  humid,  wash  with  brine  or  the  decoction  of 
lupines.    Of  this  remedy  I  have  had  ample  experience. 

On  Pstpracia  ANn  Exanthemata  of  thb  Hbad. — ^The  psydra^ 
cia  are  small  protuberances,  like  blisters,  elevated  above  the  skin. 
The  exanthemata  are  superficial  ulcerations,  somewhat  red  and 
rongh.  Both  are  to  be  cured  by  the  under-mentioned  remedies  :— 
Of  Utbarge,  dr.  iv. ;  of  ceruse,  dr.  iv. ;  of  alum,  dr.  ii. ;  of  the  green 
leaves  of  rue,  dr.  ii. ;  pound  with  vinegar  and  myrtle  oil,  and  anoint. 
Another  :— -Pounding  rue  and  alum  with  honey,  anoint  with  this 
the  bead,  after  having  first  shaven  it.  If  the  head  is  excoriated, 
^ply  olive  leaves  boiled  with  honey.  Another : — Of  litharge  and 
cemse,  <^  each,  dr.  xii. ;  of  native  sulphur,  dr.  viij.;  mix  witi^ 
myrtle  cerate. 

For  thb  Thick  ANn  Rsn  Ulcbrs  of  thb  Hbad  rb8bmbi»im« 
Papuiijb,  or  small  Nipplbs,  from  which  Ichor  is  discharobp.— p- 
Having  first  shaved  the  head  and  scrubbed  it  with  water  and 
nitre,  use  native  sulphur  livigated  with  human  urine ;  or  anoint 
with  melantena  and  vinegar. 

For  Achorbs  and  Favi. — The  complaint  called  achor  is  one 
of  those  which  affect  the  skin  of  the  head,  corroding  the  skin  by 
very  small  perforations,  from  which  a  discharge  of  viscid  humour 
takes  ]^Ace.  The  complaint  called  favus  is  nearly  allied  to  it  in 
appearance,  since  it  consists  of  larger  perforations  resembling  the 
combs  of  bees,  containing  a  honey*like  fluid.  They  are  occasicmod 
by  a  nitrous  and  saltish  phlegm.  In  such  cases,  the  diet  should 
consist  of  wholesome  food ;  and  every  thing  that  is  acrid  and  saltish 
should  be  avoided,  more  particularly  if  the  attack  be  inflammatory. 
After  the  proper  evacuation  of  the  prevailing  humour,  having 
shaven  the  hairs,  foment  twice,  thrice,  or  oftener,  with  warm  water, 
in  which  has  been  boiled  myrtle,  or  bramble,  or  lentil,  or  bitter 
lupines,  ot  the  root  of  asparagus.    When  the  ichorous  discharge  is 


240  ^AULUB  JSOINSTA. 

greater,  9l^\j  a  cataplasm  of  the  leaves  of  willow,  with  water,  or 
of  lentil.  The  ointments  used  should  consist  of  Cimolian,  Cretan, 
or  Samian  earth,  or  pomphol3rx,  or  spodium,  or  litharge,  or  cad- 
mia,  or  humt  paper,  or  the  powder  from  pepper.  All  these  are 
to  be  applied  with  vinegar.  We  may  use  the  following  smegma : — 
Of  snlphur,  of  the  herb  perdicias,  and  soap,  of  each,  equal  parts. 
Tke  following  are  compound  applications  :— Of  litharge,  dr.  xvi. ; 
of  the  leaves  of  me,  dr.  viii. ;  of  the  stavesacre,  dr.  iv. ;  of  copperas, 
dr.  ii. ;  with  vinegar  and  myrtle  oil ;  make  to  the  consistence  of  bath 
sordes,  and  anoint  with  it.  Another :  — Of  sand3rx  (calcined  ceruse?) , 
dr.  iv. ;  of  myrrh,  dr.  iv. ;  of  native  sulphur,  dr.  ii.  ;  of  manna,  dr. 
iv. ;  rub  into  the  part  with  old  oil. 

For  Achorbs. — ^When  they  discharge  ichor,  triturate  the  dross 
of  silver,  or  yellow  ore  of  lead  (molyhdoBna) ,  and  sprinkle  upon  them. 
Another,  for  achores  and  humid  psora  :---Of  the  roses  of  the  rho- 
dodaphne,  oz.  iv. ;  of  native  sulphur,  oz.  iv. ;  of  liquid  pitch,  oz. 
iii. ;  of  dry  pitch,  oz.  iii. ;  of  wax,  oe.  vi. ;  of  myrtle  oil,  q.  s, 
FcH*  children,  dissolve  in  milk,  and  anoint. 

For  Fici. — We  give  the  name  of  fici  to  ulcerous  excrescences 
which  are  round,  somewhat  hard,  red,  and  accompanied  with  pain. 
They  arise  for  the  most  part  on  the  head,  but  iJso  sometimes  on 
the  other  parts  of  the  body.  The  best  application  for  this  com- 
pbunt,  consists  of  fissile  alum ;  of  the  calcined  flowers  of  copper  ; 
of  taurocolla,  of  each  equal  parts,  with  double  the  quantity  of  the 
flakes  of  copper ;  triturate  with  vinegar,  and  anoint.  A  proper 
application  is  also  prepared  from  the  burnt  heads  of  the  cackrel  fish, 
the  bulbi  boiled,  and  their  ashes  mixed  with  vinegar. 

A  DRT   APPLICATION    FOR   FlCOSB   ERUPTIONS    OF  THB  HbAD  AMD 

Chin. — Of  misy,  dr.  i.  ss. ;  of  chalcitis,  dr.  ii.  ss. ;  of  squama 
seris,  dr.  i. ;  of  fissile  alum,  dr.  i.  Having  washed,  apply  this  in 
a  dry  state  unsparingly,  and  allow  it  to  remain.  Next  day,  having 
again  washed,  wipe  the  part  with  a  sponge,  and  apply  it  again.  A 
thick  scab  will  then  fall  from  the  ulcer.  Repeat  the  same  applica- 
tion the  following  days.  The  cure  will  be  efiected  in  a  few  days 
without  leaving  a  cicatrix  ;  but  this  medicine  operates  strongly. 

For  Licb  in  thb  Hbad. — Direct  to  scrub  the  head  with  the  decoc- 
tion of  lupines ;  or  pound  together  stavesacre  and  sandarach,  and 
rub  them  in,  along  with  oil  or  vinegar ;  or  a  small  quantity  of 
pepper  may  be  added  to  old  oil,  so  as  not  to  occasion  ulceration ;  or 
the  juice  of  ivy  with  honey  may  be  used ;  or  mustard  and  vinegar; 
or  the  gum  vernix,  or  liquid  pitch  with  alum  ;  or  the  expressed  juice 
of  the  bay  berries  ;  or  oil  of  radishes.  I  have  always  succeeded  by 
pounding  stavesacre  with  vinegar  and  oil,  and  anointing  with 
this. 


l\.—On  Headach. 

Hbadach,  which  is  one  of  the  most  serious  complaints,  is  some- 
times occasioned  by  an  intemperament  solely  ;  sometimes  by  a  re ' 


BOOK  THIRD.  241 

dandance  of  humours,  and  sometimes  by  both  ;  and  sometimes  it  is 
occasioned  by  a  procatarctic  cause,  such  as  external  heat,  or  cold, 
or  drunkenness,  or  a  blow.  The  most  vehement  pains  of  the  head 
are  excited  by  the  active  qualities,  particularly  heat.  Those  occa- 
sioned by  dryness  are  not  equally  vehement ;  but  a  humid  quality 
excites  no  pain  of  itself,  unless  it  happen  to  be  joined  to  heat, 
cold,  or  a  fulness  of  humours.  Headachs  occurring  in  a  fever 
having  been  treated  of  in  the  Book  on  Fevers,  we  will  now  treat 
of  the  others.  * 

On  Hbadach  from  Heat. — When  headach  proceeds  from  ex- 
posure to  heat,  the  skin  feels  hotter  and  drier  than  natural  at  the 
first  application  of  the  hand,  and  the  eyes  of  such  persons  are  red. 
They  delight  in  cold  afflusions  and  ointments,  and  are  benefited  by 
them.     The  method  of  cure  will  correspond  with  that  described  as 
applicable  for  cases  of  headach  in  fevers.     When  the  pain  becomes 
chronic,  we  must  have  recourse  to  some  of  the  under-mentioned  ap- 
plications.    The  following  applications  to  the  forehead  and  temples 
vrill  also  be  proper,  namely,  bread  soaked  in  oxycrate  and  rose-oil, 
to  which  may  sometimes  be  joined  almonds ;  or  roses  either  dried  or 
fresh,  or  mixed  with  mint  and  penny-royal ;  or  bread  with  the  leaves 
of  the  peach  tree.     Benefit  may  also  be  derived  from  basil,  pounded 
^th  vinegar  and  rose-oil ;  or  from  ivy  berries  boiled  in  vinegar, 
and  pounded  with  rose-oil  ;  or  from  wheaten  flour  mixed  with  the 
yffKtiry  decoction  of  wild  thyme ;    or  from  cardamom  toasted  and 
triturated  in  vinegar  and  rose-oil ;  or  from  yeast  with  rose-oil ;  or 
from  dried  iris  with  vinegar.     These  applications  must  be  changed 
frequently ;  for,  if  allowed  to  remain  long,  they  have  no  effect. 

TitOCHISKS    FOR  HbADACH    OCCASIONED  BT  A  WaRM  InTEMPBRA- 

^SNT. — Of  safiron,  dr.  v. ;  of  copperas,  dr.  x. ;  of  alum,  dr.  xvi. ; 
of  myrrh,  dr.  vii. ;  of  the  oil  of  unripe  olives,  dr.  iii;  of  chalcitis, 
dr.  iii. ;  of  gum,  dr.  iii. ;  of  austere  wine,  q,  s.  Use  with  oxy- 
crate, and,  if  watchfulness  accompany  it,  add  some  soporific. 

On  Hbadachs  from  a  cold  Intbmpbrament. — In  cases  of  head- 
achs from  coldness,  the  symptoms  are  just  the  reverse  of  those  pro- 
ceeding from  heat ;  for  the  face  is  pale  and  not  contracted,  and  the 
patients  do  not  delight  in  cold  things,  nor  arc  benefited  by  them. 
The  diagnosis  will  also  be  confirmed,  by  adverting  to  their  di^ 
and  the  like.  The  ointments  applied  should  contain  rue,  or  the 
oil  of  bay,  or  of  iris,  or  of  nard,  or  the  juice  of  balsam,  more  par* 
ticularly  if  the  excrementitious  humours  be  thick  and  viscid.  This 
must  be  rubbed  into  the  forehead,  and  likewise  preparations  con- 
teioing  pepper  and  euphorbium.  We  must  also  give  attenuant 
%vines,  and  recommend  exercise,  hot  baths,  and  occasionally  an 
emetic  from  radishes.  When  the  exciting  cause  is  a  chronic 
quality  without  plethora,  we  may  use  the  following  application  :— 
Of  white  pepper,  dr.  ii. ;  of  croco-magma,  dr.  ii. ;  of  fresh  euphor- 
l)ium,  dr.  viii.  Ss. ;  of  pigeon's  dung,  dr.  i.  Ss. ;  of  the  strongest 
vinegar,  q,  9,  Having  first  rubbed  the  affected  part,  anoint  with 
this. 

On  Hbadachs  from  a  Bilious  Humour. — ^The  symptoms  re- 

r 


242  PAULUS  iEGINETA. 

semble  those  occasioned  by  heat,  only  there  are  more  gnawing  pains 
at  the  stomach,  paleness  of  the  countenance,  and  sometimes  a  bitter 
taste  in  the  mouth.  This  affection  occurs  most  frequently  in  adults 
who  are  of  a  hot  temperament,  lead  an  anxious  life,  and  are  subject  to 
collections  of  yellow  bile.  They  must  use  tepid  baths,  and  mild 
ointments,  with  a  watery  drink ;  and  their  whole  diet  should  be 
humid,  and  consist  of  good  juices.  The  bilious  humours  must  be 
evacuated  with  the  decoction  of  worm-wood,  or  with  aloes,  or  the 
antidote  called  hiera  picra,  either  alone,  or  in  combination  with  a 
little  scammony,  or  the  aloetic  pills.  The  forehead  is  to  be  rubbed 
with  the  saffron  trochisk,  that  called  Trigonos,  or  the  like. 

On  Hbadach  from  Sympathy. — If  the  head  be  affected  sympa- 
thetically with  the  general  system,  this  must  be  our  first  care,  by 
attending  to  the  intemperament  and  the  prevailing  humour.  If  it 
proceed  from  plethora,  more  especially  a  venous  one,  we  will  bleed ; 
but,  if  it  be  only  an  offending  quality,  we  must  use  a  purgative 
medicine.  If  the  head  sympathise  with  some  particular  part,  such 
as  the  liver,  belly,  or  stomach,  we  must  apply  remedies  to  these 
organs.  If  a  hot  intemperament  accompany,  we  give  bread  which 
has  been  steeped  in  a  watery  wine,  or  spoon-meats  from  chondrus. 
Moderately  cooling  and  tonic  applications  are  likewise  to  be  used  ex- 
ternally, as  formerly  described.  But,  if  the  headach  be  occasioned 
by  viscid  and  thick  humours  contained  in  the  stomach,  these  must 
be  dislodged  by  drinking  oxymel,  either  alone,  or  that  preparation 
called  the  Julian.  We  must  also  use  decoctions  of  hyssop  and  mar- 
joram, and  other  things  still  hotter  and  more  incisive,  and  likewise 
the  emetic  from  radishes,  hot  embrocations,  and  cataplasms. 

On  Hbadach  from  Wink. — If  the  wine  remain  undigested,  we 
must  procure  vomiting,  by  drinking  tepid  water ;  but,  if  the  head- 
ach remain  after  digestion,  we  must  use  cooling  and  repellent  ap- 
plications, such  as  rose-oil  alone  and  with  vinegar,  or  the  juice  of 
ivy,  or  of  cabbage.  And  the  leaves  of  cabbage  infused  in  warm 
water,  and  applied  to  and  bound  to  the  head,  naturaUy  coimteract 
intoxication.  They  must  also  eat  boiled  cabbage.  Dried  len^l  is 
also  beneficial,  particularly  to  those  who  have  a  loose  belly.  They 
ought  likewise  to  eat  alica,  pomegranates,  apples,  and  pears,  and 
drink  water. 

On  Hbadach  from  a  Blow. — ^We  must  immediately  bleed  those 
who  have  headach  from  a  blow  (unless  the  injury  be  superficial), 
and  use  suitable  embrocations  to  the  head ;  bathe  it  with  sweet  oil ; 
cover  it  with  wool ;  and  make  the  patients  abstain  from  wine  and 
a  rich  diet,  more  especially  if  they  have  fever ;  and,  upon  the  whole, 
we  are  to  accommodate  our  treatment  as  for  the  infiammation  of 
nervous  parts,  and  especially  of  the  membranes  of  the  brain.  If 
there  be  a  wound  it  must  be  treated  accordingly. 

An  Emollibnt  Application  for  Hbadach. — Of  wax,  dr.  vii.  j 
of  almond  oil,  oz.  iii. ;  of  turpentine,  dr.  viii. ;  of  scraped  verdigris, 
of  Cimolian  earth,  and  of  chalcitis,  of  each,  dr.  iv. ;  of 
stone,  dr.  iii. ;  of  burnt  copper  and  scales  of  steel  (squanue  siemo- 


BOOK   THIRD.  248 

math),  of  each,  dr.  ii. ;  and,  if  it  appear  to  be  too  hard,  soften  it 
with  almond  oil. 


V. — On  CephaUea  and  Hemicrania, 

Each  of  these  affections  is  a  permanent  pain  of  the  head,  liable 
to  be  increased  by  noises,  cries,  a  brilliant  light,  drinking  of  wine, 
and  strong-smelling  things  which  fill  the  head.     Some  feel  as  if 
the  whole  head  were  struck,  and  some  as  if  one-half,  in  which  case 
the  complaint  is  called  hemicrania.     When  the  affection  is  seated 
within  the  skull,  the  pain  extends  to  the  roots  of  the  eyes,  and 
when  externally  it  spreads  around  the  skull.  Pain,  then,  accompanied 
with  heaviness,  indicates  plethora ;  if  with  pungency,  acrimony  of  the 
humours  or  spirits ;  if  with  throbbing,  inflammatioti ;  if  with  tightness 
and  without  heaviness  and  throbbing,  a  fulness  of  a  thin  and  fla- 
tulent spirit  (gas?)  ;  but,  if  it  be  attended  with  throbbing,  it  is  in- 
dicative of  inflammation  of  a  membrane ;  if  with  heaviness,  of  a  ful- 
ness contained  within  the  membrane.     If  the  putrid  humour  acquire 
heat,  the  headach  will  be  attended  with  fever.     And,  ii)  general, 
those  in  whom  headach  proceeds  from  inflammation  have  fever. 
When,  therefore,  the  whole  body  is  in  a  plethoric  state,   we  must 
bleed  (attention  being  paid  to  the  strength),  and  use  the  more  acrid 
clysters.     Should  there  still  appear  to  be  a  fulness  of  blood,  we 
must  open  the  veins  of  the  nose,  and  endeavour  to  evacuate  there- 
by to  a  sufficient  amount.     We  must  then  give  hiera  sharpened 
with  vinegar,  and  use  masticatories,  or  medicines  for  evacuating 
the  phlegm  by  the  mouth ;  also  procure  evacuations  from  the  nose 
by  means  of  errhines,  such  as  the  juice  of  elaterium,  which  may  be 
poured  in  with  milk ;  or  the  elaterium  may  be  snuffed  up  dry,  or 
else  the  juice  of  sow-bread  or  of  leeks.     The  following  are  com- 
pound medicines : — 

An  Errhinb  for  Chronic  Headachs,  Ophthalmt,  and  Epi- 
X.EPST. — Of  gith  (mgeUa  sativa),  dr.  viij. ;  of  sal  ammoniac,  dr.  iv. ; 
of  elaterium,  dr.  iv« ;  pound  and  mix  with  Sicyonian  oil,  or  that  of 
iris,  or  of  privet,  so  as  to  have  the  thickness  of  cerate,  and  apply  to 
the  nostrils. 

An  Errhine  to  be  Snuffed  up. — Of  dried  sow-bread,  dr.  viij. ; 
of  red  nitre,  dr.  iv. ;  or,  if  instead  of  the  nitre,  you  will  use  ela- 
terium, it  wiU  be  still  better.  Snuff  it  up  through  a  reed.  In  more 
chronic  cases,  use  epithemes  to  the  head  and  unguents,  as  the  fol- 
lowing : — 

An  Epithemb  for  Cbphaljea. — Of  the  ointment  of  iris,  of  hogs- 
femael  and  castor,  of  each,  dr.  i. ;  of  bay-berries,  dr.  ii. ;  of  the  tops 
of  rue,  dr.  iv. ;  mix  with  rose-cerate,  and,  having  shaven  the  head, 
apply  to  the  whole  of  it.  A  certain  woman,  by  using  the  following 
application  in  cases  of  hemicrania,  acquired  wonderful  celebrity : — 
Having  cut  down  the  green  root  of  the  wild  cucumber  into  small 
pieces,  she  boiled  it  and  worm- wood  in  oil  and  water  until  they 
were  softened ;  and,  with  the  warm  oil  and  water  she  fomented 

r2 


244  PAULUS  ^GINETA. 

moderately  the  affected  part ;  and,  pounding  the  root  and  the  worm- 
wood, she  made  a  cataplasm  of  them.  And  with  this  application 
she  cured  cases  of  hemicrania,  both  with  fever  and  without.  When 
a  strong  paroxysm  takes  place,  so  that  the  pain  is  insupportable, 
use  paregoric  and  alterativie  applications  like  the  following  : — 

An  Unguent  for  Cephaljba. — Of  the  juice  of  hog*s-fennel,  dr. 
xvi. ;  of  the  juice  of  poppy,  of  anise,  of  henbane,  of  sa^on,  of 
myrrh,  of  scammony,  of  each,  dr.  ii.  Add  to  vinegar  and  make 
trochisks.  When  using  it,  anoint  those  who  have  pain  of  the  head 
from  thick  humours  or  a  flatulent  spirit  with  it,  along  with  vinegar 
or  oxycrate.  We  must,  likewise,  use  a  dropax  and  sinapism,  and 
the  trochisk  from  thapsia.  That,  too,  from  writing  ink  is  much  ap- 
proved of  for  the  same  cause,  and  is  to  be  used,  as  will  be  described 
in  the  Book  on  Compound  Medicines. 

The  following  one  is  possessed  of  wonderful  efficacy  for  hemi- 
crania proceeding  from  a  thick  and  viscid  humour : — Of  euphor* 
bium,  one  part ;  of  castor,  an  equal  quantity ;  and,  mixing  with 
water,  insert  into  the  ear  of  the  affected  side,  and  order  the  patient 
to  go  into  a  bath,  and,  when  he  has  remained  a  short  time,  take  it 
out,  and  bathe  as  usual.  Thus  it  is  of  tried  efficacy.  It  will  not  be 
improper  also  to  add  them  to  oil,  and  inject  into  the  ear.  The  ap- 
plication described  for  ischiatics  is  likewise  a  successful  remedy  for 
chronic  headach  and  hemicrania. 

For  Chronic  Hemicrania. — Of  garlic,  dr.  iv. ;  of  wax,  dr.  ii. ; 
of  old  axunge,  dr.  ii. ;  of  cantharides,  dr.  ii.  Apply  this  in  the 
evening,  and,  having  allowed  it  to  remain  all  night,  break  the  blis- 
ter in  the  morning,  and  cure  with  the  plaster  called  Panygms. 
Another  : — Of  bay-berries  stripped  of  their  skins,  dr.  ii. ;  of  the 
leaves  of  rue,  dr.  ii. ;  of  mustard,  dr.  i. ;  moisten  with  water,  and 
apply.  It  is  most  beneficial  to  those  whose  complaints  arise  from 
cold  causes,  so  that  frequently,  when  applied  before  going  into  the 
bath,  it  immediately  cures  the  affection,  and  after  the  bath  they 
become  perfectly  well.  Another: — Of  Sabine  oil,  lb.  i. ;  of  wax, 
oz.  iii. ;  of  euphorbium,  oz.  i. ;  with  this  anoint  the  half  of  the 
forehead,  namely  along  the  temporal  muscle.  If  the  cold  is  not 
great,  pound  galls  and  crocomagma  in  equal  quantity  with  wine, 
and  anoint.  In  cases  from  hot  fumes  or  humours,  do  not  use  the 
applications  with  euphorbium. 

An  Apophlegmetism,  or  Masticatory,  for  Cbphaljba  and 
Hemicrania. — Of  mustard  pulverised  and  dissolved  in  vinegar  and 
honey,  oz.  xiv. ;  of  stavesacre,  dr.  iv. ;  of  pellitory,  dr.  iv. ;  having 
pounded,  strained,  and  mixed  in  the  sun,  gargle  with  it.  When 
the  cephalsea  becomes  permanent,  owing  to  a  bilious  humour  or 
some  intemperament,  use  the  remedies  formerly  described  for  head- 
ach. If  after  all  this  the  pain  continue,  even  after  cupping  and 
leeching,  and  there  is  reason  to  suspect  that  the  distribution  by  the 
arteries  is  affected,  it  will  not  be  improper  to  open  the  arteries  be- 
hind the  ears.  In  those  of  a  humid  intemperament,  the  natural 
baths  may  be  tried  with  good  effect.     Another  for  hemicrania : — 


BOOK  THIRD.  245 

Mix  euphorbium  and  earth-worms  with  vinegai^  and  anoint  the  af* 
fected  part,  or  the  whole  forehead. 


«  VI. — On  Phrenitis, 

Phrbnitis  is  an  inflammation  of  the  membranes,  the  brain  also 
being  sometimes  inflamed  along  with  them,  and  sometimes  a  preter- 
natural heat  fixes  originally  in  the  brain  itself.     The  cause  of  this 
disorder  is  either  a  fulness  of  blood,  or  of  a  yellow  bilious  humour ; 
and  sometimes  the  yellow  bile,  being  excessively  heated  and  con- 
verted into  the  black,  becomes  the  cause  of  the  worst  species  of 
phrenitis.     And  sometimes  the  affection  arises  from  the  brain  sym- 
pathizing with  the  diaphragm  by  means  of  the  nerves  distributed 
upon  it.     But  the  aberration  of  intellect  which  occurs  at  the  acm^ 
of  very  hot  fevers,  and  that  which  is  occasioned  by  sympathy  with 
the  stomach,  is  not  called  phrensy  but  delirium.      Cases  of  true 
phrenitis  are,  for  the  most  part,  attended  with  watchfulness,  bat 
sometimes  with  disturbed  sleep,  so  that  the  patients  start,  leap  up, 
and  cry  out  furiously ;  when  the  complaint  is  occasiomed  by  a  san- 
guineous humour,  with  laughter ;  but  when  by  yellow  bile,  with 
ferocity ;  and  when  by    a    black,    with  unrestrainable    madness. 
They  forget  what  is  said  and  done  by  them,  their  eyes  are  blood- 
shot, and  they  rub  them ;  they  are  sometimes  squalid,  sometimes 
filled  with  tears,  or  loaded  with  rheums.      The  tongue  is  rough, 
there  is  a  trickling  of  blood  from  the  nose,  they  pick  at  flocks  of 
Wool  and  gather  chafl^,  and  have  acute  fever  during  the  whole  con- 
tinuance of  the  disorder.    When  a  fever  of  a  bad  character  is  seated 
deeply,  they  have  the  pulse  small  and  indistinct,  with  a  certain  de- 
^ee  of  hardness.   The  respiration  is  large  and  rare  when  the  brain 
is  primarily  aflfected.     And,  if  the  phrenitis  be  occasioned  by  sym- 
pathy with  the  diaphragm,  the  respiration  is  irregular,  the  hypo- 
chondria  are  retracted  and  hot ;  but,  when  it  arises  from  sympathy 
with  the  brain  itself,  the  parts  about  the  face  are  hot  and  suffused 
"^vith  blqod,  and  the  veins  are  full.     When  a  pituitous  humour  is 
rnixed  with  the  bilious,  as  the  cause  of  the  disease  is  compound,  so 
a.l80  is  its  appellation  ;  for  it  is  called  Coma  vigil.     When  a  bilious 
Ixnmour  prevails,  persons  so  affected  are  troubled  with  watchfulness; 
^nd,  when  a  pituitous  is  the  cause,  they  lie  in  a  state  of  Coma.     Be- 
fore Galen,  this  disease  was  called  catochus,  but  since  then  it  has 
en  called  catoche  and  catalepsy. 

Thb  Curb  of  Phrenitis. — If  the  strength  admit  of  blood-let* 
ng,  we  are  to    abstract   blood  from  the  arm  immediately  and 
^ireely ;  but,  if  the  patient  be  delirious  and  will  not  present  his  arm, 
^^x  if  there  be  apprehension  of  hemorrhage  after  the  bleeding  from 
'tlie  patient  tearing  his  arm  during  the  agitation  of  his  delirium,  we 
^^nust  open  the  straight  vein  in  the  forehead,  and  take  away  at  once 
^  sufficient  quantity  of  blood.     We  are  to  use  clysters  and  injec- 
tions of  oil,  or  rose-oil  with  the  juice  of  ptisan.     When  watchful- 
ness prevails,  we  anoint  the  head  with  rose-oil,  or  with  vinegar  and 


246  PAULUS  yEGlNETA. 

rose-oil ;  iii  some  cases  fomenting  it  with  hot  water ;  and  we  must 
give  the  medicine  from  the  heads  of  poppy,  unless  prevented  by  the 
weakness  of  the  patient's  powers ;  and  must  have  recourse  to  the 
other  remedies  for  insomnolency  formerly  mentioned.  Let  the  pa- 
tient be  laid  in  a  place  which  is  in  a  moderate  state  as  to  light  and 
temperature,  and  let  there  be  no  paintings  in  it,  for  these  are  apt 
to  excite  emotions  in  such  casres.  J^et  some  of  his  most  beloved 
friends  come  in  and  converse  with  him  in  a  suitable  manner,  some- 
times gently  soothing  him,  and  at  other  times  chiding  him  more 
harshly.  His  food  at  first  should  consist  of  honied  water,  and  ^ter- 
wards  of  the  juice  of  ptisan,  or  spoon-meats  formed  from  chondras, 
with  some  sweet  potion,  such  as  apomel,  or  hydroroeatum,  or  rho- 
domel,  or  the  sweet  hydromel.  But  the  vinous  hydromel  which  is 
brought  from  Cebyra  in  small  vessels  must  be  rejected,  as  it  pro- 
duces more  mischief  than  wine  itself,  especially  in  afiections  of  the 
head  and  before  concoction.  We  are  also  to  administer  bread  that 
has  been  soaked  in  water,  and  succory,  and  boiled  lettuces.  Or,  if 
there  be  much  effervescence,  they  may  be  given  raw,  and  also  the 
medullary  part  of  the  cucumber,  of  the  pompion,  of  apricots,  and 
the  like.  They  must  abstain  from  cold  water,  more  especially  if 
the  afiection  be  found  to  proceed  from  sympathy  with  the  dia- 
phragm. If  their  urine  (as  is  likely)  be  retained,  owing  to  their 
delirium,  we  must  foment  the  lower  part  of  the  belly  and  bladder 
with  warm  oil  and  water,  and  then,  by  applying  the  fingers  of  the 
hand  to  the  part,  we  must  try  to  incite  him  to  make  water.  We 
must  also  anoint  the  rest  of  the  body  with  warm  oil ;  and  the  pa- 
tients are  to  be  kept  in  a  recumbent  postm'e,  for  a  state  of  quie- 
tude is  to  be  maintained  as  much  as  possible ;  and,  if  they  be  rich, 
they  are  to  be  restrained  by  their  servants ;  but,  if  not,  they  are  to 
be  bound  with  ligatures.  For  irregular  motion  is  apt  to  produce 
prostration  of  the  strength.  And  for  another  reason,  too,  the  feel 
ought  to  be  bound  with  ligatures  after  having  been  bathed,  and 
friction  applied  to  them,  namely,  for  the  sake  of  revulsion.  But.  if 
the  attack  be  more  protracted  and  difficult  to  remove,  we  must  ab- 
stain from  all  narcotics ;  and  to  the  fomentations  of  the  head  are  to 
be  added  things  of  a  discutient  nature,  such  as  the  juice  of  mint,  or 
of  wild  thyme,  or  of  calamint,  or  of  rue ;  and  then  we  must  use : 
errhines.  After  the  seventh  day,  if  the  viscera  be  inflamed,  we 
to  soothe  them  by  cataplasms  of  linseed  and  raw  barley-flour  ii 
oil  and  water.  We  are  then  to  apply  dry  cupping  or  cupping  witfac^ 
scarifications  to  the  parts,  and  to  the  back-part  of  the  head  and  th^^ 
spine.  But,  if  the  body  be  observed  to  be  very  squalid  and  hot  cJ 
even  if  the  fever  remain,  we  must  use  baths  of  fresh  water,  ai 
plentiful  anointing,  and  give  some  thin  and  weak  wine,  in  order 
rouse  the  strength  ;  for  we  need  not  apprehend  any  mental  alieni 
tion  that  will  thereby  be  produced.  For,  either  it  will  not 
place  at  all,  as  the  disease  is  on  the  decline,  or,  if  it  do,  it  may 
easily  removed.  When  the  disease  further  abates,  we  must  bai 
recourse  to  gestation  and  suitable  restoratives.     Recovery  may 


BOOK   THIRD.  24/ 

promoted  by  avoiding  intoxication,  anger,  indigestion  of  the  food, 
and  more  especially  exposm'e  to  the  heat  of  the  sun. 


VIL — On  Phlegmon  of  the  Brain. 

Whbn  the  brain  is  inflamed,  it  is  often  so  swelled  that  the  su* 
tares  of  the  skull  are  separated.  The  pain  is  very  strong  and  per- 
manent ;  there  is  much  anxiety,  and  much  redness  of  the  counte- 
nance, with  swelling ;  the  eyes  protrude,  and  the  head  swells.  We 
must  let  blood  from  the  arm,  and  also  detract  by  the  nose,  and  from 
the  vessels  below  the  tongue.  We  are  also  to  use  the  fomentations 
suitable  for  inflammations  of  the  head,  and  cataplasms  of  a  moist- 
ening and  concocting  nature. 


VIII. — On  Erysipelas  of  the  Brain, 

Ebtbipblas  occurs  also  in  the  brain,  and  the  patient  suffers  in 
the  following  manner: — He  has  pain  of  the  whole  head,  and  feels 
as  if  there  were  fire  in  it ;  his  face  is  cold  and  pale,  and  his  mouth 
dry.  Wherefore,  bleed  such  a  patient,  and  more  particularly  ab- 
stract blood  from  the  veins  under  the  tongue,  and  apply  cooling 
things,  such  as  we  use  in  other  kinds  of  erysipelas. 


IX. — On  Lethargy. 

Lbthargt,  which  is  a  lesion  of  the  rational  part,  has  the  same 
^eat  as  phrensy,  I  mean  the  brain,  but  the  matter  which  causes  it  is 
of  an  opposite  nature ;  for  it  is  occasioned  by  a  humid  and  cold  phlegm 
irrigating  the  brain.  It  is  attended  with  an  obscure  fever,  which 
is  not  very  pungent,  and  with  somnolency.  The  pulse  is  large, 
rare,  and  imdulatory ;  the  respiration  is  very  rare  and  weak.  Le- 
thargies are  altogether  disposed  to  sleep ;  are  roused  with  difficulty ; 
can  scarcely  be  made  to  answer  questions ;  are  forgetful  and  deli- 
rious ;  they  yawn  frequently,  and  remain  sometimes  with  their  jaws 
distended,  as  forgetting  to  shut  their  mouths ;  their  evacuations  by 
the  belly  are  generally  watery,  but  sometimes  on  the  contrary  the 
^Uy  is  dry ;  their  urine  is  like  that  of  cattle.  Some  have  trem  • 
Idlings  and  sweatings.  Garus  being  occasioned  by  the  same  matter 
«us  lethargy  differs  &om  it  in  this,  that  fever  precedes  cams,  and  is 
more  violent,  whereas  it  is  subsequent  in  lethargy;  and  in  this 
respect  also,  that  cams  often  supervenes  upon  other  complaints,  for 
it  often  follows  paroxysms  of  fevers,  epilepsy,  and  compression 
of  the  brain,  as  from  the  bone  in  fractures,  or  from  the  meningo- 
phylaX  pressing  upon  the  anterior  ventricle  of  the  brain  ;  whereas 
lethargy  has  a  certain  peculiar  formation. 

Thb  Curb  of  Lbtharoy. — When  the  strength  permits,  we  must 
open  a  vein  ;  but,  when  it  does  not,  we  must  use  acrid  clysters.    We 


248  PAUl^US  ilCGlNETA. 

must  also  lay  the  patient  in  an  apartment  of  large  »ize,  and  having 
a  moderate  degree  of  light,  and  apply  to  the  head  an  embrocation 
of  oil  to  which  castor  has  been  added.  Some  instead  of  the  oil 
use  vinegar  and  rose- oil  with  the  castor,  by  which  they  strengthen 
and  warm  the  head  at  the  same  time.  And,  having  anointed  the 
rest  of  the  body,  particularly  the  extremities,  with  old  oil,  they  sti- 
mulate them  with  calcined  nitre,  pellitory,  pepper,  or  the  granum 
cnidium.  It  is  also  possible,  by  making  them  into  a  cerate  with 
castor,  to  use  them  in  this  way.  We  must  likewise  apply  strong- 
scented  things,  triturating  thyme,  maijoram,  and  penny-royal,  with 
vinegar.  We  may  smear  the  mouth  and  palate  with  mustard 
I>ooHded  in  a  small  quantity  of  honey,  and  we  may  even  remove 
with  the  lingers  the  phlegm  which  adheres  to  it.  And,  rf  they  will 
admit  it,  it  is  proper  to  use  a  masticatory  consisting  of  oxymel  with 
hyssop,  penny-royal,  maijoram,  or  mustard  itself.  We  may  give 
also  in  their  drink  things  of  a  diffusible  nature,  more  particularly 
the  Diospolites,  to  the  amount  of  a  spoonful,  with  oxycrate.  When 
there  is  chronic  trembling,  we  must  give  two  or  three  scruples  of 
castor ;  or,  if  there  be  a  redundance  of  humours,  and  there  be  no- 
thing to  contra-indicate  the  use  of  it,  we  may  add  a  scruple  of 
scammony  to  the  castor.  When  the  disease  is  protracted,  the  head 
must  be  shaven  and  fomented  with  salt,  millet,  and  the  like,  in 
small  bags ;  and  sinapisms  are  to  be  applied  to  the  whole  head,  and 
medicines  used  to  excite  sneezing.  Afterwards  we  may  apply  dry 
cupping,  with  much  heat,  or  cupping  with  scarifications,  to  the  back 
part  of  the  head.  It  will  be  necessary  to  attend  to  the  natural  eva- 
cuations by  means  of  clysters  and  diuretics.  Apply  to  the  lower 
part  of  the  belly  an  embrocation  with  oil  of  rue,  or  Sicyonian  oil 
with  some  castor.  We  must  also  attend  particularly  to  the  deglu- 
tition, injecting,  by  means  of  a  vessel  with  a  narrow  mouth,  warm 
water,  to  which  has  been  added  some  sweet  potion,  more  especially 
apomel.  And,  if  there  be  inflammation  in  the  intermediate  parts, 
we  must  cure  it  with  embrocations  and  cataplasms.  To  the  nose  is 
to  be  applied  mustard  triturated  with  vinegar,  or  burnt  castor. 
Their  food  should  consist  of  ptisan,  or  the  decoction  of  uats,  or  that 
of  alica,  with  oxymel,  salt,  or  penny-royal,  sometimes  giving  of  it 
every  day,  and  sometimes  only  every  alternate  day.  After  food, 
ligatures  are  to  be  applied  to  the  extremities,  which  may  also  be 
bent  back  ;  and  the  limbs  are  to  be  pinched,  and  sometimes  we  may 
even  tear  the  hair  violently  in  order  to  rouse  them.  Rubefacients 
to  the  thighs  and  legs  are  also  proper.  When  the  affection  is  in 
the  decline,  we  may  enjoin  proper  gestation,  direct  the  bath  to  be 
taken,  and  a  restorative  diet  to  be  used. 


X. — On  CatochuSy  or  Coma  Vigil. 

Wk  have  already  in  treating  of  phrenitis  mentioned  the  forma- 
tion of  this  disease,  the  symptoms  whereof  in  general  are  the  sams 
as  those  of  phrenitis  and  lethargy,  being  modified  according  to  th- 


BOOK   THIRD.  249 

prevailing  matter.  The  peculiar  symptoms  are  these  : — Tlie  patieutt 
remain  fixedly  stretched  in  a  sapinc  posture,  having  sometimes 
their  countenance  somewhat  swelled  and  livid  like  those  in  lethargy, 
and  sometimes  with  a  florid  redness  in  it;  the  upper  eyelid  seems 
drawn  upwards  and  projecting  so  that  they  cannot  wink.  They 
seem  also  not  to  hreathe,  but  to  be  as  dead.  The  pulse  is  small, 
indistinct,  and  very  dense.  The  discharges  from  the  bowels  and 
bladder  are  suppressed,  or  in  small  quantities.  When  the  attack  ia 
moderate,  they  drink  whatever  fluid  is  poured  into  the  mouth ;  bat 
those  who  are  overpowered  by  it  reject  the  same  by  the  nose. 
Those,  therefore,  in  whom  the  phlegm  prevails  over  the  bile,  we 
distinguish  from  those  affected  with  lethargy  by  this,  that  there  is 
no  swelling  present,  nor  is  the  colour  livid  like  lethargies,  except 
to  a  very  small  degree ;  and  that  they  perspire  moderately.  The 
cases  are  difficult  in  which  there  is  much  watchfulness,  the  urine  is 
suppressed,  the  difficulty  of  breathing  is  intense,  when  they  have 
sweats,  and  the  drink  regurgitates  by  the  nose.  If  it  be  a  woman 
that  is  affected,  the  complaint  may  be  distinguished  from  uterine 
suffocation,  by  the  circumstance  that  she  lies  in  a  natural  state,  is 
sensible  when  spoken  to,  can  be  roused,  but  sinks  again  into  a  state 
of  sopor.  Some  say  that  catochus  is  a  different  complaint  from 
the  Coma  vigil,  for  that  it  has  not  a  compound,  but  a  simple  cause ; 
namely,  a  cold  and  dry  matter  which  obstructs  the  posterior  ventri- 
cles of  the  brain,  and  occasions  the  disease ;  in  which  case,  the 
patient  being  suddenly  seized  with  it,  remains  in  the  same  posture 
as  when  taken  with  it,  that  is  to  say,  standing  or  lying,  with  his 
eyes  open  or  shut.  The  ancients,  therefore,  called  such  patients 
catochi,  which  signifies  detained,  but  the  moderns  call  the  complaint 
catoche  and  catalepsy.  The  cure  resembles  that  which  is  described, 
but  is  to  be  varied  according  to  the  difference  of  the  symptoms. 

The  Curb  of  Catochus. — Wherefore  we  must  have  recourse  to 
venesection,  more  especially  when  the  face  is  ruddy,  and  the 
strength  does  not  prohibit ;  and  use  clysters  sometimes  stimulant, 
when  phlegm  prevails ;  and  sometimes  emollient,  when  bile  pre* 
vails.  In  like  manner  we  are  to  apply  other  remedies,  and  give 
food  sometimes  every  day,  and  sometimes  only  every  alternate  one. 
The  affection  is  very  dangerous  when  produced  by  an  error  of  the 
food  or  ^drink,  in  which  case  the  patient  is  to  be  made  to  vomit 
immediately,  and  kept  upon  a  restricted  diet ;  and  the  bowels  are 
to  be  stimulated,  and  an  embrocation  with  cumin  or  rue  applied  to 
the  belly.  They  who  have  been  seized  with  the  complaint  from  in- 
toxication, after  their  surfeit  has  passed  off,  must  be  cured  by  using 
a  more  liquid  diet,  such  as  the  juice  of  ptisan.  And  the  head  is  to 
be  smeared  with  suitable  ointments,  which,  if  in  summer,  may  be 
cold,  but  tepid,  if  in  winter.  If  the  surfeit  do  not  pass  off,  nor  the 
patient  recover  his  senses,  it  will  be  time  to  give  up  the  case  as 
helpless,  and  decamp  to  a  distance. 


250  l'AUL,US   ^OINETA. 

XL — On  the  Loss  of  Memory  and  of  Reason;  on  Cams  and 

Fatuity. 

The  loss  of  memory  sometimes  occurs  alone,  and  sometimes  along 
with  impairment  of  the  reason,  as  an  impairment  of  the  reason 
sometimes  happens  first  by  itself,  and  is  followed  by  that  of  the 
memory.  When  both  suffer,  the  affection  called  fatuity  is  formed. 
These  complaints  have  for  a  cause  the  exciting  intemperament ;  but, 
if  it  is  humid  only,  it  will  occasion  impairment  of  the  memory  and 
reason,  torpidity,  drowsiness,  long  and  deep  sleep ;  but,  if  compli- 
cated with  coldness,  it  will  produce  cams  and  lethargy.  In  like 
manner,  dryness  alone  brings  on  watchfulness,  but  when  joined 
.with  heat,  delirium  and  phrensy.  These  intemperaments  may  be 
seated  in  the  fluids,  in  the  cavities  of  the  brain,  or  in  its  vessels ;  in 
the  chyle  diffused  over  the  system,  or  in  the  substance  of  the  brain  ; 
or  else  the  temporal  muscles  may  be  affected.  If  the  humours  are 
mixed  together,  they  will  produce  this  affection.  Whether  the 
exciting  intemperament  be  simple  or  compound^  may  be  learned 
frofn  the  appearance  of  the  excretions.  That  the  loss  of  memory 
and  of  reason  springs  from  cold  we  readily  ascertain ;  but  whether 
it  be  accompanied  with  humidity  or  dryness,  we  judge  of  from  the 
discharges,  the  habit  and  temperament  of  the  patient,  his  mode  of 
life,  the  season,  and  the  country. 

Thb  Curb. — If  the  intemperament  be  cold,  we  must  warm,  but  if 
accompanied  with  humidity,  we  must  also  dry ;  but  if  with  dryness, 
we  must,  at  the  same  time,  moisten  and  warm.  In  like  mcmner, 
when  the  intemperament  is  warm,  we  must  cool ;  but  if  dryness  also 
prevail,  we  most  likewise  moisten ;  or  if  humidity,  we  must  both 
cool  and  dry.  Where  we  find  a  sanguineous  humour  prevailing, 
we  must  bleed,  or  use  acrid  clysters,  then  give  hiera,  and  use  mas- 
ticatories ;  anoint  the  head,  by  mixing  with  oil  things  of  a  cooling 
and  dessicative  nature,  I  mean  roses,  myrtles,  lentisk,  and  the  like ; 
and  we  must  attend  to  the  general  system.  But,  if  it  proceed  from 
an  over- heat  and  fatigue,  we  must  apply  to  the  head  the  embroca- 
tion of  vinegar  and  rose- oil ;  and  otherwise  use  a  cooling  and  moist- 
ening regimen,  in  all  respects,  and  with  regard  to  food  and  drink. 
If  earns  supervene  upon  fatuity  or  oblivion,  it  also  is  to  be  attended 
to,  as  formerly  mentioned  under  the  head  of  lethargy,  where  we 
also  stated  the  discrimination  between  these  complaints. 


XII. — On  Vertigo. 

Vbrtioo  is  occasioned  by  a  cold  and  viscid  humour  seizing  upon 
the  brain,  whence  the  patients  are  ready  to  fall  down  from  a  very 
slight  cause,  such  as  sometimes  from  looking  at  any  external  object 
which  turns  round,  as  a  wheel  or  top,  or  when  they  themselves 
are  whirled  round,  or  when  their  head  has  been  heated,  by  which 
means  the  humours  or  spirit  in  it  are  set  in  motion.     And  some- 


BOOK   THIRD.  261 

times  it  is  occasioned  by  the  anterior  cavities  of  the  brain  being 
compressed  in  perforations  of  the  skull  for  fractures,  in  which  cases 
there  arc  violent  pains.  When  it  is  a  primary  affection  of  the  head, 
it  is  preceded  by  strong  pain  in  the  part,  by  cams,  and  noises  in  the 
ears ;  and  some  have  either  the  sense  of  smell  or  of  taste  impaired. 
But,  in  those  cases  which  arise  from  sympathy  with,  the  orifice  of 
the  stomach,  heartburn  accompanies  and  nausea  follows. 

Tub  Cure. — Those  affected  with  vertigo  are  to  be  roused  at  the  on- 
set, by  using  strong-scented  things  of  a  suitable  nature,  by  frictionf , 
and  such  like ;  and,  during  the  remission,  for  the  recovery  of  the 
complaint,  they  ought  first  to  be  bled,  and  then  purged  with  hienu 
And,  after  an  interval,  we  must  use  an  acrid  clyster  of  centaury »  or 
the  decoction  of  colocynth.  After  these  evacuations,  we  are  to  ap- 
ply to  the  back  part  of  the  head  cupping- instruments  with  scarifica- 
tions, and  afterwards  use  masticatories  and  sternutatories.  When 
there  is  heat  in  the  head  and  noises  in  the  ears,  inasmuch  as  they 
are  occasioned  by  hot  vapours  diffused  in  the  arteries,  we  must  have 
recourse  to  anteribtomy  behind  the  ears,  as  will  be  described  when 
treating  of  surgical  matters. 


XIII. — On  Epilepsy. 

Epilepsy,  being  a  convulsion  of  the  whole  body  with  impairment 
of  the  primary  energies,  has  its  cause  seated  sometimes  in  the  brain 
itself,  and  sometimes  in  its  cavities.  This  is  sometimes  a  pituitous 
and  sometimes  a  melancholic  humour.  The  disease  also  sometimes 
arises  from  sympathy  with  the  orifice  of  the  stomach  (as  happens  in 
colic  affections,  as  will  be  stated  when  treating  of  them)  ;  and  some- 
times it  is  propagated  from  other  parts,  when  a  cold  aura  ascends 
to  the  brain,  either  from  the  leg  or  the  fingers  of  the  hand.  It  has 
also  been  seen  to  proceed  from  the  uterus  in  females,  at  the 
time  they  were  pregnant,  for,  after  delivery,  it  ceased.  This  dis- 
order attacks  mostly  the  young,  more  especially  infants,  and  after 
them,  boys  and  adults ;  but,  least  of  all,  elderly  persons  and  the 
old.  Its  precursors  are,  an  involuntary  commotion,  both  of  mind 
and  body,  despondency,  oblivion  of  accustomed  things,  terrifying 
vision^  in  dreams,  headach,  continued  fulness  of  the  head  (especially 
from  acute  anger),  paleness  of  countenance,  and  an  irregular  motion 
of  the  tongue,  so  ihsX  some  even  bite  it.  When  it  proceeds  A*om 
the  stomach,  palpitation  thereof  goes  before,  with  disorder  and 
aching  pain ;  and,  when  fasting,  or  during  a  delayed  meal,  they  fall 
into  a  paroxysm.  When  the  attack  comes  on  they  suddenly  6adl 
down,  are  convulsed,  and  sometimes  utter  inarticulate  cries.  The 
characteristic  mark  of  these  cases  is  foaming  at  the  mouth,  all  the 
other  symptoms  being  common  to  other  diseases.  In  certain  in- 
stances the  lurine  and  faeces  are  evacuated  involuntarily,  and  in 
some  the  semen  also.  In  some  cases,  when  the  disease  is  very  acute, 
it  proves  fatal  speedily,  by  the  continuance  of  the  paroxysms,  or  the 
violence  of  the  attack ;  but  it  is  most  frequently  protracted,  so  that. 


252  PAL'LUS   iJfiGINETA. 

if  it  be  not  removed  by  tbe  attainment  of  manhood,  by  purging,  or 
pregnancy,  or,  if  it  invade  after  this  period  of  life,  it  for  the  most 
part  does  not  leave  a  man  until  death,  unless  removed  by  a  suitable 
cure.  The  following  substances  are  used  to  prove  epilepsy,  name- 
ly, tbe  fumes  of  bitumen,  or  gagate-stone,  or  goats'  horn,  or  the 
liver  of  a  buck-goat  when  eaten,  or  the  smell  of  the  roasted  liver. 

The  Curb. — ^When  the  patient  is  an  infant,  we  need  not  be  par- 
ticularly solicitous  about  it ;  for,  when  its  age  changes  to  a  more 
bilious  and  drier  constitution,  and  the  diet  is  more  prudently  regu- 
lated, the  affection  will  go  off  spontaneously.  But  we  must  attend 
to  the  diet  not  only  of  the  infants,  but  likewise  of  their  wet-nurses. 
After  boyhood,  those  that  fall  into  the  disease  ought  to  have  the 
convulsed  and  distorted  parts  freely  anointed,  ligatures  applied  to 
them,  when  they  are  to  be  stretched  out ;  and  then  the  mouth  is  to 
be  opened,  and  one  must  introduce  a  finger  or  a  feather,  smeared 
with  oil  of  iris,  in  order  to  bring  away  the  phlegm.  We  must  also 
rouse  the  senses  by  strong-smelling  things,  such  as  hogs-fennel, 
Cyrenaic  juice,  bitumen,  and  the  pitch  of  cedar.  But  after  the 
paroxysms,  if  nothing  prevent,  we  must  bleed  from  the  arm ;  and, 
when  the  paroxysm  does  not  abate,  we  must  apply  a  sinapism  to 
tbe  extremities,  and  a  cupping-instrument  to  the  hypochondria. 
When  after  these  things,  no  remission  takes  place,  there  can  be  but 
little  hope,  and  yet  the  physician  ought  boldly  to  force  castor  into 
the  mouth,  and  Cyrenaic  juice,  with  honey  and  vinegar ;  and  the 
decoction  of  centaury,  or  of  colocynth,  must  be  injected  by  the 
anus.  Those  that  are  recovering  from  an  epileptic  attack  are  to 
be  evacuated  after  recovery  by  purging  with  hiera.  This  is  the 
cure  of  a  recent  and  acute  attack  of  epilepsy.  We  will  next  de- 
liver the  treatment  of  the  disease  when  it  is  in  a  chronic  state. 
Wherefore  the  patients  are  to  be  made  to  persevere  for  a  long 
time  in  drinking  cold  water ;  and,  when  setting  about  the  cure,  it 
will  be  proper  to  bleed  if  nothing  prevent ;  and  after  an  interval  of 
four  or  five  days  to  recruit  the  body,  and  thus  evacuate  with  a  pur- 
gative, more  especially  black  hellebore,  colocynth,  or  scammony.  The 
hellebore,  without  its  medullary  part,  is  to  be  pounded  and  strained, 
and  sprinkled  on  five  or  six  cyathi  of  honied  water,  or  it  may  be  taken 
in  boiled  honey  with  some  pepper.  Rejecting  the  seeds  of  the 
colocynth,  fill  it,  still  retaining  the  medullary  part,  with  must,  and 
allow  to  remain  for  a  whole  night ;  in  the  morning  dilute  the 
must,  and  give  to  drink.  Or  we  may  use  the  cathartic  from  white 
hellebore.  It  is  this  : — Of  cleansed  bay  berries,  dr.  viii.;  of  white 
pepper,  dr.  viii. ;  of  alypias,  dr.  viii. ;  of  euphorbium,  dr.  viii. ;  of 
white  hellebore,  dr.  viii.  Give  these  things  at  one  dose,  with  the 
must  in  the  colocjnith,  and  it  will  evacuate  properly  by  vomiting. 
After  proper  purgation  let  them  be  put  into  the  bath,  and  on  the 
third  day  cup  the  hypochondria  and  back  with  scarifications ;  and 
then,  stopping  for  a  sufficient  number  of  days,  and  recruiting  the 
body,  give  the  hiera  from  colocynth ;  and  afterwards  apply  the  cup- 
ping-instrument to  the  head  and  nape  of  the  neck,  and  the  day  f(^- 
lowing  a  cataplasm  consisting  of  bread  boiled  in  honied  water, 


BOOK    THIRD.  263 

and  pounded  with  bitter  almonds,  wild  thyme,  mint,  calamint,  or 
rue.  This  must  be  done  for  three  days.  Afterwards  the  head  is 
to  be  shaven  and  rubbed  with  the  juice  of  hogs-fennel  dissolved  in 
vinegar  wherein  cow  parsnip  has  been  boiled ;  then,  after  stop- 
ping and  recruiting  the  body,  nine  oboli  of  the  antidote  from  colo- 
cynth  is  to  be  given  in  honied  water ;  and,  again,  after  an  iqterval 
of  some  days,  the  antidote  is  to  be  repeated,  and  sternutatories  used. 
After  five  or  six  days  give  castor  in  honied  water ;  then  stopping 
again  administer  a  clyster  of  centaury  and  colocynth ;  and  after- 
wards give  the  hiera  again,  and  use  masticatories  and  errhines  in 
order,  and  apply  a  sinapism  to  the  head.  Acrid  food  must  be 
seasonably  given.  Benefit  may  be  obtained  from  oxymel  of  squills 
drunk  every  day,  and  honey  in  which  the  squill  has  been  softened, 
to  the  amount  of  a  spoonful.  The  diet  should  be  of  an  incisive  and 
attenuant  nature ;  and,  therefore,  cappers  may  be  frequently  taken 
with  pickle.  But  they  ought  to  abstain  from  flesh,  pulse,  and 
much  wine,  likewise  from  frequent  venery,  baths,  mustard,  and 
from  drinking  immediately  after  the  bath,  more  especially  of  un- 
diluted wine.  Let  them  have  recourse  to  gymnastic  exercises  and 
friction,  and  the  last  part  that  is  rubbed  should  be  the  head. 

On  thb  Cure  or  Epilepsy  from  the  Stomach. — Il^he  disord^ 
is  occasioned  by  the  stomach's  being  primarily  afiecteff/Xhe  patient 
inust  attend  to  his  digestion,  taking  about  the  third  hour  some 
carefully-baked  bread  that  has  been  soaked  in  some  diluted  wine, 
which  is  slightly  astringent,  and  of  a  white  colour.  Give  to  sueh 
persons  the  medicine  from  aloes  twice  or  thrice  every  year.  "  I  once 
knew  a  boy,"  says  Galen,  *'  who  was  never  seized  with  epilepsy 
after  he  carried  a  large  piece  of  fresh  pseony  appended  from  his  neck." 
Agaric  is  beneficial  to  epileptics,  also  hartwort,  the  fruit  and  root 
of  cow  parsnip,  and  the  round  birthwort  drunk  with  water.  Scari- 
fication  of  the  legs  frequently  repeated  is  also  of  great  use. 

On  Epilepsy  proceeding  from  some  of  the  Members. — ^When 
the  attack  is  threatened,  and  they  feel  a  sensation  in  the  part,  whe- 
ther the  hand  or  foot,  a  tight  ligature  ought  to  be  applied  above  it, 
and  the  cure  attempted  during  the  remissions,  by  applying  some 
caustic  substance  to  the  part,  such  as  the  garden  cresses  QepidiumJ, 
preparations  from  cantharides,  and  the  like.  The  Julian  oxymel  is 
also  of  great  use  to  epileptics,  by  expelling  the  oflending  matter 
horn,  the  part.  After  those  things  which  have  been  mentioned,  the 
theriac  and  natural  baths  have  place.  During  their  whole  life,  they 
must  particularly  guard  against  indigestion,  and  be  careful  not  to 
take  food  before  digestion  has  been  performed  ;  avoid  all  incrassat* 
ing  food,  too  long  abstinence  from  food,  all  vehement  venereal 
impulse,  much  wine,  and  drinking,  after  the  bath,  more  especially 
of  diluted  wine,  as  formerly  mentioned,  and  likewise  of  old  and 
thick  wines.  They  must  avoid,  also,  all  things  of  an  acrid  smell, 
and  such  as  fill  the  head ;  must  abstain  from  looking  down  stead- 
fastly from  a  high  situation,  from  remaining  long  in  the  bath,  and 
exposing  the  head  to  the  heat  of  the  sun. 


254  PAULU8  iEOINETA. 


XIV. — On  Melancholy,  Mania,  and  Demoniacs. 

Mblancholy  is  a  disorder  of  the  intellect  without  fever,  occa- 
sioned mostly  by  a  melancholic  humour  seizing  the  understanding ; 
sometimes  the  brain  being  primarily  affected,  and  sometimes  it  be- 
ing altered  by  sympathy  with  the  rest  of  the  body.     And  there  is 
a  third  species  called  the  flatulent  and  hypochondriac,  occasioned 
by  inflammation  of  the  parts  in  the  hypochondria  adjoining  to  the 
stomachy  by  which  sometimes  noxious  vapours  or  aurse  are  transmit- 
ted to  the  brain,  and  sometimes  part  of  the  substance  of  the  humour. 
The  common  symptoms  of  them  all  are,  fear,  despondency,  and 
misanthropy  ;  and  that  they  fancy  themselves  to  be,  some,  brute  ani- 
mals, and  imitate  their  cries;  and  others,  earthen-vessels,  and  are 
frightened  lest  they  be  broken.      Some  desire  death,  and  others 
are  afraid  of  dying ;  some  laugh  constantly,  and  others  weep ;  and 
some  believe  themselves  impelled  by  higher  powers,  and  foretell 
what  is  to  come,  as  if  under  divine  influence ;  and  these  are,  there- 
fore, properly  called  demoniacs,  or  possessed  persons.   The  peculiai^ 
symptoms  of  melancholy,  from  sympathy  with  the  general  system,* 
are   leanness,    darkness,   and  shagginess ;   the  whole   appearance  '^ 
melancholic,  either  by  nature,  or  acquired  by  anxiety,  want  of 
sleep,  the   administration  of   noxious  food,   or  stoppage   of  the 
hemorrhoidal,  or  menstrual  discharge.     Melancholy,  from  aflfection 
of  the  hypochondria,  is  indicated  by  indigestion,  acid  eructations, 
heat  and  heaviness  of  them,  retraction  of  the  hypochondria,  and 
sometimes  inflammation,  especially  in  the  beginning ;  and  then, 
when  they  increase,  melancholic  symptoms  supervene.     Thes»  are 
relieved  by  digestion,  or  copious  discharges,  or  flatus,  or  vomiting, 
or  eructations.     When  none  of  these  S3rmptom8,  or  very  few  of 
them,  are  present,  melancholic  symptoms  appearing  indicate  that 
the  brain  is  primarily  afl^cted,  and  for  the  most  part  from  a  melan- 
cholic humour.     When  the  complaint  is  occasioned  by  yellow  bile, 
which,  by  too  much  heat,   is  turned  black,  it  will  bring  on  the 
disease  called  mania,  which  occasions  ungovernable  madness,  so  that 
those  affected  with  it  will  destroy  persons  who  come  near  them  un- 
guardedly. 

Thb  Curb  op  Mblancholy. — ^Those  who  are  subject  to  mdan- 
choly  from  a  primary  affection  of  the  brain  are  to  be  treated  with 
frequent  baths,  and  a  wholesome  and  humid  diet,  together  with 
suitable  exhilaration  of  mind,  without  any  other  remedy,  unless  when, 
from   its  long  continuance,  the  offending  humour  is  difl&cult  to 
evacuate,  in  which  case  we  must  have  recourse  to  more  powerfuL 
and  complicated  plans  of  treatment.    These  cases  are  to  be  parge<E 
from  the  first  with  dodder  of  thyme  (epithymus),  or  aloes  ;  for,  if  an^ 
small  quantity  of  these  be  taken  every  day,  it  will  be  of  the  greatest 
service,  and  open  the  bowels  gently.     After  purging,  as  we  have 
mentioned,   give  worm-wood,  sometimes  macerating  and  boiling* 
the  herb  in  water  to  the  amount  of  two  cyathi,  and  sometimes 
diluting  the  juice  with  water,  to  the  amount  of  half  a  dram,  and 


f 


BOOK  THIRD.  2&5 

giving  it  frequently.     Let  them  drink  of  the  most  acrid  vinegar 
before  going  to  Bleep,  and  dip,  for  the  most  part,  their  condiments 
in  it  before  eating  them.     But  it  will  be  better  if  to  the  vinegar 
be  added  squills,  poley,  or  the  slender  birthwort.     When  you  meet 
in  with  an  incipient  case  of  the  complaint,  from  sympathy  with  the 
general  system  (as  described  above),  and  the  body  is  firm,  yoa 
must,  by  all  means,  begin  with  phlebotomy,  and  after  phlebotomy, 
when  the  strength  is  recruited,  purge  downwards,  with  the  wild 
cucumber,  and  the  composition  from  the  black  hellebore,  and  pro- 
mote the  hemorrhoidal  and  menstrual  discharges,  if  the  affection  be 
occasioned  by  retention  of  them.     Diuretic  remedies  are  likewise 
jiroper,  as  also  evacuations  by  perspiration.     But,  if  the  complaint 
arise  from  disorder  of  the  hypochondria,  we  must  attend  to  them, 
and  foment  them  with  a  decoction  of  rue,  dill,  wormwood,  penny- 
royal, the  seed  of  the  chaste-tree,  and  of  the  fruit  of  the  bay-tree ; 
for,  these  soothe  the  pain  and  diminish  flatulence.     Tliey  may  be 
boiled  in  oil  and  applied ;  and  the  cataplasms  of  them  ought  to  con- 
tain the  remedies  for  flatulence,  namely,  parsley,  or  anise,  or  cumin ; 
and  it  will  not  be  improper  to  add  cyperus,  iris,  and  frankincense,  to 
the  cataplasms.     These  things  are  to  be  allowed  to  remain  in  ge- 
neral, even  during  the  day,  and  whether  the  patient  eat  or  fast ;  and, 
^hen  taken  away,  apply  some  other  protection,  such  as  a  broad 
piece  of  wool.     Use  dry- cupping  for  flatulence,  and  cupping  with 
scarifications  for  pains  and  inflammations.     While  directing  your 
attention  to  the  cure,  you  must  not  forget  mustard,  and  apply  acrid 
•smegmata  and  calefacient  plasters  to  the  back  and  belly.    In  chronic 
cases,  the  most  powerful  remedy  is  evacuation,  by  vomiting  with 
Lellebore.      The  diet  for  all  melancholies  should  be   wholesome, 
and  moderately  moistening ;  abstaining  from  beef,  roe's  flesh,  dried 
lentil,  cabbages,  snails,  thick  and  dark-coloured  wines,  and,  in  a 
^word,  from  whatever  things  engender  black  bile. 

Ths  Curb  or  Mania. — Persons  affected  with  mania  are  to  be 
^treated  like  melancholies  ;  and,  in  particular,  we  must  apply  to  the 
^ead  rose-oil,  or  rose- oil  with  vinegar,  and  purge  with  the  bitter 
^mtidote  called  hiera,  having  previously  bled  them ;  and  we  must 
TLse  leeches  to  the  head.  But  nothing  is  of  such  service  as  horse- 
:iennel,  either  the  root  or  seed  drunk  in  water.  A  dram  of  the  root 
«f  bryony  with  water  may  be  taken  every  day.  If  the  maniacs  will 
:i&ot  be  persuaded  to  take  the  purgative  medicines,  they  must  be 
'xnixed  with  fheir  food,  in  a  concealed  manner,  such  as  with 
Tnouthfnls  of  meat,  or  dried  figs,  or  dates,  or  else  with  their  drink. 
lEut,  above  all  things,  they  must  be  secured  in  bed,  so  that  they 
^may  not  be  able  to  injure  themselves,  or  those  who  approach  them  ; 
or  swung  within  a  wicker  basket  in  a  small  couch  suspended  from 
^n  high. 


XV. — On  Incubus^  or  Night-mare, 
SoMB  say  that  this  disorder  is  called  ephialtes  in  Greek  from  the 


256  PAULUS  iSOINETA. 

name  of  a  man,  or  from  those  in  it  fancying  as  if  one  leaped  upon 
them.  But  Themison,  in  the  Tenth  Book  of  his  Epistles,  calls  it 
ptugaleon,  from  a  Greek  word  signifying  suffocation.  It  attadu 
persons  after  a  surfeit,  and  who  are  labouring  under  protracted  in- 
digestion. Persons  suffering  an  attack  experience  incapability  of 
motion,  a  torpid  sensation  in  their  sleep,  a  sense  of  sufibcation,  and 
oppression,  as  if  from  one  pressing  them  down  ;  they  are  unable  to 
cry  out,  or  utter  inarticulate  sounds.  Some  imagine  often  that 
they  even  hear  the  person  who  is  going  to  press  them  down,  that 
he  offers  lustful  violence  to  them,  but  flies  when  they  attempt  to 
grasp  him  with  their  fingers.  The  evil  must  be  guarded  against  at 
the  commencement ;  for,  when  it  continues  long,  and  attadcs  every 
night,  it  is  the  forerunner  of  some  serious  disease,  such  as  apoplexy, 
mania,  or  epilepsy,  when  the  exciting  cause  is  determined  to  the 
head ;  for  such  as  persons  affected  with  epilepsy  are,  during  the 
day,  those  labouring  under  night-mare  are  in  their  sleep.  We  must 
evacuate  the  patient's  general  system  by  opening  a  vein  and  adminis- 
tering purgatives.  Black  hellebore  is  especially  serviceable  to  them 
when  given  to  the  amount  of  a  dram,  if  three  oboli  of  scammony,  and 
some  of  the  aromatics,  such  as  anise,  wild  carrot,  and  Macedonian 
parsley  be  mixed  with  it.  The  composition  called  hiera,  from  wild 
gourd,  is  also  of  great  service  ;  it  is  the  hiera  of  Ruffiis.  The  diet 
should  be  light,  and  they  ought  to  avoid  every  thing  that  is  flatu- 
lent. They  are  benefited  also  by  the  fruit  of  pseony :  fifteen  of  the 
black  grains  of  which  may  be  pounded  with  water  and  drunk  fre- 
quently. 


XVI. — On  Lycaoriy  or  Lycanthropia. 

Those  labouring  under  lycanthropia  go  out  during  the  night 
imitating  wolves  in  all  things,  and  lingering  about  sepulchres  until 
morning.  You  may  recognise  such  persons  by  these  marks  : — they 
are  pale,  their  vision  feeble,  their  eyes  dry,  tongue  very  dry,  and 
the  flow  of  the  saliva  stopped  ;  but  they  are  thirsty,  and  their  legs 
have  incurable  ulcerations  from  frequent  falls.  Such  are  the  mai^ks 
of  the  disease.  You  must  know  that  lycanthropia  is  a  species  of 
melancholy  which  you  may  cure  at  the  time  of  the  attack,  by  open* 
ing  a  vein  and  abstracting  blood  to  fainting,  and  dieting  the  patient 
with  wholesome  food.  Let  him  use  baths  of  sweet  water,  and  th^ 
milk-whey  for  three  days,  and  purging  with  the  hiera  from  colo- 
cynth  twice  or  thrice.  After  the  purgings,  use  the  theriac  of  vipers^^ 
and  administer  those  things  mentioned  for  the  cure  of  melancholy. 
When  the  disease  is  already  formed,  use  soporific  embrocations, 
rub  the  nostrils  with  opium  when  they  are  going  to  rest. 


XVII. — On  Love-sick  Persons. 
There  is  nothing  improper  in  joining  love  to  the  affectioDS 


BOOK  TIIIRD.  257 

the  brain,  Binoe  it  consisU  of  certain  cares.  For  care  is  a  pawion 
of  the  aoal  occasioned  by  the  reason  being  in  a  state  of  labonoas 
emotion.  The  following  symptoms  attend  lovers : — ^Their  eyes  are 
hollow,  and  do  not  shed  tears,  but  appear  as  if  overflowing  with 
gladness,  thebr  eye- lids  are  moved  rapidly ;  and  even,  when  none  of 
the  other  parts  of  the  body  are  collapsed,  these  parts  are  alwaya  so 
aflected  in  lovers.  There  is  no  pulse  peculiar  to  lovers,  as  some 
have  supposed,  but  it  is  the  same  as  that  of  persons  labouring  under 
c^re.  When  they  call  to  recollection  the  beloved  object,  either 
ftrom  seeing  or  hearing,  and  more  especially  if  this  occur  suddenly, 
then. the  pulse  undergoes  a  change  from  the  disorder  of  the  soul, 
and,  therefore,  it  does  not  preserve  its  natural  equability  or  order. 
Such  persons,  therefore,  being  desponding  and  sleepless,  some  phy* 
sicians,  not  understanding  their  affection,  have  wasted  them  by  pro- 
hibiting .baths,  and  enjoining  quietude,  and  a  spare  diet ;  but 
wiser  ones,  recognising  the  lover,  direct  his  attention  to  baths, 
drinking  of  wine,  gestation,  spectacles,  and  amusing  fables.  Some 
must  also  be  attacked  with  fear ;  for,  while  they  think  of  nothing  but 
love,  the  affection  is  difficult  to  remove.  Wlierefore,  they  ought 
also  to  be  roused  to  emulation  with  regard  to  the  objects  of  their 
peculiar  interest  in  life ;  and,  upon  the  whole,  their  understanding 
should  be  diverted  to  other  concerns. 


XVIII.T— 0»  Apoplexy  and  Hemiplegia^  or  Paralysis, 

Whbn  the  common  origin  of  the  nerves  is  affected,  and  from  it 
all  the  other  parts  of  the  body  have  lost  their  motion  and  sensibility, 
the  affection  is  called  apoplexy,  by  which  the  primary  energies  are 
impaired ;  but,  if  ihe  obstruction  is  in  either  side,  it  is  called  hemi- 
plegia and  paralysis ;  and,  if  the  injury  is  seated  in  any  one  part,  it  is 
called  an  afiection  of  that  part,  and  hence  Hippocrates  says  : — "  His 
leg  was  seized  with  apoplexy." 

Wherefore,  in  apoplectics,  the  respiration  remains  small.  When, 
then,  it  is  greatly  changed  from  the  natural  action,  it  will  induce  a 
strong  affection,  and  when  but  little,  a  weak  one.  Respiration  is  xA 
the  worst  kind  when  it  intermits,  or  is  performed  with  great  exer-^ 
tion.  The  affection  arises  suddenly  from  a  cold  phlegm  obstructing 
the  most  important  cavities  of  the  brain.  Whenever  the  whole  ori- 
gin of  the  spinal  marrow  is  affected,  all  the  parts  below  the  face  be- 
come paralyzed,  whilst  it  remains  unaffected,  because  the  parts 
there  derive  sensibility  and  motion  from  the  brain ;  but,  if  one-half 
only  be  affected,  then  is  there  a  paraplegia  of  these  parts,  that  is  to 
say,  a  partial  paralysis.  If  the  sense  of  smell  is  affected,  this  arises 
from  the  anterior  cavities  of  the  brain  having  contracted  the  intern- 
perament,  or  from  the  pores  of  the  ethmoid  bones  being  obstructed. 
Wherefore,  apoplectics  lie  speechless,  motionless,  and  insensible, 
having  no  fever.  The  precursors  of  this  affection  are,  sudden  and 
acute  pain  of  the  head,  distention  of  the  jugular  veins,  vertigo, 
flashes,  as  it  were,  of  light,  in  the  eyes,  an  inordinate  coldness  of 

8 


258  PAULU8   iSGINBTA. 

the  extremities,  palpitation  and  difficult  motion  of  the  whole  body, 
and  grinding  of  the  teeth  in  sleep.  Their  uride  is  in  small  quantity, 
of  a  green-grey  or  a  black  colour,  and  containing  a  farinaceous  sedi- 
ment. The  affection  occurs  in  old  age  to  those  of  a  phlegmatic 
temperament,  and  who  use  a  diet  of  this  nature.  If  it  occur  in  youth 
and  in  the  season  of  summer,  it  indicates  a  strong  exciting  cause. 

The  Curb  of  Apoplexy,  and  Hbmiplboia,  or  PARALTSit.— - 
Apoplexy  is  an  affection  which  is  never,  or  but  rarely  cured,  for  it 
threatens  instant  death ;  and,  if  it  be  removed,  it  commonly  leaves  a 
paralysis  of  some  part  of  the  body.  Wherefore,  those  persons  who 
admit  of  being  cured  should  be  immediately  bled,  and,  if  there  be 
any  remission  of  the  disorder,  the  operation  should  be  repeated  on 
the  same  or  the  following  day.  The  belly  should  be  opened  by  a 
stimulating  clyster,  made  by  mixing  salt  water  and  honey.  Then  let 
the  whole  body  be  rubbed  with  plenty  of  sulphurated  oil,  but  the 
head  with  the  oil  of  camomile,  or  of  dill  in  which  cow-parsnip  or 
calamint  has  been  boiled.  Inject  honied  water,  and  apply  strong- 
scented  things,  such  as  opopanax,  sagapene,  galbanum,  or  castor, 
to  the  nose.  It  may  be  necessary  to  open  the  mouth  forcibly,  and 
introduce  a  finger  or  feather  dipped  in  oil  to  remove  the  matters 
sticking  there.  Anoint  the  anus  with  applications  for  promoting 
the  discharge  of  flatus.  Give  honied  water  and  oxymel  to  drink, 
and  use  masticatories  prepared  by  boiling  thyme,  or  marjoram,  in 
vinegar.  When  there  is  a  remission  of  the  complaint,  we  are  to 
have  recourse  to  tender,  diffusible,  and  succulent  food.  When  loss 
of  speech  continues,  if  the  strength  permit,  we  are  to  apply  to  the 
back  part  of  the  head  a  cupping-instrument  with  scarificators,  and, 
if  admissible,  it  should  be  applied  to  the  hypochondria  also*  Let 
them  afterwards  be  carried  about  in  a  chair,  or  couch,  or  suspended 
bed,  and  have  recourse  frequently  to  sternutatories  and  masticatories. 
After  the  fourteenth  day,  we  may  bring  them  back  to  the  other 
kinds  of  gestation,  attend  to  their  speech,  give  old  apomel  with 
pieces  of  bread  or  alica,  and  afterwards  a  small  quantity  of  hiera» 
After  the  twenty-first  day,  we  may  lead  them  to  the  bath,  give 
them  old  wine  to  drink ;  and  otherwise  we  must  promote  recovery 
by  sprinkling  them  with  warm  water,  by  baths,  and  rubbing  witlt 
unguents.     If  possible,  let  them  reside  in  places  by  the  sea-coast.